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Johnson M S - - 2011
Few continuous, long-term studies have measured the intensity and variability of natural selection within a framework of clear adaptive hypotheses. In the snail Theba pisana, the proportion of effectively unbanded shells is higher in exposed habitats than in adjacent acacia thickets, which has been explained by microclimatic selection. Comparisons across ...
Bhimji Safia - - 2010
The objective of this study was to develop a novel method to quantify rotational micromotion of modular tibial components that incorporates physiologic loading conditions, a physiologic test environment, and constraint characteristics of the articulating surface. The methodology is reviewed and data are presented on four total knee designs. Results showed ...
Geraldes Armando - - 2010
Reconstructing the history of populations is a longstanding goal of molecular ecologists. In addition to a better understanding of the past, it is hoped that this knowledge would also facilitate predictions regarding species' responses to future events such as climate change. The traditional way of doing this is through the ...
Abhishek A - - 2010
Long-term wind speed variations were investigated for three midwestern cities including Indianapolis, IN; Cincinnati, OH; and Little Rock, AR in the continental United States. These cities were chosen because their topography is relatively flat and unaffected by large mountain ranges or other topographical features, they represent important regional economic centers, ...
Mitri Sara - - 2011
Communication is an indispensable component of animal societies, yet many open questions remain regarding the factors affecting the evolution and reliability of signalling systems. A potentially important factor is the level of genetic relatedness between signallers and receivers. To quantitatively explore the role of relatedness in the evolution of reliable ...
Rusch Douglas B - - 2010
Prochlorococcus describes a diverse and abundant genus of marine photosynthetic microbes. It is primarily found in oligotrophic waters across the globe and plays a crucial role in energy and nutrient cycling in the ocean ecosystem. The abundance, global distribution, and availability of isolates make Prochlorococcus a model system for understanding ...
Luca F F Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. - - 2010
Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including ...
Stinchcombe John R - - 2010
Trade-offs can exist within and across environments, and constrain evolutionary trajectories. To examine the effects of competition and resource availability on trade-offs, we grew individuals of recombinant inbred lines of Impatiens capensis in a factorial combination of five densities with two light environments (full light and neutral shade) and used ...
Derryberry Elizabeth P - - 2011
In many species, individuals discriminate among sexual signals of conspecific populations in the contexts of mate choice and male-male competition. Differences in signals among populations (geographical variation) are in part the result of signal evolution within populations (temporal variation). Understanding the relative effect of temporal and geographical signal variation on ...
Maggini Ivan - - 2010
The Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) is a migratory bird species that shows different strategies of migration between populations, adapted to cope with different ecological barriers. This raises the question whether and to which extent these adaptations are endogenously determined. We studied seasonal patterns of body mass change and nocturnal restlessness ...
Robertson J M - - 2010
The evolution of intersexual interactions, like mate choice, during ecological speciation has received widespread attention. However, changes in intrasexual interactions, like male territoriality, during ecological divergence are largely unexamined. We conducted field experiments with adaptively diverged populations of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) to determine whether territorial males behaved ...
Calais E - - 2010
The spatiotemporal behaviour of earthquakes within continental plate interiors is different from that at plate boundaries. At plate margins, tectonic motions quickly reload earthquake ruptures, making the location of recent earthquakes and the average time between them consistent with the faults' geological, palaeoseismic and seismic histories. In contrast, what determines ...
Wurster Christopher M - - 2010
Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last ...
Sollai Giorgia - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to examine the presence and the possible role of abdominal olfactory sensilla in Culicoides imicola mediating the search for potential hosts and oviposition sites, by means of a morphological, electrophysiological and behavioural approach. The results reported here show that in the midge C. ...
Collins Alexandra - - 2010
Positive feedbacks have been suggested as a means for non-indigenous species to successfully invade novel environments. Frequency-dependent feedbacks refer to a species performance being dependent on its local abundance in the population; however, frequency dependence is often described as a monolithic trait of a species rather than examining the variation ...
Atkins K E - - 2010
The potential impact of climate change on biodiversity is well documented. A well developed range of statistical methods currently exists that projects the possible future habitat of a species directly from the current climate and a species distribution. However, studies incorporating ecological and evolutionary processes remain limited. Here, we focus ...
Baird Emily - - 2010
Ball rolling in dung beetles is thought to have evolved as a means to escape intense inter- and intra-specific competition at the dung pile. Accordingly, dung beetles typically roll along a straight-line path away from the pile, this being the most effective escape strategy for transporting dung to a suitable ...
Ballard Grant - - 2010
Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) spans approximately 22 degrees. Penguins from northern ...
Santoni Cristiane Bolzachini CB Pontifical Catholic University, Sao - - 2010
Pop-rock musicians are at risk of developing hearing loss and other symptoms related to amplified music. The aim of the present study was to assess the satisfaction provided by the use of hearing protection in pop-rock musicians. Contemporary cohort study. A study of 23 male pop-rock musicians, aged between 25 ...
Stone Brian - - 2010
Background: Extreme heat events (EHEs) are increasing in frequency in large U.S. cities and are responsible for a greater annual number of climate-related fatalities, on average, than any other form of extreme weather. In addition, low-density, sprawling patterns of urban development have been associated with enhanced surface temperatures in urbanized ...
Putman Nathan F - - 2010
Patterns of abundance across a species's reproductive range are influenced by ecological and environmental factors that affect the survival of offspring. For marine animals whose offspring must migrate long distances, natural selection may favour reproduction in areas near ocean currents that facilitate migratory movements. Similarly, selection may act against the ...
Nicholls Robert J - - 2010
Global sea levels have risen through the 20th century. These rises will almost certainly accelerate through the 21st century and beyond because of global warming, but their magnitude remains uncertain. Key uncertainties include the possible role of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and the amplitude of regional changes ...
Harvey Thomas H P - - 2010
Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of ...
Cavagna Andrea - - 2010
From bird flocks to fish schools, animal groups often seem to react to environmental perturbations as if of one mind. Most studies in collective animal behavior have aimed to understand how a globally ordered state may emerge from simple behavioral rules. Less effort has been devoted to understanding the origin ...
Oates Jennifer - - 2010
Humans show great flexibility in adjusting their levels of cooperation to account for current and future circumstances. For example, levels of cooperation are higher if there is more competition at the level of the whole population than with interacting partners and when individuals are likely to gain social prestige. Humans ...
Asner Gregory P - - 2010
Drought varies spatially and temporally throughout the Amazon basin, challenging efforts to assess ecological impacts via field measurements alone. Remote sensing offers a range of regional insights into drought-mediated changes in cloud cover and rainfall, canopy physiology, and fire. Here, we summarize remote sensing studies of Amazônia which indicate that: ...
Desrochers A - - 2010
Major landscape changes caused by humans may create strong selection pressures and induce rapid evolution in natural populations. In the last 100 years, eastern North America has experienced extensive clear-cutting in boreal areas, while afforestation has occurred in most temperate areas. Based on museum specimens, I show that wings of ...
Harris Alison - - 2010
Although the right fusiform face area (FFA) is often linked to holistic processing, new data suggest this region also encodes part-based face representations. We examined this question by assessing the metric of neural similarity for faces using a continuous carryover functional MRI (fMRI) design. Using faces varying along dimensions of ...
Malmstrom Rex R - - 2010
To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes-two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted-over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii ...
Lowell Walter E - - 2010
This paper describes the Sun's effect on the human genome as it relates to lifespan and expands our previous study from the State of Maine to the entire United States and the District of Columbia. In the current study we report that those persons conceived and likely born during the ...
Widder E A - - 2010
From bacteria to fish, a remarkable variety of marine life depends on bioluminescence (the chemical generation of light) for finding food, attracting mates, and evading predators. Disparate biochemical systems and diverse phylogenetic distribution patterns of light-emitting organisms highlight the ecological benefits of bioluminescence, with biochemical and genetic analyses providing new ...
Pontzer Herman - - 2010
The Dmanisi hominins inhabited a northern temperate habitat in the southern Caucasus, approximately 1.8 million years ago. This is the oldest population of hominins known outside of Africa. Understanding the set of anatomical and behavioral traits that equipped this population to exploit their seasonal habitat successfully may shed light on ...
Wood Bernard - - 2010
This contribution reviews the evidence that has resolved the branching structure of the higher primate part of the tree of life and the substantial body of fossil evidence for human evolution. It considers some of the problems faced by those who try to interpret the taxonomy and systematics of the ...
LaJeunesse Todd C - - 2010
Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally ...
Narváez Krupskaya - - 2010
The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a major coral predator widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, where population outbreaks have caused dramatic impacts on coral reefs. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) A. planci occurs at low population densities; it has been significantly abundant only in Panama and Cocos Island. ...
Ferrari Matthew J MJ The Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, , University Park, PA 16802, USA. - - 2010
Seasonally driven cycles of incidence have been consistently observed for a range of directly transmitted pathogens. Though frequently observed, the mechanism of seasonality for directly transmitted human pathogens is rarely well understood. Despite significant annual variation in magnitude, measles outbreaks in Niger consistently begin in the dry season and decline ...
Almogi-Labin Ahuva - - 2011
Climate change is frequently considered an important driver of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. The role of climate change in the last phase (900-700 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Levant and northeast Africa was examined, using marine and non-marine records. During the MPT the global climate ...
Larmuseau Maarten H D - - 2010
An excellent model to elucidate the mechanisms and importance of evolution in the marine environment is the spectral tuning mechanism of the visual pigment in vertebrates. In the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Teleostei; Gobiidae), a distribution-wide study showed that spatial variation at the rhodopsin gene (RH1) matches the characteristics of ...
Doebeli Michael - - 2010
The mechanisms for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity are not fully understood. It is known that frequency-dependent selection, generating advantages for rare types, can maintain genetic variation and lead to speciation, but in models with simple phenotypes (that is, low-dimensional phenotype spaces), frequency dependence needs to be strong ...
Gotthard Karl - - 2010
Switch-induced developmental plasticity, such as the diapause decision in insects, is a major form of adaptation to variable environments. As individuals that follow alternative developmental pathways will experience different selective environments the diapause decision may evolve to a cascade switch that induces additional adaptive developmental differences downstream of the diapause ...
Biewener Andrew - - 2010
Animal locomotion arises from complex interactions among sensory systems, processing of sensory information into patterns of motor output, the musculo-skeletal dynamics that follow motor stimulation, and the interaction of appendages and body parts with the environment. These processes conspire to produce motions and forces that permit stunning manoeuvres with important ...
Podos Jeffrey - - 2010
Populations with multiple morphological or behavioural types provide unique opportunities for studying the causes and consequences of evolutionary diversification. A population of the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) at El Garrapatero on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, features two beak size morphs. These morphs produce acoustically distinctive songs, are subject to ...
Kaliontzopoulou Antigoni - - 2010
Morphological variation in relation to habitat is known to occur in several lizard groups. Comparative studies have linked morphology and habitat use, showing that locomotion is the principal mediator of this evolutionary relationship. Here, we investigate intraspecific ecomorphological variation in Podarcis bocagei by examining three habitat types, representing a variety ...
González Josefa J Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America. - - 2010
Investigating spatial patterns of loci under selection can give insight into how populations evolved in response to selective pressures and can provide monitoring tools for detecting the impact of environmental changes on populations. Drosophila is a particularly good model to study adaptation to environmental heterogeneity since it is a tropical ...
Rypdal M - - 2010
We reexamine observational evidence presented in support of the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking by N. Scafetta and B. J. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 248701 (2003)10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.248701, which contended that the integrated solar flare index (SFI) and the global temperature anomaly (GTA) both follow Lévy walk statistics with the ...
Marschall Evelyn - - 2010
The Black Sea chemocline represents the largest extant habitat of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and harbours a monospecific population of Chlorobium phylotype BS-1. High-sensitivity measurements of underwater irradiance and sulfide revealed that the optical properties of the overlying water column were similar across the Black Sea basin, whereas the vertical profiles ...
Delarue Julien - - 2010
Fin whales are common throughout the North Pacific and have recently been detected acoustically as far north as the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Non-acoustic evidence suggests that North Pacific fin whales are segregated into two populations wintering along the Asian and North American coast with at least some animals intermingling in ...
Stien Audun - - 2010
Despite numerous studies of how climate change may affect life history of mammals, few have documented the direct impact of climate on behavior. The Arctic is currently warming, and rain-on-snow and thaw-freeze events leading to ice formation on the ground may increase both in frequency and spatial extent. This is ...
Blowers Paul - - 2010
The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and ...
Sanford Eric - - 2010
Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, ...
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