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Nicolo John-Paul - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Pituitary volume is currently measured as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity in patients with psychosis despite suggestions of susceptibility to antipsychotics. Qualifying and quantifying the effect of atypical antipsychotics on the volume of the pituitary gland will determine whether this measure is valid as a future estimate of HPA-axis ...
Hässler Frank - - 2010
The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared ...
Mattai Anand - - 2010
Little is known about the effects of antipsychotic medications on gray matter (GM) in schizophrenia. Although clozapine remains the most effective antipsychotic medication in treatment-refractory cases, it is unknown whether it has a differential effect on GM development. In an exploratory analysis, we used automated cortical thickness measurements and prospectively ...
Makhinson Michael - - 2010
The shift from first-generation antipsychotic medications to second-generation antipsychotic medications initially caused a wave of excitement about the potential for improved and broader efficacy of these medications concurrent with an improved side-effect profile. Recent data from high-quality research analyses have subsequently raised significant questions about these claims. This research evidence ...
Faraone Stephen V - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults have been well researched, but comparisons among drugs are hindered by the absence of direct comparative trials. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the effect size of the medications used to treat adult ADHD, (2) determine if differences in the ...
Novick D - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The number needed to treat (NNT) for all-cause medication discontinuation in large, industry-sponsored, non-randomized, observational studies conducted across world geographies was compared with NNTs from CATIE, an 18-month, NIMH-sponsored, randomized study. METHODS: NNTs (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated using data from 3 large Lilly-sponsored, non-randomized, observational studies (EU-SOHO, ...
Hjern A - - 2010
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that psychosocial adversity in the family predicts medicated ADHD in school children. METHOD: ADHD-medication during 2006 was identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register in national birth cohorts of 1.1 million 6-19 year olds. Logistic regression models adjusted for parental psychiatric disorders were used to ...
Liew Alvin - - 2010
This naturalistic retrospective study aims to compare effectiveness of a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone, with first-generation antipsychotic medications (haloperidol and trifluoperazine) in an Asian population with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A total of 261 patients were assessed for time to discontinuation for any reason and specific reasons of discontinuation, controlling for ...
Faraone Stephen V - - 2009
Medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been well researched, but comparisons among agents are hindered by the absence of head-to-head clinical trials. By using meta-analysis, we sought to compare the efficacy of these medications for the symptoms of ADHD. We analyzed published literature on the pharmacotherapy of ADHD ...
Short Delmar D - - 2009
Medical illnesses are particularly common in patients who have schizophrenia and one of the major tasks for consultation-liaison psychiatrists, and others, is to determine which medications are safest in which co-morbid condition. The authors review the relative risks for various antipsychotics, especially focusing on cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal co-morbid illnesses. ...
Busch Alisa B AB Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA. - - 2009
To examine racial/ethnic longitudinal disparities in antimanic medication use among adults with bipolar-I disorder. Observational study using administrative data from Florida's Medicaid program, July 1997 to June 2005, for enrollees diagnosed with bipolar-I disorder (N = 13,497 persons; 126,413 person-quarters). We examined the likelihood of receiving one of the following ...
Koelch M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the "real-life" prevalence of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents in Germany and related behavioral and emotional problems. Data from the nationwide representative National German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) were analyzed. METHOD: A total of ...
Woolcott John C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that the use of certain medications contributes to falls in seniors. Our objective was to update a previously completed meta-analysis looking at the association of medication use and falling to include relevant drug classes and new studies that have been completed since a previous meta-analysis. ...
Freyberg Zachary Z Department of Psychiatry, Center for Molecular Recognition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, NY 10032, USA. - - 2010
Dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism is a unifying property of all antipsychotic drugs in clinical use. Remarkably, the effector molecules through which these medications exert their actions remain poorly characterized. Increasing attention is being focused on Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and wingless (Wnt) signaling pathways, which have been associated with schizophrenia ...
Hui C - - 2009
For over fifteen years, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission has generated interest because of its putative role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus far, all antipsychotic medications have centered on manipulating the dopamine receptor to treat psychosis. These medications have limited efficacy, especially in treating the cognitive and negative ...
Hosenbocus Sheik - - 2009
To review and comment on the long-acting medications presently marketed in Canada for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of design, composition, mode of action and efficacy including other long-acting products that are not yet available in Canada. A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycInfo, ...
Hui Christina - - 2009
For over fifteen years, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission has generated interest because of its putative role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus far, all antipsychotic medications have centered on manipulating the dopamine receptor to treat psychosis. These medications have limited efficacy, especially in treating the cognitive and negative ...
Johnson D A W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Clinical experience has shown considerable potential benefits from long-term continuous medication for chronic or relapsing forms of schizophrenia. These benefits have not always been realised. AIMS: To review the research literature in order to understand the problems of long-term medication and use of antipsychotic oral medication and long-acting injections ...
Perlick Deborah A DA Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029-6574, USA. - - 2010
This study evaluated the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in reducing family burden associated with schizophrenia. The family caregivers of 623 SCID-diagnosed patients enrolled in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) randomly assigned to a first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) or one of four second-generation drugs (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone ...
Shiels Keri K Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, - - 2009
Impulsivity is a central component of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delay discounting, or a preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, is considered an important aspect of impulsivity, and delay-related impulsivity has been emphasized in etiological models of ADHD. In this study, we examined whether stimulant medication, an ...
Mattai Anand - - 2009
Clozapine, a dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic, is the most effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, its use has been limited by the high risk of neutropenia. In children, the rate of neutropenia is higher when compared to adults. We decided to explore the use of lithium to manage neutropenia in childhood-onset schizophrenia ...
Mohamed Somaia - - 2009
Although long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) has been hypothesized to improve medication adherence compared to oral medications, data from real-world practice have yet to be presented on time to treatment discontinuation. Records of all new prescriptions for antipsychotic medication during the first 2 months of FY 2006 for VA patients diagnosed ...
Leslie Douglas L - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of prescribing antipsychotics to adults without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with such off-label use. METHODS: Patients with at least one prescription for an antipsychotic medication from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) during fiscal year (FY) 2007 ...
Matson Johnny L - - 2010
Psychotropic medications are commonly used as an adjunct treatment in large-scale residential care facilities for adults with developmental disabilities. While the benefits of medication are noted, there are very severe conditions that can result from long term medication use. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) manifests as a variety of involuntary, repetitive movements ...
Walker Elaine F EF Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. - - 2009
A substantial number of patients who meet criteria for a prodromal syndrome for first psychosis are treated with antipsychotic and/or antidepressant medications. There is suggestive evidence that both classes of medication may reduce prodromal symptoms. This longitudinal study examined the relation of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication with prodromal symptom severity ...
Wong Fu Keung Daniel - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to better understand the knowledge of schizophrenia, preferences regarding professional help, medication and treatment methods among Australians of a Chinese-speaking background. METHODS: A cluster convenience sampling method was adopted in which subjects were taken from the four main areas in cosmopolitan Melbourne where ...
Caligiuri Michael P - - 2009
Epidemiologic studies indicate that nearly 60% of schizophrenia (SZ) patients treated with conventional antipsychotic drugs develop extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) such as parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Although the prevalence of EPS has decreased due to the newer antipsychotics, EPS continue to limit the effectiveness of these medicines. Ongoing monitoring of ...
Olfson Mark - - 2009
Antidepressants have recently become the most commonly prescribed class of medications in the United States. To compare sociodemographic and clinical patterns of antidepressant medication treatment in the United States between 1996 and 2005. Analysis of antidepressant use data from the 1996 (n = 18 993) and 2005 (n = 28 ...
Weber Natalya S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Morbidity and mortality from general medical conditions are elevated among patients with schizophrenia compared with the general U.S. population. More than 50% of patients with schizophrenia have one or more comorbid psychiatric or general medical conditions. This study determined types of comorbid disorders and their prevalence among hospitalized patients ...
Jerrell Jeanette M - - 2009
To examine the differences over time in health-care costs associated with incident adverse events in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic agents compared to an untreated control sample. A retrospective cohort design evaluating South Carolina's Medicaid medical and pharmacy claims between January 1996 and December 2005 was employed for 4140 ...
Chandrasena R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: This study compared the safety, tolerability and switch to oral medication in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia who received intramuscular (IM) olanzapine or other IM antipsychotics for the treatment of acute agitation. METHODS: Patients (N = 2011) from 15 countries participated in this prospective, observational, non-interventional study. Inpatients ...
Lindblad Frank - - 2010
Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, ...
Singh Bisu - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autoimmune process is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology in some cases of schizophrenia. Alteration in interleukin (IL) regulation is regarded as additional proof of autoimmunological background in schizophrenia. Most of the research in interleukin activity in schizophrenia has been in Caucasian and some Mongoloid patients. ...
Rofail Diana - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with schizophrenia do not adhere to their antipsychotic medication regimens, partly because of their concerns about medication. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of patients with schizophrenia during treatment with antipsychotic medication. METHODS: As part of the SWAM (Satisfaction With ...
Yagihashi Tatsuhiko - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Risperidone is converted to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by CYP2D6. Two parameters were used to examine the influences of CYP2D6 polymorphism and of co-medication on risperidone metabolism: the risperidone:9-hydroxyrisperidone concentration ratio (R:9-OHR ratio) and the sum of the risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations divided by the dose (C:D ratio). We evaluated the effect ...
Mikami Amori Yee - - 2009
This study examined whether adolescent females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are differentially responsive than their male counterparts to extended-release stimulant medications. This investigation may bear special importance for an adolescent (as opposed to child) population, because hormonal and metabolism differences between sexes are most likely to emerge at this time. ...
Mohamed Somaia - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of aripiprazole as the first antipsychotic to be used as an adjunct to antidepressant medications in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), information on the current use of antipsychotics in the treatment of MDD has not been available. METHOD: ...
Detweiler Mark B - - 2009
Little has been reported about the relationship of a dementia wander garden with scheduled psychiatric medications in addition to changes in fall number and severity. The 28 participating residents of a dementia unit were divided into high (HUG) and low (LUG) wander garden user groups and assessed for the number ...
Patel M X - - 2010
Some clinicians consider depot antipsychotics to be stigmatising, coercive and unacceptable to patients. This cross-sectional study investigated patients' perspectives of coercion for depot and oral antipsychotics. In all, 72 participants with chronic mental illness on voluntary maintenance antipsychotic medication were interviewed for their views on oral and depot medication and ...
Lubow R E - - 2009
There is considerable evidence for the involvement of cerebellar structures and circuits in classical conditioning of eyeblink responses (EBC) and in the pathophyiology of schizophrenia, leading to the expectation that schizophrenia patients should exhibit impaired EBC. A review of the literature indicates that such a position is not supported. Of ...
Jaffe Ari - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the use of "stat" medications for inpatients in a large state psychiatric hospital system, and examines the relationship between receipt of a "stat" for agitation and subsequent hospital discharge. METHODS: Use of "stat" medications in 2005 was retrospectively determined using a database that contains diagnosis and ...
de Koning M B - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Prediction of transition to psychosis in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia has raised interest in intervention prior to the onset of frank psychosis. The aim of this review was to examine whether interventions in the prodromal phase have a favourable benefit/risk ratio. METHOD: A literature search in PubMed, EMBASE ...
McKinnon Nicholas D - - 2009
Resistant schizophrenia is often treated with clozapine after other conventional atypical antipsychotics have failed or have resulted in intolerable side effects. Clozapine is generally reserved for secondary use due to its propensity to cause serious side effects, such as life-threatening agranulocytosis and the necessity for life-long blood monitoring. In this ...
Kanaan Richard - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. AIMS: To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using optimised ...
Eggermont Laura H P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Most studies examining psychotropic medication use on cognition in older persons with dementia include measures of global cognitive function. The present study examined the relationship between different types of psychotropic medication and specific cognitive functions in older people with dementia. METHODS: Two hundred and six institutionalized older adults with ...
Smith Eric G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952) or lithium (n=6693) from 1995-2001 who also purchased antipsychotics at least once (to select out ...
McIntyre Roger S - - 2009
The overarching aim of the Understanding Patients' Needs, Interactions, Treatment, and Expectations (UNITE) Global Survey was to empirically evaluate the attitudes and general fund of knowledge that individuals with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia possess regarding somatic health issues. The UNITE survey was an Internet-based initiative that recruited patients and caregivers ...
Newcomer John W - - 2009
Patients with severe mental illnesses have a higher risk of premature mortality than the general US population. Illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are frequently complicated by physical comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including both coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, which are associated with increased mortality ...
O'Reilly Daria J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing costs of pharmaceuticals, drug benefit programs often implement various policies that limit availability of drugs. These policies can have unforeseen consequences. OBJECTIVES: To examine the utilization and expenditures for antipsychotic medications in a provincial government community-based drug program over a 10-year period when atypical antipsychotics ...
Goldstein Robert B - - 2009
There are no reports of a child taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and an atypical anti-psychotic being successfully tapered from these medications after completion of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. With this in mind, we report the case of an 8.5-year-old male who was taking risperidone 0.5 mg ...
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