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Results 301 - 350 of 1055
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Langen Marieke - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Autism is defined by three symptom clusters, including repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Previous studies have implicated basal ganglia in these behaviors. Earlier studies investigating basal ganglia in autism have included subjects on neuroleptics known to affect basal ganglia volumes. Therefore, we investigated these structures in medication-naive subjects with autism. ...
Numata Shusuke - - 2007
PDLIM5 modulates neuronal calcium signaling, co-localizes with synaptic vesicles of neurotransmitters and positive association between its gene and schizophrenia was reported but its relation is still ambiguous. The differential expression of the PDLIM5 gene both in the brain and in the lymphoblasts has been found in schizophrenia compared to control ...
Becker Marion A - - 2007
While some studies show a significant advantage in adherence rates with use of atypical versus typical antipsychotic medication, others show no advantage or mixed results (Jones et al. (2006). Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1079-1087; Rosenheck, (2006). Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1074-1076). This study examined treatment outcomes and costs ...
Cucinotta D - - 2007
Antipsychotic drugs are widely used in people with dementia to treat neuropsychiatic symptoms such as aggression, agitation and psychosis. Using antipsychotic agents in older patients is difficult, because it depends on co-morbid conditions, side effects, dosing strategies, duration of treatments and combinations of various medications. This paper discusses the use ...
Meyer Jonathan M - - 2007
Patients with schizophrenia have a chronic illness necessitating a biopsychosocial model of care that addresses the multiple dimensions of the disease, including coordinated primary care. Current research, including the lessons learned from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study, shows that in addition to education, adherence, and minimizing ...
Wolraich Mark L ML University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73117, - - 2007
Despite a large body of evidence for both the validity of the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the efficacy of its treatment with medication, there is an equally long history of controversy. This article focuses on presenting safety information for medications approved by the US FDA for ...
Kollins Scott H - - 2007
The use of psychostimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been controversial for a number of reasons. In an effort to clarify the extent to which the psychostimulant methylphenidate has abuse potential, the existing published evidence has been reviewed and is summarized here, with an emphasis on delineating a number ...
Svetlov Stanislay I - - 2007
Ritalin, known under chemical name methylphenidate (MPH), is a psychostimulant prescribed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other conditions. Psychotropic effects and pharmacological pathways evoked by MPH are similar, but not identical to those produced by amphetamines and cocaine. Although not completely understood in detail, MPH psychostimulation is mediated by ...
Mrazek David A - - 2007
Pharmacogenetic testing allows physicians to identify patients who are likely to have adverse reactions to certain medications because they metabolize them poorly or too rapidly. Much research has focused on the gene P-450 2D6, which has been shown to affect patients' response to various drugs including antidepressants and antipsychotics. Patients ...
Weiden Peter J - - 2007
Patients taking antipsychotic medications for psychiatric disorders also have many risk factors for medical comorbidities and early death. While these risk factors were present before the arrival of the newer antipsychotic medications, the overall risk factor burden is exacerbated for those high-risk patients whose antipsychotic therapy causes or aggravates obesity ...
Chakrabarti A - - 2007
Drugs used to treat psychotic illnesses may take weeks to be effective. In the interim, additional 'as required' doses of medication can be used to calm patients in psychiatric wards. The practice is widespread with 20% - 50% of people on acute psychiatric wards receiving at least one 'as required' ...
Weiden Peter J - - 2007
A new standard in effectiveness research on schizophrenia medications has been established by the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. The study used an innovative approach to determining relative effectiveness of medications by using time until medication discontinuation or switch as the primary outcome criterion. The study is ...
Henderson David C - - 2007
Weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication can be a barrier to the overall improvement of mental health patients due to a discontinuation of treatment. The goal of this article is to establish a better understanding regarding the mechanisms of antipsychotic medications and their associated risk of weight gain, obesity, and ...
Kao Raymond L - - 2007
To report a case of fatal exertional heat stroke associated with the use of zuclopenthixol, quetiapine and benztropine. A 36-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia and bipolar disease was working as a roofer during the third day of a heat wave. His medications included zuclopenthixol, quetiapine, benztropine, carbamazepine and ...
Wilens Timothy E - - 2007
Studies report increased rates of cigarette and substance use in youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), though the mechanism of risk remains unclear. The present study tests the hypothesis that ADHD individuals "self-medicate" with cigarettes and substances of abuse. As part of five- and ten-year case-control longitudinal family studies of ADHD, ...
Markkula Juha - - 2007
Metabolic side-effects of atypical antipsychotics have led to concern about their relative safety compared with low doses of conventional neuroleptics. Akathisia is an often misdiagnosed side-effect, which leads to non-compliance and sometimes even exacerbation of psychosis or suicidal behaviour. In fact, little is known about the differences between antipsychotic drugs ...
Lerner Vladimir - - 2007
The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of tardive movement disorders (TMD) among a group of institutionalized schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients in southern region of Israel. Chronic schizophrenic and schizoaffective inpatients of a psychiatric hospital and its affiliated hostels were screened for the presence of TMD ...
Herbel Bryon L - - 2007
There are no published data on the rates of competency restoration for adjudicated incompetent felony criminal defendants diagnosed with delusional disorder. A retrospective record review was conducted of all incompetent defendants with the principal diagnosis of delusional disorder who had undergone involuntary medication treatment for competency restoration during a 13-year ...
Weiden Peter J - - 2007
In the presentation "Switching and Metabolic Syndrome," Weiden summarizes reasons to switch antipsychotics, highlighting weight gain and other metabolic adverse events as recent treatment targets. In "Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP)," Miller reviews the TMAP study design, discusses results related to the algorithm versus treatment as usual, and concludes with ...
Rosenfield Paul J - - 2007
Antipsychotic medications provide tremendous relief to many individuals with schizophrenia, but can have significant costs, including adverse metabolic, neurological, and psychological effects. Prescribers and consumers of these medications often have different perceptions of the safety and utility of medications, ranging from "poison" to "cure." While much of the literature on ...
Erickson Steven K - - 2007
Advances in the biological sciences have dramatically improved the understanding of schizophrenia and related psychotic illnesses. One of the most compelling findings is the substantial degree to which cognition is impaired in these illnesses and the remedial effects that antipsychotic drugs have in treating these cognitive impairments. Despite these promising ...
Weiden Peter J - - 2007
One of the great challenges of long-term treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders is minimizing the medical or psychological burden from persistent side effects. Because of the differences in side effect profiles between the newer and older antipsychotic medications, and distinct differences among the newer agents themselves, the spectrum of ...
Ledbetter Marcialee - - 2006
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic condition with childhood onset that can continue into adulthood. Medication is a fundamental element in the management of this disorder. Atomoxetine is the newest nonstimulant medication approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD. ...
Essock Susan M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Changing antipsychotics is common despite the dearth of information on risks and benefits associated with medication changes. The authors examined phase 1 findings from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study to explore whether it was more advantageous to continue taking the medication being received at baseline ...
Goldney Robert - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in a South Australian population. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews with a random and representative sample of the South Australian population (at least 15 years of age) living in metropolitan and rural areas between March and June 2004. RESULTS: From 4700 households selected, ...
Volkow Nora D - - 2007
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in children, yet data are sparse on its pathophysiology. Particularly relevant are the dopamine transporters since these are the main targets of stimulant medications used for ADHD treatment. Though some imaging studies have shown increases in dopamine transporters in ...
Chua Siew E - - 2007
We report the first voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study to examine cerebral grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using computational morphometry in never-medicated, first-episode psychosis (FEP). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was also performed blind to group membership. 26 never-medicated individuals with FEP (23 with DSM-IV schizophrenia) and 38 healthy controls ...
Weiden Peter J - - 2006
In the presentation "Prevalence of and Factors Influencing the Switching of Antipsychotic Medications," Weiden defines the recovery approach for the treatment of schizophrenia, focuses on reasons for switching antipsychotic medications, and offers recommendations for evaluating switch studies. In "Combining and Switching Medications in Bipolar Disorder," Young discusses the similarities and ...
Wang Philip S - - 2006
Behavioral disturbances associated with dementia are common and burdensome. Although no psychotropic medications are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat such behavioral symptoms, a variety of drug classes are commonly used for these purposes. Atypical antipsychotic medications may be somewhat effective and are generally ...
Thangavelu Karthik - - 2006
Endocrine disturbances are emerging as major side effects of antipsychotic medications. Of particular note is the profile of menstrual disturbance and galactorrhea as a consequence of hyperprolactinemia (A. Weick & P. M. Haddad, 2003), a sequela of antidopaminergic action at the hypothalamopituitary axis. Research into the clinical aspects of this ...
Khorram Babak - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The authors performed a longitudinal study of the effects on thalamic volume of switching from typical to atypical antipsychotic medications. METHOD: Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 10 subjects with chronic schizophrenia taking typical antipsychotics and 20 healthy volunteers. Subjects with schizophrenia were switched to olanzapine; both groups ...
Hollis Jean - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To explore the odds ratios (ORs) of death associated with antipsychotic (AP) medications dispensed to elderly subjects. METHOD: Subjects were veterans and war widows 65 years and older dispensed an AP drug in 2001 in NSW or ACT. For all subjects, dispensing records for AP medication, benzodiazepines, lithium, carbamazepine, ...
Lee Jane B - - 2006
Although some medications have established dosing adjustments for obesity (Table 2), it remains unknown for the majority of medications if dosing adjustment is warranted. It is important to remember dosage adjustments may not be as simple as doubling an antibiotic dose because a patient is morbidly obese. Individualizing drug dosing ...
Lou Emil - - 2006
Oculogyric crisis is a neurologic reaction characterized by bilateral dystonic elevation of visual gaze as well as hyperextension of the neck. This reaction is most commonly explained as an adverse effect of numerous medications, such as dopamine receptor blocking agents or neuroleptic medications and traditional antipsychotic or antiemetic drugs, such ...
Carney Caroline P - - 2006
Persons with persistent mental illness are at risk for failure to receive medical services. In order to deliver appropriate preventive and primary care for this population, it is important to determine which chronic medical conditions are most common. We examined chronic medical comorbidity in persons with schizophrenia using validated methodologies. ...
dosReis Susan - - 2006
Limited information exists on views among African American families living in low-income, inner-city communities regarding the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of children treated for ADHD in an urban primary care setting were recruited to complete a survey to assess attitudes toward stimulant medications. Although most (71%) ...
Meaux Julie B - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gain information and insight about prescription stimulant medication use among children and adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across developmental stages. DESIGN AND METHODS: Investigators conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with 15 college students with ADHD. Follow-up interviews confirmed and validated information obtained ...
Rund Douglas A DA Department of Emergency Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, - - 2006
The management of an agitated, abusive or violent patient is a common and challenging problem in Emergency Medicine. Priorities include measures to ensure the safety of the patient and the emergency staff, including provision of physical restraint of the patient and evaluation for correctable medical causes of such behavior. Medications ...
Bola John Robert - - 2006
This study tested predictors of 2-year antipsychotic-free response from the Soteria study (older, better social functioning, fewer cardinal symptoms) using data from the Finnish Acute Psychosis Integrated treatment study. The quasi-experimental study compared need-adapted family-oriented psychosocial intervention within a 3-week antipsychotic-free trial to psychosocial intervention plus antipsychotic medications. Forty-six percent ...
Adler Lenard A - - 2006
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders of adulthood. Although clinical guidelines recommend monotherapy with stimulants or atomoxetine, combination pharmacotherapy is a common practice among clinicians. There are four main situations in which combination medications may be necessary: partial response, dose-limiting side effects, associated disorders, and ...
López Frank A - - 2006
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder affecting school-age children. In many cases, symptoms persist into adolescence and adulthood, causing significant lifelong impairments in academic, career, and social functioning. The stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines have been used for decades as first-line therapy for the treatment of ADHD. Short-acting ...
Staller Jud A - - 2007
Very young children with severe aggression are a growing focus of care in child psychiatry. Notwithstanding diagnostic uncertainties in this age group, medication, not usually considered a first-line intervention, is becoming a treatment option for a growing number of clinicians in spite of a dearth of research in this area. ...
Ipser Jonathan - - 2007
RATIONALE: Pharmacotherapy is frequently considered in the treatment of disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in children and adolescents. There are, however, no systematic reviews of this literature. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to determine whether medication is effective in treating pediatric disruptive behavior disorders and related problems of impulse ...
Kurtz Matthew M - - 2007
Performance on a novel, virtual reality (VR) assessment of medication management skills, the Virtual Reality Apartment Medication Management Assessment (VRAMMA), was investigated in 25 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched healthy controls. The VRAMMA is a virtual 4-room apartment consisting of a living room with an interactive clock and TV, ...
Efron Daryl - - 2006
The functional impairments seen in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the result of a complex interplay between biological vulnerability and environmental influences. In children with ADHD from social disadvantaged families the latter often appear to predominate. Stimulant medication is the intervention with the largest demonstrable effect size in decreasing ...
Hanrahan Patricia - - 2006
For almost 50 years, typical antipsychotics were the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. However, during the last decade, the widespread use of expensive atypical antipsychotic medications has led to a dramatic increase in the proportion of the direct costs of schizophrenia being allocated for medications. Although there is evidence ...
Weiden Peter J - - 2006
The introduction of the newer atypical antipsychotic medications in the 1990s was the first major change in the psychopharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia in many years. Many patients previously treated with conventional antipsychotics showed marked improvement when switched to one of the newer agents. Yet the principles involved in switching patients ...
Covell Nancy H - - 2006
Schizophrenia is associated with several chronic medical illnesses and a reduced life expectancy. This paper summarizes findings and recommendations from "The Mount Sinai Conference," held at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York on October 17-18, 2002, and discusses the implications for improving medical monitoring of patients with ...
Luchins Daniel J - - 2006
The wide scale use of expensive atypical antipsychotic medications has led to a dramatic increase in the proportion of direct costs schizophrenia being allocated for medications. Although there is evidence that the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, may lead to cost savings in patients with refractory schizophrenia the cost-effectiveness of the other ...
Lakey Susan L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic medication use in community residential care (CRC) facilities has been reported to be similar to that found in nursing homes before the implementation of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) describe patterns of psychotropic medication use at baseline ...
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