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Results 201 - 250 of 972
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Mahendra Prashanth K V - - 2011
Noise is a common occupational health hazard in most industrial settings. An assessment of noise and its adverse health effects based on noise intensity is inadequate. For an efficient evaluation of noise effects, frequency spectrum analysis should also be included. This paper aims to substantiate the importance of studying the ...
Stimpert Alison K - - 2011
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of several baleen whale species in the Northwest Atlantic that coexist with vessel traffic and anthropogenic noise. Passive acoustic monitoring strategies can be used in conservation management, but the first step toward understanding the acoustic behavior of a species is a good description of ...
Kyberd Peter J - - 2011
Prosthetic wrists need to be compact. By minimizing space requirements, a wrist unit can be made for people with long residual limbs. This prosthetic wrist uses two motors arranged across the arm within the envelope of the hand. The drive is transmitted by a differential so that it produces wrist ...
Fanning James - - 2011
Trocar insertion injury has a high morbidity, mortality, and cost. The purpose of this study was to compare standard trocar entry with our reduced-force closed trocar entry technique by measuring trocar insertion force using a mechanical force gauge. In the operating room, the force gauge was inserted into a sterile ...
Wolfe Joanna M - - 2011
Members of the diverse butterfly families Nymphalidae (brush-footed butterflies) and Riodinidae (metalmarks) have reduced first thoracic limbs and only use two pairs of legs for walking. In order to address questions about the detailed morphology and evolutionary origins of these reduced limbs, the three thoracic limbs of 13 species of ...
Simpfendorfer Colin A - - 2011
To aid recovery efforts of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) populations in U.S. waters a research project was developed to assess how changes in environmental conditions within estuarine areas affected the presence, movements, and activity space of this endangered species. Forty juvenile P. pectinata were fitted with acoustic tags and monitored ...
Lorussi Federico F Interdepartmental Research Center E - - 2011
A novel method devoted to the reconstruction of the joint angles in a kinematic chain is described. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the fusion of the information deriving from inertial sensors (accelerometers) and conductive elastomer strain sensors. Accelerometers provide a reliable reconstruction when they are employed as inclinometers in ...
Gritsch G G Austrian Institute of Technology, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna, - - 2011
In this paper we show a proof of concept for novel automatic seizure onset zone detector. The proposed approach utilizes the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) seizure detection system EpiScan extended by a frequency domain source localization module. EpiScan was proven to detect rhythmic epileptoform seizure activity often seen during ...
Oliveira Jillian M JM Department of Mechanical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2011
Actuation of a robotic endoscope with increased torque output is presented. This paper will specifically focus on the motor module section of a robotic endoscope, which comprises of a pair of motors and gear reduction assemblies. The results for the endoscope and biopsy tool stiffness, as well as the stall ...
Taffoni F F Laboratory of Biomedical Robotics and Biomicrosystems, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, via Àlvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Roma, Italy. - - 2011
In this work, an alignment procedure of magneto-inertial units in the Special Orthogonal Space SO(3) is presented and discussed. The procedure, designed for ambulatory measurements of lower limb kinematic, is based on simple rotation movements around anatomical axes of hip joint and its accuracy is independent of the speed as ...
Rabinowitz Peter M - - 2011
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of ...
Mays Keith A - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Mandibular movement is essential for speech, swallowing, and mastication. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that altering oral cavity geometry would result in an increased vertical and more posterior jaw displacement during speech. DESIGN: Twelve English speaking female adult dentate volunteers, age range 21-31 (mean±SD ...
Mela David J - - 2010
There are several as-yet unresolved issues with the scientific substantiation and communication of product claims relating to satiety. Core issues include the context, meaning and scope of these claims, and thus the type of clinical evidence required to support them. In particular, there are a range of potential consumer use-contexts ...
Davies Theresa Claire - - 2010
Purpose. Individuals with visual impairment have difficulty detecting obstacles that are above waist height. A prototype device was developed to allow individuals to hear ultrasound reflections off environmental obstacles. The purpose of this research was to evaluate novices' ability to evaluate distance and pass through apertures using this device. Method. The first ...
Tham L K - - 2010
The investigation of patellar tendon reflex involves development of a reflex hammer holder, kinematic data collection and analysis of patellar reflex responses using motion analysis techniques. The main aim of this research is to explore alternative means of assessing reflexes as a part of routine clinical diagnosis. The motion analysis ...
Ilharreborde Brice B Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, - - 2011
Treatment of chronic low back pain due to degenerative lumbar spine conditions often involves fusion of the symptomatic level. A known risk of this procedure is accelerated adjacent level degeneration. Motion preservation devices have been designed to provide stabilization to the symptomatic motion segment while preserving some physiologic motion. The ...
Hunt Gene - - 2010
Of all of the sources of evidence for evolution by natural selection, perhaps the most problematic for Darwin was the geological record of organic change. In response to the absence of species-level transformations in the fossil record, Darwin argued that the fossil record was too incomplete, too biased, and too ...
Subramanian Sreeram - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To compare phototherapy devices based on their physical and photo-biological characteristics viz spectral properties, maximum and mean irradiance, treatable percentage of body surface area, decay of irradiance over time and in vitro photoisomerisation of bilirubin. DESIGN: In vitro experimental study. SETTING: Ocular pharmacy laboratory at a tertiary care hospital. ...
Sanei Saeid - - 2011
Murmur is the result of various heart abnormalities. A new robust approach for separation of murmur from heart sound has been suggested in this article. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) has been adapted to the changes in the statistical properties of the data and effectively used for detection of murmur from ...
Paggetti Giulia - - 2010
A monolexemic color-naming experiment in the Italian language was performed on a sample of 1,014 colors obtained extending the OSA-UCS color system (E-OSA). Colors were rendered on a Mitsubishi Diamond pro 2070 monitor as patches subtending 10° of visual angle in a completely dark room. The 11 universal categories proposed ...
Poupard Laurent - - 2011
Several studies have correlated the ratio of the very low frequency power spectral density of heart rate increment (%VLFI) with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, patients with impaired heart rate variability may exhibit large variations of heart rate increment (HRI) spectral pattern and alter the screening accuracy of the ...
Ghanbari Reza Namdar - - 2011
Climate signals may affect groundwater level at different time scales in different geographical regions, and those patterns or time scales can be estimated using coherence analysis. This study shows that the synthesis effort required to search for patterns at the physical geography scale is possible, and this approach should be ...
Tellechea Javier S - - 2010
Because of apparent reproductive isolation between Northern and Southern hemisphere populations of the black drum Pogonius cromis, we tested the hypothesis that advertisement calls from a southern population would differ from known calls of North American populations. Additionally, we quantified disturbance and advertisement calls, their changes with fish size and ...
Koech Phillip K - - 2010
We studied the influence of a pyridine moiety versus a phenyl moiety when introduced in the molecular design of an ambipolar host. These pyridine-based host materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were synthesized in three to five steps from commercially available starting materials. The isomeric hosts have similar HOMO/LUMO energies; ...
Avilés J M - - 2011
The obligate avian brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus comprises different strains of females that specialize on particular host species by laying eggs of a constant type that often mimics those of the host. Whether cuckoos are locally adapted for mimicking populations of the hosts on which they are specialized ...
Digiovanni Jeffrey J - - 2010
Accurate prescriptive gain results in a more accurate fit, lower return rate in hearing aids, and increased patient satisfaction. In situ threshold measurements can be used to determine required gain. The Widex Corporation uses an in situ threshold measurement strategy, called the Sensogram. Real-ear measurements determine if prescriptive gain targets ...
Odendaal Lizelle J - - 2011
We investigated intraspecific variation in echolocation calls of the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, by comparing echolocation and associated morphological parameters among individuals from three populations of this species. The populations were situated in the center and at the western and eastern limits of the distribution of R. capensis. The ...
Tuomainen Ulla - - 2011
The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, ...
Li King-Fai - - 2010
Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the present-day climate. Most of the community focuses on its long-term (decadal to centennial) behaviors that are relevant to climate change, but there are relatively few discussions of its higher-frequency forms of variability, and none regarding its subseasonal distribution. ...
Valigurová Andrea - - 2011
Developmental stages of the diplozoid monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum, comprising oncomiracidium, diporpa, juvenile, and adult, were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy in order to examine body organization and identify explicit morphological adaptations to the ectoparasitic life in each stage. The parasite exhibits ...
Sulbaek Andersen M P - - 2010
Although the increasing abundance of CO(2) in our atmosphere is the main driver of the observed climate change, it is the cumulative effect of all forcing agents that dictate the direction and magnitude of the change, and many smaller contributors are also at play. Isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane are widely ...
Phillips B L - - 2010
Human activities are changing habitats and climates and causing species' ranges to shift. Range expansion brings into play a set of powerful evolutionary forces at the expanding range edge that act to increase dispersal rates. One likely consequence of these forces is accelerating rates of range advance because of evolved ...
Bradley David - - 2010
(Or Shallow Water: The changing acoustic environment and potential impact on aquatic life communication) The presumption is that marine life has inhabited shallow seas and consequently adapted to the peculiarities of that environment. Anthropogenic change is the focus of this discussion in the context of both ambient noise and propagation. ...
Jiang Tinglei - - 2010
This study describes variation patterns in the constant frequency of echolocation calls emitted at rest and when not flying ("resting frequency" RF) of the least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pusillus, on a broad geographical scale and in response to local climatic variables. Significant differences in RF were observed among populations throughout ...
Mellone Ugo - - 2011
Weather conditions are paramount in shaping birds' migratory routes, promoting the evolution of behavioural plasticity and allowing for adaptive decisions on when to depart or stop during migration. Here, we describe and analyze the influence of weather conditions in shaping the sea-crossing stage of the pre-breeding journey made by a ...
Shafer Aaron B A - - 2010
Glacial cycles have played a dominant role in shaping the genetic structure and distribution of biota in northwestern North America. The two major ice age refugia of Beringia and the Pacific Northwest were connected by major mountain chains and bordered by the Pacific Ocean. As a result, numerous refugial options ...
Sirkiä P M - - 2010
Fluctuating selection pressure may maintain phenotypic variation because of different types of individuals being adapted to different environmental conditions. We show that the extensive variation in the coloration of male pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) can be maintained through differences in the reproductive success of male phenotypes under different conditions. The ...
Johnson M S - - 2011
Few continuous, long-term studies have measured the intensity and variability of natural selection within a framework of clear adaptive hypotheses. In the snail Theba pisana, the proportion of effectively unbanded shells is higher in exposed habitats than in adjacent acacia thickets, which has been explained by microclimatic selection. Comparisons across ...
Bhimji Safia - - 2010
The objective of this study was to develop a novel method to quantify rotational micromotion of modular tibial components that incorporates physiologic loading conditions, a physiologic test environment, and constraint characteristics of the articulating surface. The methodology is reviewed and data are presented on four total knee designs. Results showed ...
Geraldes Armando - - 2010
Reconstructing the history of populations is a longstanding goal of molecular ecologists. In addition to a better understanding of the past, it is hoped that this knowledge would also facilitate predictions regarding species' responses to future events such as climate change. The traditional way of doing this is through the ...
Abhishek A - - 2010
Long-term wind speed variations were investigated for three midwestern cities including Indianapolis, IN; Cincinnati, OH; and Little Rock, AR in the continental United States. These cities were chosen because their topography is relatively flat and unaffected by large mountain ranges or other topographical features, they represent important regional economic centers, ...
Mitri Sara - - 2011
Communication is an indispensable component of animal societies, yet many open questions remain regarding the factors affecting the evolution and reliability of signalling systems. A potentially important factor is the level of genetic relatedness between signallers and receivers. To quantitatively explore the role of relatedness in the evolution of reliable ...
Rusch Douglas B - - 2010
Prochlorococcus describes a diverse and abundant genus of marine photosynthetic microbes. It is primarily found in oligotrophic waters across the globe and plays a crucial role in energy and nutrient cycling in the ocean ecosystem. The abundance, global distribution, and availability of isolates make Prochlorococcus a model system for understanding ...
Luca F - - 2010
Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including ...
Stinchcombe John R - - 2010
Trade-offs can exist within and across environments, and constrain evolutionary trajectories. To examine the effects of competition and resource availability on trade-offs, we grew individuals of recombinant inbred lines of Impatiens capensis in a factorial combination of five densities with two light environments (full light and neutral shade) and used ...
Derryberry Elizabeth P - - 2011
In many species, individuals discriminate among sexual signals of conspecific populations in the contexts of mate choice and male-male competition. Differences in signals among populations (geographical variation) are in part the result of signal evolution within populations (temporal variation). Understanding the relative effect of temporal and geographical signal variation on ...
Maggini Ivan - - 2010
The Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) is a migratory bird species that shows different strategies of migration between populations, adapted to cope with different ecological barriers. This raises the question whether and to which extent these adaptations are endogenously determined. We studied seasonal patterns of body mass change and nocturnal restlessness ...
Robertson J M - - 2010
The evolution of intersexual interactions, like mate choice, during ecological speciation has received widespread attention. However, changes in intrasexual interactions, like male territoriality, during ecological divergence are largely unexamined. We conducted field experiments with adaptively diverged populations of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) to determine whether territorial males behaved ...
Calais E - - 2010
The spatiotemporal behaviour of earthquakes within continental plate interiors is different from that at plate boundaries. At plate margins, tectonic motions quickly reload earthquake ruptures, making the location of recent earthquakes and the average time between them consistent with the faults' geological, palaeoseismic and seismic histories. In contrast, what determines ...
Wurster Christopher M - - 2010
Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last ...
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