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Results 351 - 400 of 957
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Kafer, Claire
General Ecology
Baker Jack - - 2009
A firm link between small size at birth and later more centralized fat patterning has been established in previous research. Relationships between shortened interbirth intervals and small size at birth suggest that maternal energetic prioritization may be an important, but unexplored determinant of offspring fat patterning. Potential adaptive advantages to ...
Birt Diane F - - 2009
The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum, and Prunella botanical supplements for human-health benefit, emphasizing antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain activities. This mini-review reports on ongoing studies on Hypericum. The Center uses the genetically diverse, well-documented Hypericum populations collected and maintained at the USDA-ARS ...
McCormick Mark I - - 2009
Natural and anthropogenic disturbances are leading to changes in the nature of many habitats globally, and the magnitude and frequency of these perturbations are predicted to increase under climate change. Globally coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change. Fishes often show relatively rapid declines in ...
Calsbeek Ryan - - 2009
Natural selection is a potent evolutionary force that shapes phenotypic variation to match ecological conditions. However, we know little about the year-to-year consistency of selection, or how inter-annual variation in ecology shapes adaptive landscapes and ultimately adaptive radiations. Here we combine remote sensing data, field experiments, and a four-year study ...
Eroukhmanoff Fabrice - - 2009
It is increasingly being recognized that predation can be a strong diversifying agent promoting ecological divergence. Adaptations against different predatory regimes can emerge over short periods of time and include many different traits. We studied antipredator adaptations in two ecotypes of an isopod (Asellus aquaticus) that have, diverged in parallel ...
Warner Kate A - - 2009
The conventional concept of an 'undifferentiated perianth', implying that all perianth organs of a flower are alike, obscures the fact that individual perianth organs are sometimes differentiated into sepaloid and petaloid regions, as in the early-divergent angiosperms Nuphar, Nymphaea, and Schisandra. In the waterlilies Nuphar and Nymphaea, sepaloid regions closely ...
Raz Shmuel - - 2009
Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the ...
Neto-Silva Ricardo M RM Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2009
Animal shape and size is controlled with amazing precision during development. External factors such as nutrient availability and crowding can alter overall animal size, but individual body parts scale reproducibly to match the body even with challenges from a changing environment. How is such precision achieved? Here, we review selected ...
Li Li L Department of Political Science and Geography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA. - - 2009
Localized mosquito larval habitat management and the use of larvicides have been proposed as important control tools in integrated malaria vector management programs. In order to optimize the utility of these tools, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of mosquito larval habitats is crucial. However, the spatial and temporal ...
Payne Jonathan L - - 2009
The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of ...
Matlaga, David Packard
I addressed how light availability influences sexual and clonal offspring production, demographic performance and contribution to population dynamics by studying the Neotropical understory herb Calathea marantifolia across a light gradient in Costa Rica. To understand how demographic performance was influenced by light availability I conducted a transplant experiment in the ...
Macklin, Mark
This paper presents the first probability-based record of flooding in Europe that spans the entire Holocene. An analysis of 506 14C dated fluvial units collected across the whole of Great Britain provides a novel and robust methodology for improving flood risk assessment by geographically and temporally extending the record of ...
Trigo Ricardo M - - 2008
An analysis of the frequency of cyclones and surface wind velocity for the Euro-Atlantic sector is performed by means of an objective methodology. Monthly and seasonal trends of cyclones and wind speed magnitude are computed and trends between 1960 and 2000 evaluated. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in ...
Arias, Paola Andrea
Tropical forests play a key role in determining the global carbon-climate feedback in the 21st century. Changes in rainforest growth and mortality rates, especially in the deep and least perturbed forest areas, have been consistently observed across global tropics in recent decades. Understanding the underlying causes of these changes, especially ...
Wollenberg M S - - 2009
We resolved the intraspecific diversity of Vibrio fischeri, the bioluminescent symbiont of the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes, at two previously unexplored morphological and geographical scales. These scales ranged from submillimeter regions within the host light organ to the several kilometers encompassing two host populations around Oahu. To facilitate this ...
Kausrud Kyrre L - - 2008
The population cycles of rodents at northern latitudes have puzzled people for centuries, and their impact is manifest throughout the alpine ecosystem. Climate change is known to be able to drive animal population dynamics between stable and cyclic phases, and has been suggested to cause the recent changes in cyclic ...
Blinman Eric - - 2008
Modern concerns with climate change often overlook the extensive history of both climate change and human adaptation over the millennia. While questions of human-climate system causation are important, especially to the extent that our current behavior is driving environmental change, human societies have experienced multiple climate changes in the past, ...
Oorebeek Margot - - 2009
Ticks are extremely susceptible to desiccation when not on a host. Even though Ixodid ticks are capable of surviving extreme conditions, it is in the best interest of the tick to locate a host quickly. The aim of this study was to determine the host stimuli used by larval Ixodes ...
Braendle Christian - - 2008
Many developmental processes generate invariant phenotypes in a wide range of ecological conditions. Such robustness to environmental variation is a fundamental biological property, yet its extent, limits, and adaptive significance have rarely been assessed empirically. Here we tested how environmental variation affects vulval formation in Caenorhabditis nematodes. In different environments, ...
Srikantha Thyagarajan - - 2008
Candida glabrata undergoes reversible, high-frequency core switching between phenotypes that include dark brown (DB), light brown (LB) and white (Wh). These phenotypes in turn can switch to the irregular wrinkle (IWr) phenotype. Natural isolates, however, express predominantly the DB phenotype, leading to the hypothesis that it has a colonization advantage ...
Tomanek Lars - - 2008
Physiological processes that set an organism's thermal limits are in part determining recent shifts in biogeographic distribution ranges due to global climate change. Several characteristics of the heat-shock response (HSR), such as the onset, maximal, and upper limit of heat-shock protein (Hsp) synthesis, contribute to setting the acute upper thermal ...
Kishimoto-Yamada K - - 2009
In Southeast Asian tropical rainforests, two events, severe droughts associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and general flowering, a type of community-wide mass flowering, occur at irregular, supra-annual intervals. The relationship between these two supra-annual events and patterns of insect population fluctuations has yet to be clearly elucidated. Leaf beetles ...
Dunlap Paul V - - 2008
Many marine fish harbor luminous bacteria as bioluminescent symbionts. Despite the diversity, abundance, and ecological importance of these fish and their apparent dependence on luminous bacteria for survival and reproduction, little is known about developmental and microbiological events surrounding the inception of their symbioses. To gain insight on these issues, ...
McCauley Edward - - 2008
A long-standing issue in ecology is reconciling the apparent stability of many populations with robust predictions of large-amplitude population cycles from general theory on consumer-resource interactions. Even when consumers are decoupled from dynamic resources, large-amplitude cycles can theoretically emerge from delayed feedback processes found in many consumers. Here we show ...
Ayers Jessica M - - 2009
There are two principal strategies for managing climate change risks: mitigation and adaptation. Until recently, mitigation and adaptation have been considered separately in both climate change science and policy. Mitigation has been treated as an issue for developed countries, which hold the greatest responsibility for climate change, while adaptation is ...
Monahan William B - - 2008
Our ability to accurately forecast species' geographical responses to climate change requires knowledge of the proximate and ultimate drivers of their distribution. Here, we consider the ecophysiological and demographic determinants of the distribution of a partial migrant, the North American field sparrow, Spizella pusilla. From 1940 to 1963, the field ...
Gómez José M - - 2008
An adaptive role of corolla shape has been often asserted without an empirical demonstration of how natural selection acts on this trait. In generalist plants, in which flowers are visited by diverse pollinator fauna that commonly vary spatially, detecting pollinator-mediated selection on corolla shape is even more difficult. In this ...
van Hoof Thomas B - - 2008
Complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores, stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of preindustrial atmospheric CO(2) concentration. CO(2) trends based on leaf remains of Quercus robur (English oak) from the Netherlands support the presence of significant ...
Wolf Max - - 2008
In many animal species, individuals differ consistently in suites of correlated behaviors, comparable with human personalities. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the fundamental factors structuring personality differences is the responsiveness of individuals to environmental stimuli. Whereas some individuals tend to be highly responsive to such stimuli, others are unresponsive ...
Butlin Roger K - - 2008
The most common classification of modes of speciation begins with the spatial context in which divergence occurs: sympatric, parapatric or allopatric. This classification is unsatisfactory because it divides a continuum into discrete categories, concentrating attention on the extremes, and it subordinates other dimensions on which speciation processes vary, such as ...
Reimchen Thomas E - - 2009
Slight departures from bilateral symmetry are usually associated with reduced fitness. Here we show that an insular freshwater population of Gasterosteus aculeatus exhibits spatial and temporal segregation according to the incidence and direction of asymmetry in the number of bony lateral plates, which are important predator-defense structures. We analyzed 11,263 ...
Kent Clement - - 2008
Chemical communication mediates social interactions in insects. For the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, the chemical display is a key fitness trait because it leads to mating. An exchange of cues that resembles a dialogue between males and females is enacted by pheromones, chemical signals that pass between individual flies to ...
Vijendravarma Roshan K - - 2009
Most organisms experience strong selection to develop mechanisms to resist or tolerate their pathogens or parasites. Limits to adaptation are set by correlated responses to selection, for example reduced abilities to detect other parasites or trade-offs with other fitness components. For a few model systems it is now becoming possible ...
Lachance Joseph - - 2008
The set of possible postselection genotype frequencies in an infinite, randomly mating population is found. Geometric mean heterozygote frequency divided by geometric mean homozygote frequency equals two times the geometric mean heterozygote fitness divided by geometric mean homozygote fitness. The ratio of genotype frequencies provides a measure of genetic variation ...
Lof Marjolein E - - 2008
Animal aggregation is a general phenomenon in ecological systems. Aggregations are generally considered as an evolutionary advantageous state in which members derive the benefits of protection and mate choice, balanced by the costs of limiting resources and competition. In insects, chemical information conveyance plays an important role in finding conspecifics ...
Lemmin, U.
Records of wind, air temperature and air pressure from nine stations, situated along the shoreline of Lake Geneva, Switzerland, were analyzed for the summer period May to September. At all stations the consistent appearance of significant spectral peaks and changes in wind direction at the diurnal frequency indicates the importance ...
Afkhami Michelle E - - 2008
Vertically transmitted symbionts associate with some of the most ecologically dominant species on Earth, and their fixation has led to major evolutionary transitions (e.g., the development of mitochondria). Theory predicts that exclusive vertical transmission should favor mutualism and generate high frequencies of symbiosis in host populations. However, host populations often ...
Woodward F I - - 2008
The terrestrial biosphere is subjected to a wide range of natural climatic oscillations. Best known is the El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) that exerts globally extensive impacts on crops and natural vegetation. A 50-year time series of ENSO events has been analysed to determine those geographical areas that are reliably impacted ...
Angert Amy L - - 2008
Every species occupies a restricted geographic distribution, but it is unclear why natural selection at the range margin fails to increase tolerance to limiting environmental variables and thereby allow continual range expansion. Models indicate that the interplay of demographic asymmetries, dispersal, divergent natural selection, and adaptive trade-offs across spatially varying ...
Gore Mauvis A - - 2008
Despite being the second largest fish, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) have been assumed to remain in discrete populations. Their known distribution encompasses temperate continental shelf areas, yet until now there has been no evidence for migration across oceans or between hemispheres. Here we present results on the tracks and behaviour ...
Venable D Lawrence - - 2008
We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned ...
Le Trionnaire Gaël - - 2008
Developmental biology is one of the fastest growing and fascinating research fields in life sciences. Among the wide range of embryonic development, a fundamental difference exists between organisms with sexual or asexual development. Aphids are unusual organisms which display alternative pathways of sexual and asexual development, the orientation of the ...
Koenraadt Constantianus J M - - 2008
We investigated how temporal and spatial effects confound the functional relationship between pupal and adult populations of Aedes aegypti and thus the value of pupal numbers as predictors of dengue transmission risk in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. We found considerable seasonal shifts in productivity of key containers. Tires contained much less ...
Bennett Matthew R - - 2008
Natural selection dictates that cells constantly adapt to dynamically changing environments in a context-dependent manner. Gene-regulatory networks often mediate the cellular response to perturbation, and an understanding of cellular adaptation will require experimental approaches aimed at subjecting cells to a dynamic environment that mimics their natural habitat. Here we monitor ...
Han Hsieh-Cheng - - 2009
A novel technique of applying a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor to the on-line real-time detection of microbial populations is described. The pQCM sensor was fabricated by depositing di-para-xylene (parylene) over the entire surface of a QCM sensor through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. An electrically insulated film of ...
Karnani Mahesh - - 2009
The ideas of the Gaia hypothesis from the 1960s are today largely included in global ecology and Earth system sciences. The interdependence between biosphere, oceans, atmosphere and geosphere is well-established by data from global monitoring. Nevertheless the theory underlying the holistic view of the homeostatic Earth has remained obscure. Here ...
Henderiks, J.
An urgent question for future climate, in light of increased burning of fossil fuels, is the temperature sensitivity of the climate system to atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO>sub>2</sub>). To date, no direct proxy for past levels of pCO<sub>2</sub> exists beyond the reach of the polar ice core records. We propose a ...
Snell-Rood Emilie C - - 2008
Ecological gradients in natural and sexual selection often result in evolutionary diversification of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. In particular, elevational changes in habitat structure and climate not only covary with intensity of sexual selection in many taxa, but may also influence evolution of mating signals. Here we examined ...
Hagen Snorre B - - 2008
Although climatic forcing has been suspected to be the most common cause of spatial population synchrony owing to the Moran effect, it has proved difficult to disentangle the impact of climate from other possible causes of synchrony based on population survey data. Nonlinear population responses to climatic variation may be ...
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