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Results 301 - 350 of 991
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Rypdal M - - 2010
We reexamine observational evidence presented in support of the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking by N. Scafetta and B. J. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 248701 (2003)10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.248701, which contended that the integrated solar flare index (SFI) and the global temperature anomaly (GTA) both follow Lévy walk statistics with the ...
Marschall Evelyn - - 2010
The Black Sea chemocline represents the largest extant habitat of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and harbours a monospecific population of Chlorobium phylotype BS-1. High-sensitivity measurements of underwater irradiance and sulfide revealed that the optical properties of the overlying water column were similar across the Black Sea basin, whereas the vertical profiles ...
Delarue Julien - - 2010
Fin whales are common throughout the North Pacific and have recently been detected acoustically as far north as the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Non-acoustic evidence suggests that North Pacific fin whales are segregated into two populations wintering along the Asian and North American coast with at least some animals intermingling in ...
Stien Audun - - 2010
Despite numerous studies of how climate change may affect life history of mammals, few have documented the direct impact of climate on behavior. The Arctic is currently warming, and rain-on-snow and thaw-freeze events leading to ice formation on the ground may increase both in frequency and spatial extent. This is ...
Blowers Paul - - 2010
The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and ...
Sanford Eric - - 2010
Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, ...
Aubret F - - 2010
Many organisms can adjust their phenotypes to match local environmental conditions via shifts in developmental trajectories, rather than relying on changes in gene frequencies wrought by natural selection. Adaptive developmental plasticity confers obvious benefits in terms of rapid response and higher mean fitness, so why is it not more common? ...
Seroyer Shane T - - 2010
The overhead throwing motion is a coordinated effort of muscle units from the entire body, culminating with explosive motion of the upper extremity. The throwing motion occurs at a rapid pace, making analysis difficult in real time. Electromyographic studies and high-speed video recordings have provided invaluable details regarding the involved ...
Florêncio Lidiane L - - 2010
Cervical range of motion (CROM) is a fundamental component of the functional evaluation in physical therapy interventions. The CROM device stands out as a reliable, non-invasive and easy-to-use method, but it is a very expensive tool. In clinical practice, more affordable tools such as Fleximeters are preferred. However, the reliability ...
Raulin Cerceau Florence - - 2010
Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralit? des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than ...
Marcheselli Marco - - 2010
The recent ban on TBT in boat antifouling paints has resulted in a large employment of the biocide zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) as substitute. Despite concerns of its environmental toxicity at ultra-trace concentrations, ZnPT has received little attention, as it was assumed to photo-degrade easily. However, recent evidence has suggested that ...
Middlemas S J - - 2010
The relationship between aquaculture and infestations of sea lice on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations is controversial. Although some authors have concluded that there is a link between aquaculture and lice burdens on wild fish, others have questioned this interpretation. Lice levels have been shown to be generally higher ...
Johnstone James A - - 2010
Biogeographical, physiological, and paleoecological evidence suggests that the coast redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.] is closely associated with the presence of summer marine fog along the Pacific coast of California. Here we present a novel record of summer fog frequency in the coast redwood region upon the basis of ...
Niemitz Carsten - - 2010
During the last century, approximately 30 hypotheses have been constructed to explain the evolution of the human upright posture and locomotion. The most important and recent ones are discussed here. Meanwhile, it has been established that all main hypotheses published until the last decade of the past century are outdated, ...
Both Christiaan - - 2010
During the past decades, phenology of many organisms has advanced in response to climate change [1]. Earlier arrival of long-distance migrants has been reported frequently [2, 3], but advancements of arrival and breeding were not always sufficient to match phenology at other trophic levels [4]. This has led to increased ...
Xu Chi - - 2010
Urbanization produced significant landscape changes throughout the world. China has been experiencing accelerated urbanization during the past decades. Rapid land use/land over conversion occurred nationwide in urbanization, manifesting noteworthy characteristics of landscape dynamics. In this study, we investigated the spatial differentiation in settlement change rates among 1-km(2) land units in ...
Chapman Ben B - - 2010
Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and ...
Atkinson-Palombo Carol - - 2010
Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus ...
L?pez R - - 2010
The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while ...
Arya S K - - 2010
A person with low vision has some useful sight. However, low vision usually interferes with the performance of daily activities such as reading or driving. Because low vision cannot be improved by mere traditional methods (i.e., the use of eyeglasses, contact lenses, etc), persons with low vision often rely on ...
Wark A R - - 2010
The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; ...
Jacquemyn Hans - - 2010
Seed production and seedling recruitment are thought to be of minor importance in determining population dynamics and long-term viability in long-lived perennial plants. Seed addition experiments, on the other hand, have amply shown that supplemental addition of seeds almost always, irrespective of longevity, results in increased seedling recruitment. Any change ...
Ozturk Munir - - 2010
This paper reviews the forest resources in Turkey in the light of published literature and summarises extensive fieldwork undertaken in the Mediterranean phytogeograhical region of Turkey. The issues of landscape change and the associated drivers are addressed and the threats to the forest diversity are considered. It notes the impacts ...
Dejean Alain - - 2010
After noting the forecast of a La Ni?a episode, associated with heavy rainfall in French Guiana, we monitored the fate of wasp nests before and during the 2006 short rainy season. The population of the most abundant epiponine wasp species, Polybia bistriata, decreased dramatically during the short rainy season (60.6% ...
Bradshaw William E - - 2010
Examination of temperate and polar regions of Earth shows that the nonbiological world is exquisitely sensitive to the direct effects of temperature, whereas the biological world is largely organized by light. Herein, we discuss the use of day length by animals at physiological and genetic levels, beginning with a comparative ...
Parolin Pia - - 2010
In the context of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth in 1809, this study discusses the variation in structure and adaptation associated with survival and reproductive success in the face of environmental stresses in the trees of tropical floodplains. We provide a comparative review on the responses to flooding ...
Schülke Astrid M - - 2010
Due to the socio-demographic change in most developed western countries, elderly populations have been continuously increasing. Therefore, preventive and assistive systems that allow elderly people to independently live in their own homes as long as possible will become an economical if not ethical necessity. These respective technologies are being developed ...
Koonin Eugene V - - 2010
Phylogenomics of eukaryote supergroups suggest a highly complex last common ancestor of eukaryotes and a key role of mitochondrial endosymbiosis in the origin of eukaryotes.
Pau Stephanie - - 2010
The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study the response of tropical forests to climate variability because of their extreme isolation in the middle of the Pacific, which makes them especially sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Most research examining the response of tropical forests to drought or El ...
Klingenberg Christian Peter - - 2010
Allometry, the association between size and shape, has long been considered an evolutionary constraint because of its ability to channel variation in particular directions in response to evolution of size. Several recent studies, however, have demonstrated that allometries themselves can evolve. Therefore, constraints based on these allometries are not constant ...
Cooper W James - - 2010
How particular changes in functional morphology can repeatedly promote ecological diversification is an active area of evolutionary investigation. The African rift-lake cichlids offer a calibrated time series of the most dramatic adaptive radiations of vertebrate trophic morphology yet described, and the replicate nature of these events provides a unique opportunity ...
Pérez Pablo Delfino - - 2010
The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri regulates its bioluminescence through a quorum sensing mechanism: the bacterium releases diffusible small molecules (autoinducers) that accumulate in the environment as the population density increases. This accumulation of autoinducer (AI) eventually activates transcriptional regulators for bioluminescence as well as host colonization behaviors. Although V. fischeri ...
Meihls Lisa N - - 2010
Although soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has caused economic damage in several Midwestern states, growers in Missouri have experienced relatively minor damage. To evaluate whether existing predatory insect populations are capable of suppressing or preventing soybean aphid population growth or establishment in Missouri, a predator exclusion study was ...
Mimura M - - 2010
High-dispersal rates in heterogeneous environments and historical rapid range expansion can hamper local adaptation; however, we often see clinal variation in high-dispersal tree species. To understand the mechanisms of the species' distribution, we investigated local adaptation and adaptive plasticity in a range-wide context in Sitka spruce, a wind-pollinated tree species ...
Kauserud Håvard - - 2010
Most macrofungi produce ephemeral fruit bodies during autumn but some have adapted to spring fruiting. In this study, temporal changes in the time of spring fruiting in Norway and the UK during 1960-2007 have been investigated by statistical analyses of about 6000 herbarium and field records, covering 34 species. Nearly ...
Sosenski Paula - - 2010
Although the 6 magnitude and pattern of correlation among floral traits (phenotypic integration) is usually conceived as an adaptation for successful pollination and reproduction, studies on the evolution of plant reproductive systems have generally focused on one or a few characters. If evolutionary transitions between reproductive systems involve morphological floral ...
Verschuren Dirk - - 2009
External climate forcings-such as long-term changes in solar insolation-generate different climate responses in tropical and high latitude regions. Documenting the spatial and temporal variability of past climates is therefore critical for understanding how such forcings are translated into regional climate variability. In contrast to the data-rich middle and high latitudes, ...
Munga Stephen - - 2009
Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of anopheline larval habitats and land use and land cover (LULC) changes can influence malaria transmission intensity. This information is important for understanding the environmental determinants of malaria transmission heterogeneity, and it is critical to the study of the effects of environmental changes ...
Lee Patricia N - - 2009
The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, is a cephalopod whose small size, short lifespan, rapid growth, and year-round availability make it suitable as a model organism. E. scolopes is studied in three principal contexts: (1) as a model of cephalopod development; (2) as a model of animal-bacterial symbioses; and (3) ...
Hern?ndez Baeza Ana - - 2009
In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on ...
Benesh Daniel P - - 2010
The timing of habitat switching in organisms with complex life cycles is an important life history characteristic that is often influenced by the larval growth environment. Under starvation, longer developmental times are frequently observed, probably as a consequence of developmental thresholds, but prolonged ontogeny sometimes also occurs under good conditions, ...
Llewelyn John - - 2010
Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are now moving about 5 times faster through tropical Australia than they did a half-century ago, during the early phases of toad invasion. Radio-tracking has revealed higher daily rates of displacement by toads at the invasion front compared to those from long-colonised areas: toads from frontal ...
Ebert Daniel - - 2009
The visual pigments of fish are thought to be adapted to the variable spectral qualities of aquatic light environments. Most research on the role of natural selection on the evolution of rhodopsins and dim-light vision in fish has focused on variation among species and higher taxa. In this issue, Larmuseau ...
Ripmeester Erwin A P - - 2010
Song plays an important role in avian communication and acoustic variation is important at both the individual and population level. Habitat-related variation between populations in particular can reflect adaptations to the environment accumulated over generations, but this may not always be the case. In this study, we test whether variation ...
Fullard James H - - 2010
The auditory thresholds of the AN2 interneuron and the behavioural thresholds of the anti-bat flight-steering responses that this cell evokes are less sensitive in female Pacific field crickets that live where bats have never existed (Moorea) compared with individuals subjected to intense levels of bat predation (Australia). In contrast, the ...
Martin Paul R - - 2010
Latitudinal variation in patterns of evolution has fascinated biologists for over a century, but our understanding of latitudinal differences in evolutionary processes-such as selection and drift-remains limited. Here, we test for, and find, accelerated evolution of color patterns in bird taxa that breed at higher latitudes compared with those breeding ...
Schmid-Hempel Paul - - 2009
To Darwin, parasites were fascinating examples of adaptation but their significance as selective factors for a wide range of phenomena has only been studied in depth over the last few decades. This work has had its roots in behavioural/evolutionary ecology on the one hand, and in population biology/ecology on the ...
Anderson Jill T - - 2010
In heterogeneous landscapes, divergent selection can favor the evolution of locally adapted ecotypes, especially when interhabitat gene flow is minimal. However, if habitats differ in size or quality, source-sink dynamics can shape evolutionary trajectories. Upland and bottomland forests of the southeastern USA differ in water table depth, light availability, edaphic ...
Piotrowicz Katarzyna - - 2009
Progressive global warming exerts strong influence on the lives and on the health of urban residents, many of who are weather sensitive people (meteoropaths). In the temperate zone, air temperature changes largely determine the seasonal oscillation of morbidity and mortality frequency. The present study analyzes the influence of air temperature ...
Mess A M - - 2009
A recent phylogenetic analysis achieved good resolution between the 5 suborders of rodent. As a novel finding it suggested a basal split that gave rise to a monophyletic group comprising Hystricomorpha and Sciuromorpha. We asked whether the new tree could cast light on the evolution of the interhaemal barrier in ...
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