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de David Ana Cristina AC a Faculty of Physical Education , University of Brasília , Brasilia , - - 2014
Abstract Joint moments can be used as an indicator of joint loading and have potential application for sports performance and injury prevention. The effects of changing walking and running speeds on joint moments for the different planes of motion still are debatable. Here, we compared knee and ankle moments during ...
Fuller Sawyer B SB http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6732-6791 School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA - - 2014
Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective ...
Shimakawa Ginga G a Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science , Kobe University , Kobe , - - 2014
We tested the hypothesis that inducing photosynthesis in cyanobacteria requires respiration. A mutant deficient in glycogen phosphorylase (∆GlgP) was prepared in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to suppress respiration. The accumulated glycogen in ΔGlgP was 250-450% of that accumulated in wild type (WT). The rate of dark respiration in ΔGlgP was ...
Martinsen Orjan G - - 2014
Defibrillators often use an ac measurement to ensure safe electrode placement. Some defibrillators also utilize impedance measurements for ventilation monitoring. This paper investigates how such measurements can be optimized for high respiration sensitivity and finds that it is beneficial to add two extra electrodes in addition to the two defibrillator ...
Fuller Sawyer Buckminster SB School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA - - 2014
Flies and other insects use vision to regulate their groundspeed in flight, enabling them to fly in varying wind conditions. Compared with mechanosensory modalities, however, vision requires a long processing delay (~100 ms) that might introduce instability if operated at high gain. Flies also sense air motion with their antennae, ...
Choi Hee-Jeong HJ Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwandong University, Gangneung, 210-701, Korea, - - 2014
The aim of present investigation is to assess the effect of illumination area and distance of an optical panel (OP) on the growth of microalgae with simultaneous removal of nutrients. Four different distances of OPs were used i.e. 225 mm OP (Run 1), 150 mm OP (Run 2), 112.5 mm OP (Run 3) ...
Mulvey Matthew M Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Leeds Pallium Research Group, Leeds, - - 2014
Perceptual embodiment of an artificial limb aids manual control of prostheses and can be facilitated by somatosensory feedback. We hypothesised that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) may facilitate perceptual embodiment of artificial limbs. To determine the effect of TENS on perceptual embodiment of an artificial hand in 32 intact-limbed participants. ...
Wangpraseurt Daniel D Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology, Sydney, Syndey, NSW 2007, - - 2014
Coral tissue optics has received very little attention in the past, although the interaction between tissue and light is central to our basic understanding of coral physiology. Here we used fibre-optic and electrochemical microsensors along with variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to directly measure lateral light propagation within living coral tissues. ...
Zhao Qingliang Q School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, - - 2014
Topical application optical clearing agents (OCAs) can effectively enhance the tissue optical clearing on the human colon tissue, which has been demonstrated in our previous studies. Nevertheless, the strong light scattering still limits the diffusion rate of OCAs and penetration depth of light into the tissue. In this study, in ...
Abaya Tanya V F TV University of Utah, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 36 Wasatch Dr., Salt Lake City, Utah - - 2014
ABSTRACT. We establish performance characteristics of needle-type waveguides in three-dimensional array architectures as light delivery interfaces into deep tissue for applications, such as optogenetic and infrared (IR) neural stimulation. A single optrode waveguide achieves as high as 90% transmission efficiency, even at tissue depths >1  mm. Throughout the visible and near-IR ...
Ahani Asieh - - 2014
This study investigates measures of mindfulness meditation (MM) as a mental practice, in which a resting but alert state of mind is maintained. A population of older people with high stress level participated in this study, while electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiration signals were recorded during a MM intervention. The physiological ...
Brown Allison M AM Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Rehabilitation and Movement Sciences, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
To establish whether lower extremity limb dominance has an effect on overground running mechanics. In attempts to resolve unilateral pathology, physical therapists often use the restoration of symmetry as a clinical milestone. While lower limb dominance has been shown to affect lower extremity mechanics during dynamic tasks such as jump ...
Lu Rongwen R University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Birmingham, Alabama - - 2013
Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE) is exclusively observed in cone photoreceptors, but why the SCE is absent in rod photoreceptors is still a mystery. In this study, we employed dynamic near infrared light imaging to monitor photoreceptor kinetics in freshly isolated frog and mouse retinas stimulated by oblique visible light flashes. It ...
Sinclair Jonathan - - 2013
The treadmill is an attractive device for the investigation of human locomotion, yet the extent to which lower limb kinematics differ from overground running remains a controversial topic. This study aimed to provide an extensive three-dimensional kinematic comparison of the lower extremities during overground and treadmill running. Twelve participants ran ...
Willy Richard W - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine if running in a minimalist shoe results in a reduction in ground reaction forces and alters kinematics over standard shoe running. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if within-session accommodation to a novel minimalist shoe occurs. Subjects were 14 ...
Elvik Rune - - 2013
Studies that have evaluated the effects on accidents of daytime running lights for cars have consistently found that cars using daytime running lights are involved in fewer multi-party accidents in daylight than cars not using daytime running lights. However, studies evaluating the effects of mandatory use of daytime running lights ...
Bradley Paul S - - 2013
Abstract The aims of this study were to: (1) quantify match running performance in 5-min periods to determine if players fatigue or modulate high-intensity running according to a pacing strategy, and (2) examine factors impacting high-intensity running such as score line, match importance and the introduction of substitutes. All players ...
Hernando David - - 2013
In this work, we study the very low frequency (VLF) modulation (range 0.01-0.03 Hz) in QRS slopes, heart rate variability (HRV) and ECG-derived respiration in hemodialysis patients. First, the relation between QRS slopes and HRV in the VLF band is measured using ordinary coherence. Then, partial coherence is used to ...
Sobhani Sobhan - - 2013
Evidence suggests a link between the loading of the Achilles tendon and the magnitude of the ankle internal plantar flexion moment during late stance of gait, which is clinically relevant in the management of Achilles tendinopathy. Some studies showed that rocker shoes can reduce the ankle internal plantar flexion moment. ...
Munakata Yu - - 2013
A novel wheelchair system with an active-caster drive mechanism is presented in this paper. A manual (hand propelled) wheelchair with an external single-wheel drive system forms a five-wheel configuration. The active-caster mechanism is applied to a drive system to motorize a manual wheelchair. Two electric motors which drive a wheel ...
Wang Dung-An - - 2013
An ultrasonic planar horn with a Bézier profile is developed. The first longitudinal displacement mode of the horn is exploited for high displacement amplification in order to reduce the penetration force required to enter and cut materials. The displacement amplification and stress distribution characteristics of the Bézier horn and the ...
Jolitz Rebecca D - - 2013
In extreme desert environments, photosynthetic microorganisms often live on the buried undersides of translucent rocks. Computing the light level reaching these locations requires 3D modeling of a finite rock. We report on Monte Carlo calculations of skylight and sunlight transmission through a partially buried flat cylindrical rock using one billion ...
Terziman Lã O - - 2013
In this paper we introduce novel 'Camera Motions' (CMs) to improve the sensations related to locomotion in virtual environments (VE). Traditional Camera Motions are artificial oscillating motions applied to the subjective viewpoint when walking in the VE, and they are meant to evoke and reproduce the visual flow generated during ...
Griffin K L - - 2013
Plant respiratory metabolism is complicated by the fact that the rate of non-photorespiratory mitochondrial CO2 release in the light (Rlight ) may be lower than the rate of leaf respiration in the dark (Rdark ). A body of work on this topic implies a linkage between light inhibition of respiration ...
Le Meur Y - - 2013
We investigated the changes in step temporal parameters and spring-mass behaviour during the running phase of a major international triathlon competition. 73 elite triathletes were followed during the 2011 World Championships Grand Final. The running speed, ground contact and flight times were assessed over a 30 m flat section at the ...
Long Matthew H - - 2013
Quantitative studies of coral reefs are challenged by the three-dimensional hard structure of reefs and the high spatial variability and temporal dynamics of their metabolism. We used the non-invasive eddy correlation technique to examine respiration and photosynthesis rates, through O2 fluxes, from reef crests and reef slopes in the Florida ...
Hatala Kevin G - - 2013
Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use ...
Murrant Meghan N - - 2013
Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both ...
Van Caekenberghe Ine - - 2012
Unsteady state gait involving net accelerations has been studied overground and on a treadmill. Yet it has never been tested if and to what extent both set-ups are mechanically equal. This study documents the differences in ground reaction forces for accelerated running on an instrumented runway and running on an ...
Schliep Martin - - 2012
We discuss recent advances in chlorophyll research in the context of chlorophyll evolution and conclude that some derivations of the formyl side chain arrangement of the porphyrin ring from that of the Chl a macrocycle can extend the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) of these molecules, e.g. Chl d and Chl ...
Fukagawa Hirohiko - - 2012
Highly efficient and stable, red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are demonstrated using platinum complexes. The host/dopant combination is a crucial factor in obtaining high efficiency and stability. The OLEDs exhibit a maximum external quantum efficiency of about 20% and an expected half-life of about 10 000 h with an ...
Moran Jonathan A - - 2012
Nepenthes pitcher plants deploy tube-shaped pitchers to catch invertebrate prey; those of Nepenthes aristolochioides possess an unusual translucent dome. The hypothesis was tested that N. aristolochioides pitchers operate as light traps, by quantifying prey capture under three shade treatments. Flies are red-blind, with visual sensitivity maxima in the UV, blue, ...
Kircher Stefan - - 2012
The phytochrome (phy) photoreceptor family regulates almost all aspects of plant development in a broad range of light environments including seed germination, onset of the photomorphogenic program in seedling stage, the shade avoidance syndrome in competing plant communities, flowering induction and senescence of adult plants. During evolution two clearly distinct ...
Johnson Marilyn - - 2012
This study investigated the behavioural, attitudinal and traffic factors contributing to red light infringement by Australian cyclists using a national online survey. The survey was conducted from February to May 2010. In total, 2061 cyclists completed the survey and 37.3% reported that they had ridden through a signalised intersection during ...
Hughey Myra C - - 2012
Spatial contagion occurs when the perceived suitability of neighbouring habitat patches is not independent. As a result, organisms may colonize less-preferred patches near preferred patches and avoid preferred patches near non-preferred patches. Spatial contagion may thus alter colonization dynamics as well as the type and frequency of post-colonization interactions. Studies ...
Chen Min - - 2012
A Chl f-containing filamentous cyanobacterium was purified from stromatolites and named as Halomicronema hongdechloris gen., sp. nov. after its phylogenetic classification and the morphological characteristics. Hongdechloris contains four main carotenoids and two chlorophylls, a and f. The ratio of Chl f to Chl a is reversibly changed from 1:8 under ...
Reddy G V P - - 2012
The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is the most serious pest of sweetpotato around the world, damaging sweetpotatoes in the field and in storage, as well as being a quarantine pest. Because the larval period is spent within vines or tubers, and the adults are nocturnal, chemical control ...
Yang Shun-Nan - - 2012
PURPOSE.: Stereoscopic 3D displays heighten perceived immersion but elevate viewing symptoms for some viewers. The present study measured prevalence and magnitude of perceived immersion and viewing symptoms in stereoscopic viewing, and related them to viewer's characteristics and viewing position. METHODS.: Two hundred three teens and adults viewed a movie in ...
Beel Benedikt - - 2012
Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that act as sensory blue light receptors in insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria. We have investigated a cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with sequence homology to animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. In response to blue and red light exposure, this animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) alters the ...
Sanclemente G - - 2012
Background.  Improvement in the morphological appearance of collagen and elastic fibres has been reported after the use of trichloroacetic acid, dermabrasion and laser therapy, but the histopathological changes occurring after photodynamic therapy are less understood. Aim.  To assess the histological changes that occur after methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) plus red-light therapy ...
Li Yannian - - 2012
Adding external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired properties is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular subsystems for employment in applica-tions. Here two novel chiral light-driven chiral molecular switches possessing remarkable changes in helical twisting power during photoisomerization as well as very high helical ...
Falchi Alessandro - - 2012
The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and ...
Hughes Robert M - - 2012
Plant photoreceptors transduce environmental light cues to downstream signaling pathways, regulating a wide array of processes during growth and development. Two major plant photoreceptors with critical roles in photomorphogenesis are phytochrome B (phyB), a red/far-red absorbing photoreceptor, and cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), a UV-A/blue photoreceptor. Despite substantial genetic evidence for cross-talk ...
Chen Fang - - 2012
Emerging plants have to adapt to a high ratio of far-red light (FR)/red light (R) light in the canopy before they reach the R-enriched direct sunlight. Phytochrome A (phyA) is the single dominant photoreceptor in young Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings that initiates photomorphogenesis in response to a FR-enriched environment and transduces ...
Chen Wei-Ting - - 2012
Red or yellow phosphors excited by a blue light-emitting diode (LED) are an efficient source of white light for everyday applications.1,2 Many solid oxides and nitrides, particularly silicon nitride-based materials such as M2Si5N8 and MSi2O2N2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba), CaAlSiN3 and SiAlON are useful phosphor hosts with good thermal ...
Rockwell Nathan Clarke - - 2012
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are photosensory proteins related to the red/far-red phytochromes. Like phytochromes, CBCRs use linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophores covalently attached via a thioether linkage to a conserved Cys residue also found in plant and cyanobacterial phytochromes. Unlike almost all phytochromes, CBCRs require only an isolated GAF domain to undergo efficient, ...
Kiss John Z - - 2012
While there is a great deal of knowledge regarding plant growth and development in microgravity aboard orbiting spacecraft, there is little information available about these parameters in reduced or fractional gravity conditions (less than the nominal 1g on Earth). Thus, in these experiments using the European Modular Cultivation System on ...
Gao Peng - - 2012
An autofocusing method for two-wavelength digital holographic microscopy (TWDHM) based on the wavelength dependence of the diffraction process is proposed. Red and green lights are employed for the illumination of the TWDHM, and the generated holograms are recorded simultaneously by a color CCD camera. Due to the wavelength dependency of ...
Kim Youngchan - - 2012
We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the ...
Riecke Lars - - 2012
When an acoustic signal is temporarily interrupted by another sound, it is sometimes heard as continuing through, even when the signal is actually turned off during the interruption-an effect known as the "auditory continuity illusion." A widespread view is that the illusion can only occur when peripheral neural responses contain ...
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