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Results 401 - 450 of 973
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Lachance Joseph - - 2008
The set of possible postselection genotype frequencies in an infinite, randomly mating population is found. Geometric mean heterozygote frequency divided by geometric mean homozygote frequency equals two times the geometric mean heterozygote fitness divided by geometric mean homozygote fitness. The ratio of genotype frequencies provides a measure of genetic variation ...
Lof Marjolein E - - 2008
Animal aggregation is a general phenomenon in ecological systems. Aggregations are generally considered as an evolutionary advantageous state in which members derive the benefits of protection and mate choice, balanced by the costs of limiting resources and competition. In insects, chemical information conveyance plays an important role in finding conspecifics ...
Lemmin, U.
Records of wind, air temperature and air pressure from nine stations, situated along the shoreline of Lake Geneva, Switzerland, were analyzed for the summer period May to September. At all stations the consistent appearance of significant spectral peaks and changes in wind direction at the diurnal frequency indicates the importance ...
Afkhami Michelle E - - 2008
Vertically transmitted symbionts associate with some of the most ecologically dominant species on Earth, and their fixation has led to major evolutionary transitions (e.g., the development of mitochondria). Theory predicts that exclusive vertical transmission should favor mutualism and generate high frequencies of symbiosis in host populations. However, host populations often ...
Woodward F I - - 2008
The terrestrial biosphere is subjected to a wide range of natural climatic oscillations. Best known is the El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) that exerts globally extensive impacts on crops and natural vegetation. A 50-year time series of ENSO events has been analysed to determine those geographical areas that are reliably impacted ...
Angert Amy L - - 2008
Every species occupies a restricted geographic distribution, but it is unclear why natural selection at the range margin fails to increase tolerance to limiting environmental variables and thereby allow continual range expansion. Models indicate that the interplay of demographic asymmetries, dispersal, divergent natural selection, and adaptive trade-offs across spatially varying ...
Gore Mauvis A - - 2008
Despite being the second largest fish, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) have been assumed to remain in discrete populations. Their known distribution encompasses temperate continental shelf areas, yet until now there has been no evidence for migration across oceans or between hemispheres. Here we present results on the tracks and behaviour ...
Venable D Lawrence - - 2008
We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned ...
Le Trionnaire Gaël - - 2008
Developmental biology is one of the fastest growing and fascinating research fields in life sciences. Among the wide range of embryonic development, a fundamental difference exists between organisms with sexual or asexual development. Aphids are unusual organisms which display alternative pathways of sexual and asexual development, the orientation of the ...
Koenraadt Constantianus J M - - 2008
We investigated how temporal and spatial effects confound the functional relationship between pupal and adult populations of Aedes aegypti and thus the value of pupal numbers as predictors of dengue transmission risk in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. We found considerable seasonal shifts in productivity of key containers. Tires contained much less ...
Bennett Matthew R - - 2008
Natural selection dictates that cells constantly adapt to dynamically changing environments in a context-dependent manner. Gene-regulatory networks often mediate the cellular response to perturbation, and an understanding of cellular adaptation will require experimental approaches aimed at subjecting cells to a dynamic environment that mimics their natural habitat. Here we monitor ...
Han Hsieh-Cheng - - 2009
A novel technique of applying a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor to the on-line real-time detection of microbial populations is described. The pQCM sensor was fabricated by depositing di-para-xylene (parylene) over the entire surface of a QCM sensor through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. An electrically insulated film of ...
Karnani Mahesh - - 2009
The ideas of the Gaia hypothesis from the 1960s are today largely included in global ecology and Earth system sciences. The interdependence between biosphere, oceans, atmosphere and geosphere is well-established by data from global monitoring. Nevertheless the theory underlying the holistic view of the homeostatic Earth has remained obscure. Here ...
Henderiks, J.
An urgent question for future climate, in light of increased burning of fossil fuels, is the temperature sensitivity of the climate system to atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO>sub>2</sub>). To date, no direct proxy for past levels of pCO<sub>2</sub> exists beyond the reach of the polar ice core records. We propose a ...
Snell-Rood Emilie C - - 2008
Ecological gradients in natural and sexual selection often result in evolutionary diversification of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. In particular, elevational changes in habitat structure and climate not only covary with intensity of sexual selection in many taxa, but may also influence evolution of mating signals. Here we examined ...
Hagen Snorre B - - 2008
Although climatic forcing has been suspected to be the most common cause of spatial population synchrony owing to the Moran effect, it has proved difficult to disentangle the impact of climate from other possible causes of synchrony based on population survey data. Nonlinear population responses to climatic variation may be ...
Bolnick Daniel I - - 2008
Disruptive selection is often assumed to be relatively rare, because it is dynamically unstable and hence should be transient. However, frequency-dependent interactions such as intraspecific competition may stabilize fitness minima and make disruptive selection more common. Such selection helps explain the maintenance of genetic variation and may even contribute to ...
Cano J M - - 2008
Sex-biased dispersal is capable of generating population structure in nonisolated populations and may affect adaptation processes when selective conditions differ among populations. Intrasexual competition for local resources and/or mating opportunities predicts a male-biased dispersal in polygynous species and a female bias in monogamous species. The patterns of sex-biased dispersal in ...
Peters Shanan E - - 2008
The causes of mass extinctions and the nature of biological selectivity during extinction events remain central questions in palaeobiology. Although many different environmental perturbations have been invoked as extinction mechanisms, it has long been recognized that fluctuations in sea level coincide with many episodes of biotic turnover. Recent work supports ...
Zu Jian - - 2008
This paper considers the coevolution of phenotypic traits in a community comprising two competitive species subject to strong Allee effects. Firstly, we investigate the ecological and evolutionary conditions that allow for continuously stable strategy under symmetric competition. Secondly, we find that evolutionary suicide is impossible when the two species undergo ...
Montarry J - - 2008
This study investigated local adaptation of Phytophthora infestans populations, the causal agent of potato late blight, to two susceptible potato cultivars, each grown for a number of years and over large areas in separate French regions. We measured aggressiveness (quantitative pathogenicity) of each pathogen population to sympatric and allopatric hosts ...
Toräng Per - - 2008
Theory predicts that, with conflicting selection pressures mediated by mutualists and antagonists, alternative reproductive strategies can be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection if it results in rare-morph advantage. We combined field experiments and surveys of natural populations to determine whether selection on floral display is frequency dependent in the self-incompatible ...
Badyaev Alexander V - - 2008
Divergent selection on traits involved in both local adaptation and the production of mating signals can strongly facilitate population differentiation. Because of its links to foraging morphologies and cultural inheritance song of birds can contribute particularly strongly to maintenance of local adaptations. In two adjacent habitats--native Sonoran desert and urban ...
Burgess Malcolm D - - 2008
Spatial processes could play an important role in density-dependent population regulation because the disproportionate use of poor quality habitats as population size increases is widespread in animal populations-the so-called buffer effect. While the buffer effect patterns and their demographic consequences have been described in a number of wild populations, much ...
Guelinckx Jef - - 2008
Information on movement patterns of marine fishes between estuarine populations and stocks at sea is fundamental to understanding their population dynamics, life history tactics and behavior. Furthermore, understanding estuarine habitat use by marine fishes is crucial for their effective conservation and integrated estuarine management. Although large numbers of young marine ...
Charmantier Anne - - 2008
Rapid climate change has been implicated as a cause of evolution in poorly adapted populations. However, phenotypic plasticity provides the potential for organisms to respond rapidly and effectively to environmental change. Using a 47-year population study of the great tit (Parus major) in the United Kingdom, we show that individual ...
Lind Martin I - - 2008
The developmental threshold is the minimum size or condition that a developing organism must have reached in order for a life-history transition to occur. Although developmental thresholds have been observed for many organisms, inter-population variation among natural populations has not been examined. Since isolated populations can be subjected to strong ...
Benard Michael F - - 2008
Ecological and evolutionary processes are affected by forces acting at both local and regional scales, yet our understanding of how these scales interact has remained limited. These processes are fundamentally linked through individuals that develop as juveniles in one environment and then either remain in the natal habitat or disperse ...
McPeek Mark A - - 2008
Various evolutionary forces may shape the evolution of traits that influence the mating decisions of males and females. Phenotypic traits that males and females use to judge the species identify of potential mates should evolve in a punctuated fashion, changing significantly at the time of speciation but changing little between ...
Steffan-Dewenter Ingolf - - 2008
The relative importance of bottom-up or top-down forces has been mainly studied for herbivores but rarely for pollinators. Habitat fragmentation might change driving forces of population dynamics by reducing the area of resource-providing habitats, disrupting habitat connectivity, and affecting natural enemies more than their host species. We studied spatial and ...
Relethford John H - - 2008
A variety of methods have been used to make evolutionary inferences based on the spatial distribution of biological data, including reconstructing population history and detection of the geographic pattern of natural selection. This article provides an examination of geostatistical analysis, a method used widely in geology but which has not ...
Castellote Manuel - - 2008
The Ligurian-Corsican-Provencal Basin is a fin whale summer feeding ground, but little is known about the seasonal movement patterns of this population. We acoustically monitored two regions off Spain (eastern and southern) during summer-fall-winter 2006 using seafloor autonomous recording units. Long patterned sequences of 20 Hz pulses and back-beats from ...
Schwabe Christian - - 2008
Evolution is a complex problem by any standard. In an effort to fit the past events to the prevailing theory of evolution, the natural phenomenon has become so convoluted and polemic-ridden that it has floated clear out of the roam of science. This assay is an attempt to bring all ...
López-Pujol Jordi - - 2008
The relationship between heretozygosity and vegetative fitness was explored in the narrow endemic and threatened Clematis acerifolia (Ranunculaceae), both at individual and population levels. The relationships between fitness, habitat factors, and population size were also analyzed. Allozyme electrophoresis was used to quantify the levels of heterozygosity of nearly 200 surveyed ...
Rouyer T - - 2008
The patterns of variations in fisheries time series are known to result from a complex combination of species and fisheries dynamics all coupled with environmental forcing (including climate, trophic interactions, etc.). Disentangling the relative effects of these factors has been a major goal of fisheries science for both conceptual and ...
Elton Sarah - - 2008
This review has three main aims: (1) to make specific predictions about the habitat of the hypothetical last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo-human clade; (2) to outline the major trends in environments between 8-6 Ma and the late Pleistocene; and (3) to pinpoint when, and in some cases where, human ...
del Valle Juana C - - 2008
Ctenomys talarum is a subterranean herbivorous rodent which due to its particular life style is frequently exposed to variations in surface environmental conditions (i.e. food quality and availability, temperature). Thus, unlike other subterranean rodents, C. talarum has to buffer both the surface and burrow challenging environmental conditions. We studied the ...
Visser Marcel E - - 2008
The pivotal question in the debate on the ecological effects of climate change is whether species will be able to adapt fast enough to keep up with their changing environment. If we establish the maximal rate of adaptation, this will set an upper limit to the rate at which temperatures ...
Szulkin Marta - - 2008
The long-term study of animal populations facilitates detailed analysis of processes otherwise difficult to measure, and whose significance may appear only when a large sample size from many years is available for analysis. For example, inbreeding is a rare event in most natural populations, and therefore many years of data ...
Yoshida Mitsuhiro - - 2008
The abundance of potentially Microcystis aeruginosa-infectious cyanophages in freshwater was studied using g91 real-time PCR. A clear increase in cyanophage abundance was observed when M. aeruginosa numbers declined, showing that these factors were significantly negatively correlated. Furthermore, our data suggested that cyanophage dynamics may also affect shifts in microcystin-producing and ...
Oro Daniel - - 2008
Merging patterns and processes about the way individuals should be distributed in a habitat is a key issue in the framework of spatial ecology. Here the despotic distribution of individuals in two distinct and neighboring patches within a local population of a long-lived colonial bird, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis), ...
Twumasi Yaw A - - 2008
This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure ...
Marshall Dustin J - - 2008
The historical focus on offspring size has been to explain variation among populations, but there have been few attempts to determine whether variation is greatest at population scale. Offspring size variation is typically viewed as an adaptive response to changes in the relationship between offspring size and performance, yet direct ...
Jasinskaja-Lahti Inga - - 2008
This study was a longitudinal investigation of the three different dimensions of long-term immigrant adaptation (i.e., psychological, sociocultural, and socioeconomic adaptation) and the relationships between them in an 8-year follow-up with panel data. The 282 respondents were immigrants in Finland, born between 1961 and 1976, coming from the former Soviet ...
Laine Anna-Liisa - - 2008
There have been numerous investigations of parasite local adaptation, a phenomenon important from the perspectives of both basic and applied evolutionary ecology. Recent work has demonstrated that temperature has striking effects on parasite performance by mediating trade-offs in parasite life history and through genotype x environment interactions. To test whether ...
Mathiasen L S - - 2008
The promise of subtype-selective GABA(A) receptor drugs with anxiolytic properties but with a much reduced side-effect burden (compared to benzodiazepines) is an attainable goal. However, its achievement necessitates the availability of in vivo preclinical assays capable of demonstrating differences as well as similarities between subtype-selective agents and non-selective benzodiazepines. In ...
Gratten J - - 2008
The evolutionary changes that occur over a small number of generations in natural populations often run counter to what is expected on the basis of the heritability of traits and the selective forces acting upon them. In Soay sheep, dark coat color is associated with large size, which is heritable ...
Goldwyn Eli E - - 2008
While spatial synchrony of oscillating populations has been observed in many ecological systems, the causes of this phenomenon are still not well understood. The most common explanations have been the Moran effect (synchronous external stochastic influences) and the effect of dispersal among populations. Since ecological systems are typically subject to ...
Gosden Thomas P - - 2008
Selective regimes and phenotypic optima could either change smoothly and in a clinal fashion or be spatially organized in a more unpredictable mosaic pattern over the geographic landscape. When natural or sexual selection is driven by intra- or interspecific biotic interactions, fine-grained spatial variation in selective regimes could result in ...
Brelin Daniel - - 2008
In a challenging situation some animals respond by active avoidance, aggression and an activation of the sympathetic nervous system whereas others respond by immobility, low levels of aggression and a predominant adrenocortical stress response. When consistent over time and across situations such inter-individual differences in behavioural and physiological stress responses ...
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