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Iserbyt Arne - - 2012
The contribution of adaptive mechanisms in maintaining genetic polymorphisms is still debated in many systems. To understand the contribution of selective factors in maintaining polymorphism, we investigated large-scale (>1000 km) geographic variation in morph frequencies and fitness-related physiological traits in the damselfly Nehalennia irene. As fitness-related physiological traits, we investigated ...
Morris Daniel F - - 2012
The need for transparency is taking more prominence in international climate negotiations as developed countries pledge large sums of money to foster adaptation efforts in developing countries. Tools that provide accurate and up-to-date spatial information that can be easily used and vetted by local practitioners may provide effective and affordable ...
Jachowski David S - - 2012
Physiological stress responses allow individuals to adapt to changes in their status or surroundings, but chronic exposure to stressors could have detrimental effects. Increased stress hormone secretion leads to short-term escape behavior; however, no studies have assessed the potential of longer-term escape behavior, when individuals are in a chronic physiological ...
Ač Alexander - - 2012
We explored ability of reflectance vegetation indexes (VIs) related to chlorophyll fluorescence emission (R₆₈₆/R₆₃₀, R₇₄₀/R₈₀₀) and de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments (PRI, calculated as (R₅₃₁- R₅₇₀)/(R₅₃₁-R₅₇₀) to track changes in the CO₂ assimilation rate and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) in montane grassland and Norway spruce forest ecosystems, both at ...
Hummel Dennis - - 2012
Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting ...
Sauer Juergen - - 2012
The effectiveness of different forms of adaptive and adaptable automation was examined under low- and high-stress conditions, in the form of different levels of noise. Thirty-six participants were assigned to one of the three types of variable automation (adaptive event-based, adaptive performance-based and adaptable serving as a control condition). Participants ...
Oliveira A B - - 2012
In this study, we investigated how experienced and inexperienced subjects handle a box when it could be approached from any of its sides. Subjects moved a box (11 kg) either to a high (HS) or a low surface (LS). Wrist movements and grip force were synchronised and recorded, respectively, by ...
Rentzeperis Ilias - - 2012
Adaptation is widely used as a tool for studying selectivity to visual features. In these studies it is usually assumed that the loci of feature selective neural responses and adaptation coincide. We used an adaptation paradigm to investigate the relationship between response and adaptation selectivity in event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs ...
Arsovski Andrej A AA Department of Biology, University of Washington, Box 351800, Seattle, WA - - 2012
As photoautotrophs, plants are exquisitely sensitive to their light environment. Light affects many developmental and physiological responses throughout plants' life histories. The focus of this chapter is on light effects during the crucial period of time between seed germination and the development of the first true leaves. During this time, ...
Adhikari Arjun S AS Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford - - 2012
The generation and detection of mechanical forces is a ubiquitous aspect of cell physiology, with direct relevance to cancer metastasis(1), atherogenesis(2) and wound healing(3). In each of these examples, cells both exert force on their surroundings and simultaneously enzymatically remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). The effect of forces on ECM ...
Munoz-Price L Silvia - - 2012
We compared cleaning rates associated with use of a white ultraviolet (UV) powder versus a transparent UV gel among units with various degrees of previous experience with UV powder. The study outcome was the presence of discordant cleaning (removal of powder without the removal of gel, or vice versa). We ...
Brasiliense Leonardo B C - - 2011
STUDY DESIGN.: In vitro assessment of rib cage biomechanics in the region of true ribs with the ribs intact then sequentially resected in 5 steps. OBJECTIVE.: To determine the contribution of the rib cage to thoracic spine stability and kinematics. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Previous in vitro studies of rib ...
Dam Hans G - - 2011
Predicting the response of the biota to global change remains a formidable endeavor. Zooplankton face challenges related to global warming, ocean acidification, the proliferation of toxic algal blooms, and increasing pollution, eutrophication, and hypoxia. They can respond to these changes by phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation. Using the concept of ...
Jongen Ellen M M - - 2011
It was investigated how speed limit repetition and distraction affect drivers' speed management throughout a road section where the imposed speed limit is not in accordance (too low) with road design. It is not clear how driving speed evolves and to what degree speed limit repetition is necessary on roads ...
Bjornaraa Jaynie - - 2011
Specific movement patterns have been identified as influential in ACL injury; however several key kinematic variables that might be predictive of future performance have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this research was to: 1) determine if subjects with ACL reconstruction display different displacement, velocity, and time to peak ...
Nanda Aditi - - 2011
Abstract Abstract: Managements of malignancies and abnormal growths in maxillary sinus often include ablative surgeries. The closure of the resulting anatomical defect can be achieved with an obturator prosthesis. Reduction in weight of the obturator is an important consideration in improving the retention and stability of the prosthesis. Hollowing the ...
Keserü Matthias - - 2011
Purpose:  To determine the threshold charges needed for eliciting visual perceptions through acute electrical stimulation of the human retina in patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa, using an epiretinal microelectrode array. Methods:  In a multicentre study, 20 patients (average age 55 years) with visual acuities ranging from 4/200 to no light perception ...
Lin Jia-Hua - - 2011
Hand-handle interface is seldom considered in contemporary upper limb biomechanical analyses of pushing and pulling strength. A laboratory study was designed to examine if handle rotation in the frontal plane (0°-horizontal, 45°, and 90°-vertical), anterior tilt (0°-parallel to the frontal plane, and 15°), and distance between two handles (31 and ...
Yeung L F - - 2011
Trans-tibial amputees are advised to walk as much as able people to achieve healthy and independent life. However, they usually have difficulties in doing so. Previous researches only included data from a few steps when studying the gait of amputees. Walking over a long distance was rarely examined. The objective ...
Russell T - - 2011
The force applied during laryngoscopy can cause local tissue trauma and can induce cardiovascular responses and cervical spine movement in susceptible patients. Previous studies have identified numerous operator and patient factors that influence the amount of force applied during intubation. There are few studies evaluating the effect of different laryngoscope ...
Halenar Lauren B - - 2011
The majority of previous publications have suggested that the large-bodied subfossil Protopithecus brasiliensis was a suspensory ateline with a locomotor repertoire similar to that of extant Ateles and Brachyteles. This is unexpected, as the cranial morphology of Protopithecus is very similar to Alouatta, a genus usually classified as a deliberate ...
Shida Yoshiteru - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: Volatile anesthetics attenuate medium-frequency (250 to 500 Hz) pulse train transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) better than propofol. High-frequency (1000 Hz) TES may restore hand MEP amplitude under volatile anesthesia, but its effect on leg MEPs critical for spine surgery monitoring is unknown. METHODS:: The effects of ...
Vercruysse Sarah - - 2011
Freezing of gait (FOG) is an incapacitating problem in Parkinson's disease that is difficult to manage therapeutically. We tested the hypothesis that impaired rhythm and amplitude control is a common mechanism of freezing which is also present during other rhythmic tasks. Therefore, we compared the occurrence and spatiotemporal profiles of ...
Barrett Rod S - - 2011
Experiments designed to assess balance recovery in older adults often involve exposing participants to repeated loss of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the adaptive balance recovery response exhibited by older adults following repeated exposure to forward loss of balance induced by releasing participants from a static ...
Kato Yuki - - 2011
PURPOSE: To investigate the biomechanics of the intermediate (IM), anteromedial (AM), and posterolateral (PL) bundles in the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). METHODS: Eighteen human cadaveric knees were tested with a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system. Anterior tibial translation (ATT) was determined under an 89-N anterior tibial load. Coupled ATT ...
Altman Allison R - - 2012
Instrumented treadmills are becoming increasingly more common in gait laboratories. Instrumented side-split treadmills allow the collection of forces under each foot during walking. However, there may be a tendency to increase the base of support when walking on these treadmills, influencing other frontal plane mechanics as well. Therefore, the purpose ...
Yang Yang - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Due to differences in corneal grafting microsurgery between manual and robotic suturing, new challenges have arisen in testing the insertion force and torque of corneal tissue acting on suturing needles in order to guarantee successful completion of surgical procedures. METHODS: In order to measure the force during the insertion ...
Skrodzka Ewa - - 2011
Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings ...
Clancy Neil T - - 2011
Background. Minimally invasive surgical techniques such as single access and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) aim to reduce the number of external scars on the patient but impose restrictions on the space available for the light source within the endoscope and, therefore, the size of the field of view ...
Johnson Tiffany A - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: To determine whether common approaches to setting stimulus parameters influence the depth of fine structure present in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response. Because the presence of fine structure has been suggested as a possible source of errors, if one of the common parametric approaches results in reduced ...
Sakai Yoko - - 2011
Upright Ag nanoplates on a nanoparticulate TiO(2) film are oriented on the basis of plasmon-induced charge separation. Polarized visible light removes nanoplates oriented perpendicularly to polarization via excitation of in-plane transverse mode. Polarized near-infrared light removes nanoplates in parallel geometry via excitation of in-plane longitudinal mode.
Blanco Justin A - - 2011
Transient high-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations of the local field potential have been studied extensively in human mesial temporal lobe. Previous studies report that both ripple (100-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) oscillations are increased in the seizure-onset zone of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Comparatively little is known, ...
Okcu Selen - - 2011
Intensive care units (ICUs) have important but challenging sound environments. Alarms and equipment generate high levels of noise and ICUs are typically designed with hard surfaces. A poor sound environment can add to stress and make auditory tasks more difficult for clinicians. However few studies have linked more detailed analyses ...
Choi Hyeog-Gi - - 2011
To analyze frequency-specific hearing results after surgery for chronic ear diseases while considering pathological findings and various surgical factors. Patients who underwent surgical management of chronic otitis media were reviewed retrospectively (n=559). Using pure tone audiometry, air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC), and air bone gap (ABG) change between pre- ...
Dayton Amanda - - 2011
Despite numerous advances, lumpectomy remains a challenging procedure. We report on the early use of light-guided lumpectomy. Eight patients with non-palpable breast cancer undergoing lumpectomy for biopsy-proven and radiographically identifiable cancer were enrolled in the study. An optical wire was designed that incorporated a standard hook-wire with an optical fiber. ...
Dutta Tilak - - 2011
This study investigated the differences in peak external hand forces and external moments generated at the L5/S1 joint of the low back due to maneuvering loaded floor-based and overhead-mounted patient lifting devices using one and two caregivers. Hand forces and external moments at the L5/S1 joint were estimated from ground ...
Zamma Koichiro - - 2011
Grooming was observed in 11 wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale, Tanzania, and the number of removal and stroke movements and grooming duration were recorded. Removal movements were more frequent during social grooming than during self-grooming. Chimpanzees used one or both hands for grooming, and grooming using both hands ...
Hughes P C - - 2011
Objective: Recent evidence suggests that shoulder impingement syndrome arises from primary rotator cuff pathology and may be related to the inability of the rotator cuff to prevent superior humeral head migration in shoulder elevation. Impingement involves compression of subacromial structures, including the rotator cuff. Previously, clinical tests have been shown ...
Wysocki Jarosław - - 2011
Surgical intervention within the area of the middle ear always leads to alteration of conditions in its biomechanical system. This fact may provide an explanation for the lack of expected auditory outcome, although an apparently good anatomic outcome was obtained. In the case of stapedotomy, the majority of patients report ...
Näsänen Risto - - 2011
We investigated the question of how the perception of three-dimensional information reconstructed numerically from digital holograms of real-world objects, and presented on conventional displays, depends on motion and stereoscopic presentation. Perceived depth in an adjustable random pattern stereogram was matched to the depth in hologram reconstructions. The objects in holograms ...
Smith Tim J - - 2011
Oculomotor inhibition of return (IOR) is believed to facilitate scene scanning by decreasing the probability that gaze will return to a previously fixated location. This "foraging" hypothesis was tested during scene search and in response to sudden-onset probes at the immediately previous (one-back) fixation location. The latencies of saccades landing ...
Motta Pierorazio - - 2011
PURPOSE: A retrospective long-term study was carried out to determine whether there was any correlation between the clinical motion of the acromioclavicular joint evaluated by a test we set up using 90° of abduction and 0° of external rotation against resistance [90°/0°RTest] and the cross arm test (compared to the ...
Zhang Lian - - 2011
Objective To investigate the accuracy of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in detecting full-term neonatal seizures. Methods Conventional EEG (cEEG) and aEEG were simultaneously applied to 62 full-term newborns with seizures and results were analyzed with different methods. Results Of 876 seizures confirmed by cEEG, 21% were detected by clinical observation, 44.4% ...
Graci Valentina - - 2011
It has been previously suggested that coupled upper and limb movements need visuomotor coordination to be achieved. Previous studies have not investigated the role that visual cues may play in the coordination of locomotion and prehension. The aim of this study was to investigate if lower peripheral visual cues provide ...
Vaz Rodrigues L - - 2011
A comprehensive knowledge of the normal pattern of endobronchial branching is essential to any pulmonologist. The classification systems available are predominantly static descriptions and only seldom do they refer to possible variations within the normal spectrum. To evaluate all possible anatomical variants of the tracheobronchial tree we conducted a prospective ...
Park Kyue-Nam - - 2011
Park K-N, Cynn H-S, Kwon O-Y, Lee W-H, Ha S-M, Kim S-J, Weon J-H. Effects of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on muscle activity, pelvic motions, and knee flexion during active prone knee flexion in patients with lumbar extension rotation syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of performing an abdominal drawing-in ...
Sang Hongqiang - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Compared with conventional minimally invasive surgery and open surgery, robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery can overcome or eliminate drawbacks caused by operator restrictions, motion limitation by the trocar and the image system, such as fatigue, trembling, low precision, constrained degree-of-freedom, poor hand-eye coordination and restricted surgical vision. In this paper, ...
Wichmann Thomas - - 2011
Electrophysiological studies of the effects of electrical brain stimulation have to contend with stimulus artifacts, which complicate both the maintenance of recorded neuron waveforms at recording time, and the post-hoc analysis of the data. The artifacts can be removed by digitally averaging some or all of the (stereotypic) artifact waveforms ...
Ceseracciu Elena - - 2011
Research on motion analysis of swimmers is commonly based on video recordings of the subject's motion, which are analyzed by manual digitization of feature points by an operator. This procedure has two main drawbacks: it is time-consuming, and it is affected by low repeatability. Therefore, the application of video-based, automatic ...
Pierce S E - - 2011
Regional variation in the axial skeleton of pinnipeds (seals and walruses) and its correlation with aquatic locomotory behaviour is examined using vertebral functional profiles. The results demonstrate clear morpho-functional differences in the thoracolumbar region of modern pinnipeds (Phocidae, Otariidae, Odobenus) that can be strongly linked to swimming style. Phocid seals ...
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