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Cavagna Andrea - - 2010
From bird flocks to fish schools, animal groups often seem to react to environmental perturbations as if of one mind. Most studies in collective animal behavior have aimed to understand how a globally ordered state may emerge from simple behavioral rules. Less effort has been devoted to understanding the origin ...
Oates Jennifer - - 2010
Humans show great flexibility in adjusting their levels of cooperation to account for current and future circumstances. For example, levels of cooperation are higher if there is more competition at the level of the whole population than with interacting partners and when individuals are likely to gain social prestige. Humans ...
Asner Gregory P - - 2010
Drought varies spatially and temporally throughout the Amazon basin, challenging efforts to assess ecological impacts via field measurements alone. Remote sensing offers a range of regional insights into drought-mediated changes in cloud cover and rainfall, canopy physiology, and fire. Here, we summarize remote sensing studies of Amazônia which indicate that: ...
Desrochers A - - 2010
Major landscape changes caused by humans may create strong selection pressures and induce rapid evolution in natural populations. In the last 100 years, eastern North America has experienced extensive clear-cutting in boreal areas, while afforestation has occurred in most temperate areas. Based on museum specimens, I show that wings of ...
Harris Alison - - 2010
Although the right fusiform face area (FFA) is often linked to holistic processing, new data suggest this region also encodes part-based face representations. We examined this question by assessing the metric of neural similarity for faces using a continuous carryover functional MRI (fMRI) design. Using faces varying along dimensions of ...
Malmstrom Rex R - - 2010
To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes-two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted-over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii ...
Lowell Walter E - - 2010
This paper describes the Sun's effect on the human genome as it relates to lifespan and expands our previous study from the State of Maine to the entire United States and the District of Columbia. In the current study we report that those persons conceived and likely born during the ...
Widder E A - - 2010
From bacteria to fish, a remarkable variety of marine life depends on bioluminescence (the chemical generation of light) for finding food, attracting mates, and evading predators. Disparate biochemical systems and diverse phylogenetic distribution patterns of light-emitting organisms highlight the ecological benefits of bioluminescence, with biochemical and genetic analyses providing new ...
Pontzer Herman - - 2010
The Dmanisi hominins inhabited a northern temperate habitat in the southern Caucasus, approximately 1.8 million years ago. This is the oldest population of hominins known outside of Africa. Understanding the set of anatomical and behavioral traits that equipped this population to exploit their seasonal habitat successfully may shed light on ...
Wood Bernard - - 2010
This contribution reviews the evidence that has resolved the branching structure of the higher primate part of the tree of life and the substantial body of fossil evidence for human evolution. It considers some of the problems faced by those who try to interpret the taxonomy and systematics of the ...
LaJeunesse Todd C - - 2010
Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally ...
Narváez Krupskaya - - 2010
The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a major coral predator widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, where population outbreaks have caused dramatic impacts on coral reefs. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) A. planci occurs at low population densities; it has been significantly abundant only in Panama and Cocos Island. ...
Ferrari Matthew J - - 2010
Seasonally driven cycles of incidence have been consistently observed for a range of directly transmitted pathogens. Though frequently observed, the mechanism of seasonality for directly transmitted human pathogens is rarely well understood. Despite significant annual variation in magnitude, measles outbreaks in Niger consistently begin in the dry season and decline ...
Almogi-Labin Ahuva - - 2011
Climate change is frequently considered an important driver of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. The role of climate change in the last phase (900-700 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Levant and northeast Africa was examined, using marine and non-marine records. During the MPT the global climate ...
Larmuseau Maarten H D - - 2010
An excellent model to elucidate the mechanisms and importance of evolution in the marine environment is the spectral tuning mechanism of the visual pigment in vertebrates. In the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Teleostei; Gobiidae), a distribution-wide study showed that spatial variation at the rhodopsin gene (RH1) matches the characteristics of ...
Doebeli Michael - - 2010
The mechanisms for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity are not fully understood. It is known that frequency-dependent selection, generating advantages for rare types, can maintain genetic variation and lead to speciation, but in models with simple phenotypes (that is, low-dimensional phenotype spaces), frequency dependence needs to be strong ...
Gotthard Karl - - 2010
Switch-induced developmental plasticity, such as the diapause decision in insects, is a major form of adaptation to variable environments. As individuals that follow alternative developmental pathways will experience different selective environments the diapause decision may evolve to a cascade switch that induces additional adaptive developmental differences downstream of the diapause ...
Biewener Andrew - - 2010
Animal locomotion arises from complex interactions among sensory systems, processing of sensory information into patterns of motor output, the musculo-skeletal dynamics that follow motor stimulation, and the interaction of appendages and body parts with the environment. These processes conspire to produce motions and forces that permit stunning manoeuvres with important ...
Podos Jeffrey - - 2010
Populations with multiple morphological or behavioural types provide unique opportunities for studying the causes and consequences of evolutionary diversification. A population of the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) at El Garrapatero on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, features two beak size morphs. These morphs produce acoustically distinctive songs, are subject to ...
Kaliontzopoulou Antigoni - - 2010
Morphological variation in relation to habitat is known to occur in several lizard groups. Comparative studies have linked morphology and habitat use, showing that locomotion is the principal mediator of this evolutionary relationship. Here, we investigate intraspecific ecomorphological variation in Podarcis bocagei by examining three habitat types, representing a variety ...
González Josefa - - 2010
Investigating spatial patterns of loci under selection can give insight into how populations evolved in response to selective pressures and can provide monitoring tools for detecting the impact of environmental changes on populations. Drosophila is a particularly good model to study adaptation to environmental heterogeneity since it is a tropical ...
Rypdal M - - 2010
We reexamine observational evidence presented in support of the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking by N. Scafetta and B. J. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 248701 (2003)10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.248701, which contended that the integrated solar flare index (SFI) and the global temperature anomaly (GTA) both follow Lévy walk statistics with the ...
Marschall Evelyn - - 2010
The Black Sea chemocline represents the largest extant habitat of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and harbours a monospecific population of Chlorobium phylotype BS-1. High-sensitivity measurements of underwater irradiance and sulfide revealed that the optical properties of the overlying water column were similar across the Black Sea basin, whereas the vertical profiles ...
Delarue Julien - - 2010
Fin whales are common throughout the North Pacific and have recently been detected acoustically as far north as the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Non-acoustic evidence suggests that North Pacific fin whales are segregated into two populations wintering along the Asian and North American coast with at least some animals intermingling in ...
Stien Audun - - 2010
Despite numerous studies of how climate change may affect life history of mammals, few have documented the direct impact of climate on behavior. The Arctic is currently warming, and rain-on-snow and thaw-freeze events leading to ice formation on the ground may increase both in frequency and spatial extent. This is ...
Blowers Paul - - 2010
The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and ...
Sanford Eric - - 2010
Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, ...
Aubret F - - 2010
Many organisms can adjust their phenotypes to match local environmental conditions via shifts in developmental trajectories, rather than relying on changes in gene frequencies wrought by natural selection. Adaptive developmental plasticity confers obvious benefits in terms of rapid response and higher mean fitness, so why is it not more common? ...
Seroyer Shane T - - 2010
The overhead throwing motion is a coordinated effort of muscle units from the entire body, culminating with explosive motion of the upper extremity. The throwing motion occurs at a rapid pace, making analysis difficult in real time. Electromyographic studies and high-speed video recordings have provided invaluable details regarding the involved ...
Florêncio Lidiane L - - 2010
Cervical range of motion (CROM) is a fundamental component of the functional evaluation in physical therapy interventions. The CROM device stands out as a reliable, non-invasive and easy-to-use method, but it is a very expensive tool. In clinical practice, more affordable tools such as Fleximeters are preferred. However, the reliability ...
Raulin Cerceau Florence - - 2010
Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralit? des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than ...
Marcheselli Marco - - 2010
The recent ban on TBT in boat antifouling paints has resulted in a large employment of the biocide zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) as substitute. Despite concerns of its environmental toxicity at ultra-trace concentrations, ZnPT has received little attention, as it was assumed to photo-degrade easily. However, recent evidence has suggested that ...
Middlemas S J - - 2010
The relationship between aquaculture and infestations of sea lice on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations is controversial. Although some authors have concluded that there is a link between aquaculture and lice burdens on wild fish, others have questioned this interpretation. Lice levels have been shown to be generally higher ...
Johnstone James A - - 2010
Biogeographical, physiological, and paleoecological evidence suggests that the coast redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.] is closely associated with the presence of summer marine fog along the Pacific coast of California. Here we present a novel record of summer fog frequency in the coast redwood region upon the basis of ...
Niemitz Carsten - - 2010
During the last century, approximately 30 hypotheses have been constructed to explain the evolution of the human upright posture and locomotion. The most important and recent ones are discussed here. Meanwhile, it has been established that all main hypotheses published until the last decade of the past century are outdated, ...
Both Christiaan - - 2010
During the past decades, phenology of many organisms has advanced in response to climate change [1]. Earlier arrival of long-distance migrants has been reported frequently [2, 3], but advancements of arrival and breeding were not always sufficient to match phenology at other trophic levels [4]. This has led to increased ...
Xu Chi - - 2010
Urbanization produced significant landscape changes throughout the world. China has been experiencing accelerated urbanization during the past decades. Rapid land use/land over conversion occurred nationwide in urbanization, manifesting noteworthy characteristics of landscape dynamics. In this study, we investigated the spatial differentiation in settlement change rates among 1-km(2) land units in ...
Chapman Ben B - - 2010
Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and ...
Atkinson-Palombo Carol - - 2010
Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus ...
L?pez R - - 2010
The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while ...
Arya S K - - 2010
A person with low vision has some useful sight. However, low vision usually interferes with the performance of daily activities such as reading or driving. Because low vision cannot be improved by mere traditional methods (i.e., the use of eyeglasses, contact lenses, etc), persons with low vision often rely on ...
Wark A R - - 2010
The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; ...
Jacquemyn Hans - - 2010
Seed production and seedling recruitment are thought to be of minor importance in determining population dynamics and long-term viability in long-lived perennial plants. Seed addition experiments, on the other hand, have amply shown that supplemental addition of seeds almost always, irrespective of longevity, results in increased seedling recruitment. Any change ...
Ozturk Munir - - 2010
This paper reviews the forest resources in Turkey in the light of published literature and summarises extensive fieldwork undertaken in the Mediterranean phytogeograhical region of Turkey. The issues of landscape change and the associated drivers are addressed and the threats to the forest diversity are considered. It notes the impacts ...
Dejean Alain - - 2010
After noting the forecast of a La Ni?a episode, associated with heavy rainfall in French Guiana, we monitored the fate of wasp nests before and during the 2006 short rainy season. The population of the most abundant epiponine wasp species, Polybia bistriata, decreased dramatically during the short rainy season (60.6% ...
Bradshaw William E - - 2010
Examination of temperate and polar regions of Earth shows that the nonbiological world is exquisitely sensitive to the direct effects of temperature, whereas the biological world is largely organized by light. Herein, we discuss the use of day length by animals at physiological and genetic levels, beginning with a comparative ...
Parolin Pia - - 2010
In the context of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth in 1809, this study discusses the variation in structure and adaptation associated with survival and reproductive success in the face of environmental stresses in the trees of tropical floodplains. We provide a comparative review on the responses to flooding ...
Schülke Astrid M - - 2010
Due to the socio-demographic change in most developed western countries, elderly populations have been continuously increasing. Therefore, preventive and assistive systems that allow elderly people to independently live in their own homes as long as possible will become an economical if not ethical necessity. These respective technologies are being developed ...
Koonin Eugene V - - 2010
Phylogenomics of eukaryote supergroups suggest a highly complex last common ancestor of eukaryotes and a key role of mitochondrial endosymbiosis in the origin of eukaryotes.
Pau Stephanie - - 2010
The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study the response of tropical forests to climate variability because of their extreme isolation in the middle of the Pacific, which makes them especially sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Most research examining the response of tropical forests to drought or El ...
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