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Wei Jennie J University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA, - - 2014
Alcohol dependence results in multiple hospital readmissions, but no discharge planning protocol has been studied to improve outcomes. The inpatient setting is a frequently missed opportunity to discuss treatment of alcohol dependence and initiate medication-assisted treatment, which is effective yet rarely utilized. Our aim was to implement and evaluate a ...
Messina Bryan G BG Auburn University Department of Psychology, 226 Thach Hall, Auburn, AL 36830, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is a growing public health concern. College students have been identified as a particularly at risk population for engagement in NMUPD. Across all prescription drug classes, stimulants show the highest ratio of illicit to medical use and are thus important to examine within ...
Shakya Aditya A Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, - - 2014
The objective of the study was to explore gender differences in the risk factors of non-communicable diseases among medical students in Nepal. We randomly selected two private and one government medical college located in Kathmandu Valley. All the third year medical students (n = 191) from these selected colleges were requested to ...
Ray Lara A LA Departments of Psychology - - 2014
Abstract Rationale: Heavy drinking smokers constitute a sizeable and hard-to-treat subgroup of smokers, for whom tailored smoking cessation therapies are not yet available. Objective: The present study used a double-blind, randomized, 2 × 2 medication design, testing varenicline alone (VAR; 1 mg twice daily), naltrexone alone (NTX; 25 mg once daily), varenicline plus naltrexone, ...
Akshaya K M KM Department of Community Medicine, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, 575018, Karnataka, India, - - 2014
The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the present world with a substantial contribution to mortality and morbidity. Patients' visits to their doctors for illnesses and health check-ups offer a great opportunity to screen them for tobacco use and also counsel them to quit tobacco ...
Fabritius Marie M Forensic Toxicology and Chemistry Unit (UTCF), University Center of Legal Medicine (CURML), Rue du Bugnon 21, 1011 Lausanne, - - 2014
Many studies based on either an experimental or an epidemiological approach, have shown that the ability to drive is impaired when the driver is under the influence of cannabis. Baseline performances of heavy users remain impaired even after several weeks of abstinence. Symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence are generally ...
Kelley Bryan - - 2014
(1) Treatment of smoking-related illnesses accounts for about 11 percent of Medicaid expenditures. (2) As of 2014, seven states provide comprehensive tobacco-cessation coverage to Medicaid enrollees, including individual counseling, group counseling, and seven types of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications. (3) Without assistance from medication or other forms of ...
Liebrenz Michael - - 2014
Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of comorbid substance use disorders, and cigarette smoking has a particularly high prevalence in this population. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether this tobacco use is an attempt at "self-medication" or due to behavioral disinhibition. There is a ...
Trostler Michael M Office of Medical Education, Georgetown University School of Medicine , Washington, DC - - 2014
Abstract Background: Alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of preventable death in the US. Limited research has been conducted examining drinking habits of medical students. Objective: This study was designed to measure the prevalence and associated risk factors of binge drinking among a sample of medical students. Methods: A ...
Yu Yuping Y 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston , Houston, - - 2014
Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the differences in prescription of smoking cessation medications among smokers with different body mass index (BMI) classifications. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data (2006-2010). Self-reported current smokers aged 18 years and older were included ...
Cousins Gráinne - - 2014
Older adults are susceptible to adverse effects from the concomitant use of prescription medications and alcohol. This study estimates the prevalence of exposure to alcohol interactive (AI) medications and concomitant alcohol use by therapeutic class in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a population based ...
Salomonsen-Sautel Stacy S Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, ...
McKenna Gerald J GJ McKenna Recovery Center, Ke Ala Pono - Kaua'i, Lihue, - - 2014
Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the ...
Kashyap Surender S Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College, Karnal, Haryana, - - 2014
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe ...
Black Lori F LF Institute of Medical Education, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, - - 2014
Many medical students consume alcohol in excess, which can compromise their professionalism and increase their risk of future alcohol dependency. Just one study in Japan has examined the social influences of alcohol consumption among medical students. Eighty-six per cent (n = 821) of their respondents reported experiencing some form of alcohol-related harassment ...
Sinclair Julia J Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2014
A pooled analysis of 'as-needed medication use' data from 1,276 patients in two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials of nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence was performed to explore whether an 'as-needed' regimen is an acceptable and feasible strategy in patients seeking help for alcohol dependence. Adherence was defined ...
Welcome Menizibeya O MO Department of Normal Physiology, Belarusian State Medical University, Belarus, 220116, Minsk, Pr., Dzerjinsky, 83. Electronic address: - - 2014
This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood), neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, ...
Yang Mo M Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to identify and compare the predictors of smoking cessation medication use among obese and nonobese adult smokers. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2008-2009). The study participants included smokers aged 18 years and older who self-reported their ...
Haroon Mustafa - - 2014
To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students. The cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire was conducted at Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, in 2011, and included all five batches of medical students. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis of the data. The final sample comprised 724 ...
Hayes Rashelle B RB Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Physician-delivered tobacco treatment using the 5As is clinically recommended, yet its use has been limited. Lack of adequate training and confidence to provide tobacco treatment are cited as leading reasons for limited 5A use. Tobacco dependence treatment training while in medical school is recommended, but is minimally provided. The MSQuit ...
Julsgaard Mette M Department of Hepatology & Gastroenterology V, Aarhus University Hospital , Aarhus , - - 2014
Abstract Objective. Little is known about predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with Crohn's disease (CD). In this population-based study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in CD stratified by medical treatment and smoking status while accounting for disease activity. Methods. In two Danish regions with a population of 1.6 million, ...
Subbaraman Meenakshi Sabina MS Alcohol Research Group, Emeryville, CA 94608, - - 2014
Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. 'reduces alcohol-related ...
Saud Mohammed M MBBS Student, JSS Medical College (JSS University), Mysore, Karnataka, - - 2014
Tobacco is a leading cause of disease and premature death. Most of the smokers visit a doctor for various health related ailments and thus such clinic visits provide many opportunities for interventions and professional tobacco cessation advice. The primary aim of the following study is to assess the physician practices, ...
Vidali Matteo M Department of Health Sciences, University "Amedeo Avogadro" of East Piedmont, and Clinical Chemistry Unit, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, - - 2014
In this work we report on the possible effect of the medical therapy on CDT concentration in a chronic alcohol abuser, with known medical history (July 2007 - April 2012) and alcohol abuse confirmed by relatives. At the end of 2007, patient displayed the following laboratory results: AST 137 U/L, ...
Cousin Margot A MA Mayo Addiction Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America; Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of - - 2014
Cigarette smoking remains the most preventable cause of death and excess health care costs in the United States, and is a leading cause of death among alcoholics. Long-term tobacco abstinence rates are low, and pharmacotherapeutic options are limited. Repositioning medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may ...
Jiang Chao C School of Public Health, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China E-mail - - 2014
Introduction: Smoking prevalence among the medical students is high in China. Therefore, understanding the smoking motivations of medical students is crucial for smoking control, but currently there are no scales questionnaires customized for probing the smoking motivations of medical students. This aim of study was to test and modify a ...
Sherman Bruce W BW Employers Health Coalition, Inc., Canton, OH, USA ; Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA ; Sherman Consulting Services, LLC, Burlington, MA, - - 2014
Prior descriptive epidemiology studies have shown that smokers have lower compliance rates with preventive care services and lower chronic medication adherence rates for preventive care services in separate studies. The goal of this study was to perform a more detailed analysis to validate both of these findings for current smokers ...
Rough Kathryn K Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, - - 2013
Media reports have described recreational use of HIV antiretroviral medication in South Africa, but little has been written about this phenomenon in the scientific literature. We present original, qualitative data from eight semi-structured interviews that characterize recreational antiretroviral use in Soweto, South Africa. Participants reported that antiretrovirals, likely efavirenz, are ...
Perkins Kenneth A - - 2013
Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e., Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, ...
Lipperman-Kreda Sharon - - 2013
This study examines factors associated with availability of tobacco products for marijuana cigars (i.e., blunts) in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. The study is based on data collected in 943 tobacco outlets. Neighborhood demographics, community adult marijuana prevalence, medical marijuana policy and access to medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services ...
Griffith Brian N - - 2013
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of illness and death in the United States. A 1998 survey of US osteopathic medical schools identified deficiencies in tobacco dependence curricula. To assess the current content and extent of tobacco dependence education and intervention skills in US osteopathic medical school curricula. Design: ...
Bright Stephen J - - 2013
The Alcohol-Related Problems Survey (ARPS) reliably classifies drinking as non-hazardous, hazardous or harmful using scoring algorithms that consider quantity and frequency of alcohol use alone and in combination with health conditions, medication-use and functional status. Because it has been developed using a 14-g US standard drink, it is not valid ...
Jradi H - - 2013
As future physicians capable of controlling tobacco dependence in the population, medical students are considered a main target for tobacco control interventions. This cross-sectional study reported on the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarettes and waterpipes) and associated knowledge and behaviour among 6th-year medical students in 2009-2010 from 6 medical schools ...
Tarasiuk Ariel - - 2013
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a substantial economic impact on healthcare systems. We reviewed parameters affecting healthcare costs (race, low education, and socioeconomic status) on OSA comorbidity, and costs and the effect of OSA treatment on medical costs. OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and substantially increased ...
Inandi Tacettin T Department of Public Health, Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, - - 2013
This study, as a part of "the Global Health Professions Student Survey" (GHPSS), aimed to assess medical students' tobacco use, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), and opinions as well as smoking policies at medical faculties in Turkey. The study was conducted in 2010 as a school-based survey of third-year ...
Chkhaidze Ivane - - 2013
Smoking is a serious problem that has a devastating impact on health. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia, as well as to determine whether medical education has an impact on smoking. A cross-sectional ...
Chan Benjamin P - - 2013
We sequentially increased the number of wall-mounted alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in a small medical unit to evaluate effects on hand hygiene performance. Above a certain point, addition of more dispensers did not increase hand hygiene frequency, which appeared to be influenced more by location than by total number of ...
Harrington Kathleen F - - 2013
Abstract Objective: To examine the concordance between parent report and electronic medical record documentation of asthma health education provided during a single clinic visit and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure among children with asthma. Methods: Parents of children with asthma were recruited from two types of clinics using different electronic medical ...
Litten Raye Z - - 2013
During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of ...
Borges Guilherme G National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico. - - 2013
In this paper, our goal is to report relative risks of the impact of alcohol consumption 6 hours prior to medical emergencies presenting in the emergency department for 8,346 patients in seven countries using data from the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project. We found that alcohol increased the risk of ...
Malouff John M - - 2013
ABSTRACT Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect ...
Risal A - - 2013
Background Alcohol Dependence exists in different spectrums at different settings and associated with various medical morbidities, disability and health care utilization costs. Objectives To study the drinking patterns, alcohol use disorders and alcohol related medical morbidities in patients diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS) and attending out / in-patient psychiatry ...
Lopez Anthony - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Nonadherence to medications may affect disease outcomes. The aim of this article was to review methods of assessment, prevalence, and predictors of nonadherence to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS:: Studies were identified through the electronic database of MEDLINE (up to January 2012) and the ...
Brose Leonie S LS National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training and Department of Clinical, Educational, and Health Psychology, University College London, London, England. - - 2013
To compare the effectiveness of varenicline and combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for treating smokers attempting to stop, as it is unclear which of the 2 is more effective. Data from 167,487 treatment episodes in patients from 42 National Health Service Stop Smoking Services (April 1, 2009, through June 30, ...
Shimbo Daichi D Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. - - 2013
Unhealthy lifestyle factors may contribute to apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH). We examined associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with aTRH in individuals taking antihypertensive medications from three or more classes. Participants (n = 2602) taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes were identified from the population-based REasons for Geographic And ...
Söderström Lovisa - - 2013
A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate ...
Wang Man Ping - - 2013
To investigate the associations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with medical consultation and hospitalisation among adolescents in Hong Kong. A total of 35827 secondary 1 (US grade 7) to secondary 5 students from 85 randomly selected schools completed an anonymous questionnaire on smoking, SHS at home, SHS outside home, medical ...
Ismail Mohamed H - - 2013
Kaiser Permanente measures how often tobacco users are offered strategies to quit but not the success of such strategies. To compare tobacco abstinence rates for participants of the Kaiser Permanente Riverside (California) Medical Center's Freedom from Tobacco Class in 2008, before direct physician involvement, and in 2009, after direct physician ...
Ghimire A - - 2013
Background Smoking and health are intimately related and thus, smoking among future health care personnel is an important issue. As future physicians and dentists who will witness the continued burden of smoking-related diseases among their patients, represent a primary target for smoking prevention programs. Objectives To explore the magnitude of ...
Thankappan K R - - 2013
Background. Making tobacco cessation a normative part of all clinical practice is the only way to substantially reduce tobacco-related deaths and the burden of tobacco-related morbidity in the short term. This study was undertaken because information on receptivity to integrate tobacco control education in the medical curriculum is extremely limited ...
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