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Black Lori F LF Institute of Medical Education, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, - - 2014
Many medical students consume alcohol in excess, which can compromise their professionalism and increase their risk of future alcohol dependency. Just one study in Japan has examined the social influences of alcohol consumption among medical students. Eighty-six per cent (n = 821) of their respondents reported experiencing some form of alcohol-related harassment ...
Sinclair Julia J Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2014
A pooled analysis of 'as-needed medication use' data from 1,276 patients in two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials of nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence was performed to explore whether an 'as-needed' regimen is an acceptable and feasible strategy in patients seeking help for alcohol dependence. Adherence was defined ...
Welcome Menizibeya O MO Department of Normal Physiology, Belarusian State Medical University, Belarus, 220116, Minsk, Pr., Dzerjinsky, 83. Electronic address: - - 2014
This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood), neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, ...
Yang Mo M Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to identify and compare the predictors of smoking cessation medication use among obese and nonobese adult smokers. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2008-2009). The study participants included smokers aged 18 years and older who self-reported their ...
Haroon Mustafa - - 2014
To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students. The cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire was conducted at Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, in 2011, and included all five batches of medical students. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis of the data. The final sample comprised 724 ...
Hayes Rashelle B RB Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Physician-delivered tobacco treatment using the 5As is clinically recommended, yet its use has been limited. Lack of adequate training and confidence to provide tobacco treatment are cited as leading reasons for limited 5A use. Tobacco dependence treatment training while in medical school is recommended, but is minimally provided. The MSQuit ...
Julsgaard Mette M Department of Hepatology & Gastroenterology V, Aarhus University Hospital , Aarhus , - - 2014
Abstract Objective. Little is known about predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with Crohn's disease (CD). In this population-based study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in CD stratified by medical treatment and smoking status while accounting for disease activity. Methods. In two Danish regions with a population of 1.6 million, ...
Subbaraman Meenakshi Sabina MS Alcohol Research Group, Emeryville, CA 94608, - - 2014
Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. 'reduces alcohol-related ...
Saud Mohammed M MBBS Student, JSS Medical College (JSS University), Mysore, Karnataka, - - 2014
Tobacco is a leading cause of disease and premature death. Most of the smokers visit a doctor for various health related ailments and thus such clinic visits provide many opportunities for interventions and professional tobacco cessation advice. The primary aim of the following study is to assess the physician practices, ...
Vidali Matteo M Department of Health Sciences, University "Amedeo Avogadro" of East Piedmont, and Clinical Chemistry Unit, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, - - 2014
In this work we report on the possible effect of the medical therapy on CDT concentration in a chronic alcohol abuser, with known medical history (July 2007 - April 2012) and alcohol abuse confirmed by relatives. At the end of 2007, patient displayed the following laboratory results: AST 137 U/L, ...
Cousin Margot A MA Mayo Addiction Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America; Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of - - 2014
Cigarette smoking remains the most preventable cause of death and excess health care costs in the United States, and is a leading cause of death among alcoholics. Long-term tobacco abstinence rates are low, and pharmacotherapeutic options are limited. Repositioning medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may ...
Rough Kathryn K Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, - - 2013
Media reports have described recreational use of HIV antiretroviral medication in South Africa, but little has been written about this phenomenon in the scientific literature. We present original, qualitative data from eight semi-structured interviews that characterize recreational antiretroviral use in Soweto, South Africa. Participants reported that antiretrovirals, likely efavirenz, are ...
Perkins Kenneth A - - 2013
Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e., Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, ...
Lipperman-Kreda Sharon - - 2013
This study examines factors associated with availability of tobacco products for marijuana cigars (i.e., blunts) in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. The study is based on data collected in 943 tobacco outlets. Neighborhood demographics, community adult marijuana prevalence, medical marijuana policy and access to medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services ...
Griffith Brian N - - 2013
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of illness and death in the United States. A 1998 survey of US osteopathic medical schools identified deficiencies in tobacco dependence curricula. To assess the current content and extent of tobacco dependence education and intervention skills in US osteopathic medical school curricula. Design: ...
Bright Stephen J - - 2013
The Alcohol-Related Problems Survey (ARPS) reliably classifies drinking as non-hazardous, hazardous or harmful using scoring algorithms that consider quantity and frequency of alcohol use alone and in combination with health conditions, medication-use and functional status. Because it has been developed using a 14-g US standard drink, it is not valid ...
Jradi H - - 2013
As future physicians capable of controlling tobacco dependence in the population, medical students are considered a main target for tobacco control interventions. This cross-sectional study reported on the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarettes and waterpipes) and associated knowledge and behaviour among 6th-year medical students in 2009-2010 from 6 medical schools ...
Tarasiuk Ariel - - 2013
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a substantial economic impact on healthcare systems. We reviewed parameters affecting healthcare costs (race, low education, and socioeconomic status) on OSA comorbidity, and costs and the effect of OSA treatment on medical costs. OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and substantially increased ...
Gummadavelli Abhijeet - - 2013
A 64-year-old right-handed woman presented to an outside hospital with a 1-week history of weakness noted while walking. She reported bilateral weakness greater on the right, and several falls. She denied lower extremity numbness. Her medical history was significant for lower-back osteoarthritis and a 20 pack-year smoking history. She denied ...
Chkhaidze Ivane - - 2013
Smoking is a serious problem that has a devastating impact on health. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia, as well as to determine whether medical education has an impact on smoking. A cross-sectional ...
Inandi Tacettin T Department of Public Health, Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, - - 2013
This study, as a part of "the Global Health Professions Student Survey" (GHPSS), aimed to assess medical students' tobacco use, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), and opinions as well as smoking policies at medical faculties in Turkey. The study was conducted in 2010 as a school-based survey of third-year ...
Chan Benjamin P - - 2013
We sequentially increased the number of wall-mounted alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in a small medical unit to evaluate effects on hand hygiene performance. Above a certain point, addition of more dispensers did not increase hand hygiene frequency, which appeared to be influenced more by location than by total number of ...
Harrington Kathleen F - - 2013
Abstract Objective: To examine the concordance between parent report and electronic medical record documentation of asthma health education provided during a single clinic visit and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure among children with asthma. Methods: Parents of children with asthma were recruited from two types of clinics using different electronic medical ...
Litten Raye Z - - 2013
During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of ...
Borges Guilherme - - 2013
In this paper, our goal is to report relative risks of the impact of alcohol consumption 6 hours prior to medical emergencies presenting in the emergency department for 8,346 patients in seven countries using data from the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project. We found that alcohol increased the risk of ...
Malouff John M - - 2013
ABSTRACT Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect ...
Risal A - - 2013
Background Alcohol Dependence exists in different spectrums at different settings and associated with various medical morbidities, disability and health care utilization costs. Objectives To study the drinking patterns, alcohol use disorders and alcohol related medical morbidities in patients diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS) and attending out / in-patient psychiatry ...
Lopez Anthony - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Nonadherence to medications may affect disease outcomes. The aim of this article was to review methods of assessment, prevalence, and predictors of nonadherence to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS:: Studies were identified through the electronic database of MEDLINE (up to January 2012) and the ...
Brose Leonie S LS National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training and Department of Clinical, Educational, and Health Psychology, University College London, London, England. - - 2013
To compare the effectiveness of varenicline and combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for treating smokers attempting to stop, as it is unclear which of the 2 is more effective. Data from 167,487 treatment episodes in patients from 42 National Health Service Stop Smoking Services (April 1, 2009, through June 30, ...
Krampe Henning - - 2013
Background/Aims: A minority of German medical students believe they know how to support smokers willing to quit. This paper examined whether the same would be true for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD), and individual factors associated with incorrect beliefs about the effectiveness of methods to treat AUD. Methods: In this ...
Shimbo Daichi D Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. - - 2013
Unhealthy lifestyle factors may contribute to apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH). We examined associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with aTRH in individuals taking antihypertensive medications from three or more classes. Participants (n = 2602) taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes were identified from the population-based REasons for Geographic And ...
Söderström Lovisa - - 2013
A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate ...
Wang Man Ping - - 2013
To investigate the associations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with medical consultation and hospitalisation among adolescents in Hong Kong. A total of 35827 secondary 1 (US grade 7) to secondary 5 students from 85 randomly selected schools completed an anonymous questionnaire on smoking, SHS at home, SHS outside home, medical ...
Ismail Mohamed H - - 2013
Kaiser Permanente measures how often tobacco users are offered strategies to quit but not the success of such strategies. To compare tobacco abstinence rates for participants of the Kaiser Permanente Riverside (California) Medical Center's Freedom from Tobacco Class in 2008, before direct physician involvement, and in 2009, after direct physician ...
Ghimire A - - 2013
Background Smoking and health are intimately related and thus, smoking among future health care personnel is an important issue. As future physicians and dentists who will witness the continued burden of smoking-related diseases among their patients, represent a primary target for smoking prevention programs. Objectives To explore the magnitude of ...
Thankappan K R - - 2013
Background. Making tobacco cessation a normative part of all clinical practice is the only way to substantially reduce tobacco-related deaths and the burden of tobacco-related morbidity in the short term. This study was undertaken because information on receptivity to integrate tobacco control education in the medical curriculum is extremely limited ...
Ordinioha B - - 2013
Hypertension and other noncommunicable diseases are currently responsible for at least 20% of all deaths in Nigeria, and constitute up to 60% of the patients admitted into the medical wards of most tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. Yet, the treatment outcomes for the diseases have remained very poor, prompting calls for ...
Wang Man Ping MP School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong - - 2013
To investigate the association of underage alcohol drinking with medical consultation and hospitalisation in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in Hong Kong. A total of 33 300 secondary 1 (US grade 7) to secondary 5 students (47.6% boys; mean age 14.6 years, SD 1.6) in 85 randomly selected schools. ...
Egan Kathleen L - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Use of prescription stimulants used to treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for reasons other than prescribed, known as non-medical use, is a growing problem among undergraduates. Previous studies show that non-medical prescription stimulant (NMPS) users consume more alcohol than individuals who do not use NMPS. However, research on simultaneous ...
Crum Rosa M RM Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. - - 2013
Self-medication with alcohol is frequently hypothesized to explain anxiety and alcohol dependence comorbidity. Yet, there is relatively little assessment of drinking to self-medicate anxiety and its association with the occurrence or persistence of alcohol dependence in population-based longitudinal samples, or associations within demographic and clinical subgroups. Hypothesizing that self-medication of ...
Mainardi Timothy R TR Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, - - 2013
Exercise-induced wheeze (EIW) may identify a distinct population among asthmatics and give insight into asthma morbidity etiology. The prevalence of pediatric asthma and associated urgent medical visits varies greatly by neighborhood in New York City and is highest in low-income neighborhoods. Although increased asthma severity might contribute to the disparities ...
McKee Sherry A SA Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. - - 2013
Available evidence suggests that quitting smoking does not alter alcohol consumption. However, smoking cessation medications may have a direct impact on alcohol consumption independent of any effects on smoking cessation. Using an international longitudinal epidemiological sample of smokers, we evaluated whether smoking cessation medications altered alcohol consumption independent of quitting ...
Yang Wenya - - 2012
Despite the documented benefits of quitting smoking, studies have found that smokers who quit may have higher lifetime medical costs, in part because of increased risk for medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, brought on by associated weight gain. Using a simulation model and data on 612,332 adult smokers ...
Xochelli Aliki - - 2012
A 44 year-old woman was referred to our Department for evaluation of lymphocytosis revealed in a routine blood test. No symptoms were mentioned and her medical history was unremarkable. Everyday habits included smoking. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Smith Derek R - - 2013
Although there has been a downward trend in smoking rates among medical doctors in recent years, rates have been higher among Japanese doctors when compared internationally. We extensively reviewed all published English- and Japanese-language articles that reported the smoking rates of Japanese doctors. A total of 36 articles were examined, ...
Joos Leen - - 2012
Background: Alcohol use among medical specialists remains a delicate topic. However, the number of prevalence studies remains very limited in Western European countries. Aims: To explore alcohol use and hazardous drinking among male and female medical specialists. Methods: All medical specialists in Belgium - a typical Western European country regarding ...
Perkins Kenneth A - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Due to a drop in nicotine, smoking cessation may attenuate reinforcement from sensory stimuli unrelated to nicotine intake. Recent rodent research suggests that bupropion may reverse this attenuation, perhaps helping explain its efficacy in aiding cessation. METHODS: In a within-subjects, crossover study, smokers responded on a simple computer task ...
Kalichman Seth C SC Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. - - 2013
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is key to successful treatment of HIV infection and alcohol is a known barrier to adherence. Beyond intoxication, ART adherence is impacted by beliefs that mixing alcohol and medications is toxic. To examine prospective relationships of factors contributing to intentional medication non-adherence when drinking. People who ...
Grodensky Catherine A - - 2012
ABSTRACT. Objective: Nonadherence to medications can lead to adverse health outcomes. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral medications, but this relationship has not been examined at different drinking levels or with other chronic disease medications. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the association of ...
Lernbass Birgit B Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulm, Leimgrubenweg 12-14, 89075, Ulm, - - 2013
Imaging studies of reward processing have demonstrated a mesolimbic-mesocortical dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. Such studies on reward processing in patients and also in healthy controls showed that differential activations of dopaminergic brain areas are associated with adaptive changes in response speed related to different reward values. Given this relationship, we ...
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