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Results 101 - 150 of 1038
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Sanders Paul W - - 2012
The tubular nephron is responsible for reabsorption and catabolism of filtered low molecular weight proteins that include Ig free light chains. In the setting of a plasma cell dyscrasia, significant amounts of free light chains, now monoclonal proteins, present to the tubular nephron for disposal. The result may be clinical ...
Nitschke Udo - - 2012
The potential of algae to acclimate to environmental stress is commonly assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence, with changes in parameters of photosynthesis versus irradiance (P/E) curves measured either as rapid light curves (RLC) or steady-state light curves (LC). Here, effects of emersion on primary photosynthesis of four brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum ...
Schlerf John E - - 2012
The cerebellum is critically important for error-driven adaptive motor learning, as evidenced by the fact that cerebellar patients do not adapt well to sudden predictable perturbations. However, recent work has shown that cerebellar patients adapt much better if the perturbation is gradually introduced. Here we explore physiological mechanisms that underlie ...
Fairhurst Merle T - - 2012
Cooperation is intrinsic to the human ability to work together toward common goals, and depends on sensing and reacting to dynamically changing relationships between coacting partners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a paradigm in which an adaptive pacing signal simulates a virtual partner, we examined the neural substrates ...
Macdermid Paul William - - 2012
Abstract The purpose was to assess the mechanical work and physiological responses to cross country mountain bike racing. Participants (n = 7) cycled on a cross country track at race speed whilst [Formula: see text]O(2), power, cadence, speed, and geographical position were recorded. Mean power during the designated start section (68.5 ± 5.5 s) was ...
Robinson Alan E - - 2012
Prolonged viewing of a flickering region reduces sensitivity to a subsequently flickered test patch of identical extent, but the spatial properties of this adaptation are unknown. What happens to the sensitivity to a smaller flickered test patch completely contained in, but inset from, the adapted region? We show that sensitivity ...
Chandrasekhar Vadapalli - - 2012
A new water-soluble, multisite-coordinating ligand LH(7) was prepared by the condensation of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol. LH(7) is a selective chemosensor for Cu(2+), under physiological conditions, with visual detection limits of 20 ppm (ambient light conditions) and 4 ppm (UV light conditions). LH(7) can also be used in biological cell lines ...
Culumber Z W - - 2012
Local adaptation is often invoked to explain hybrid zone structure, but empirical evidence of this is generally rare. Hybrid zones between two poeciliid fishes, Xiphophorus birchmanni and X. malinche, occur in multiple tributaries with independent replication of upstream-to-downstream gradients in morphology and allele frequencies. Ecological niche modelling revealed that temperature is ...
Hummel Dennis - - 2012
Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain ...
Thomas Monika M Institute of Physiology and Anatomy, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Cologne, Germany. - - 2012
The human sensorimotor system can concurrently adapt to two different distortions without interference when the distortions are cued by different contexts. We investigated whether this holds with four distortions as well. Subjects were exposed to an interlaced sequence of +30°, -30°, +60°, and -60° visuomotor rotations as the adaptation phase, ...
Maier J K JK UCL Ear Institute, London, United - - 2012
Many neurons adapt their spike output to accommodate the prevailing sensory environment. Although such adaptation is thought to improve coding of relevant stimulus features, the relationship between adaptation at the neural and behavioral levels remains to be established. Here we describe improved discrimination performance for an auditory spatial cue (interaural ...
De La Garza Bryan H - - 2012
To employ functional manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to image layer-specific changes in calcium-dependent activities in the rat retina during light versus dark adaptation. Functional MEMRI at 20 × 20 × 700 μm was used to study light and dark adaptation in the same animals (N = 10) in which one eye ...
Brown Andrew D - - 2012
Human listeners' sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITD) was assessed for 1000 Hz tone bursts (500 ms duration) preceded by trains of 500-ms "adapter" tone bursts (7 s total adapter duration, frequencies of 200, 665, 1000, or 1400 Hz) carrying random ITD, or by an equal-duration period of silence. Presentation ...
Patel Rita R - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate changes in vocal fold vibration and voice production caused by voice therapy in hoarseness resulting from contact granuloma. DESIGN: Single-subject before-after prospective study using multiple measures of vocal function. A 6-week program of vocal function exercises (VFEs) was conducted using multiple assessments of vocal function to ...
Bailey Susan F - - 2012
Abstract Abundant ecological opportunity is thought to drive adaptation and diversification. The presence of multiple opportunities leads to divergent selection, which can slow adaptation when niche-specific beneficial mutations have antagonistically pleiotropic effects. Alternately, competition for multiple opportunities can generate divergent selection, which leads to high rates of adaptive differentiation. Which ...
Hoshii Yoshinobu - - 2012
For the purpose of investigating the carboxy terminus distribution of immunoglobulin κ light chain in Aκ amyloid deposits in tissue sections, we examined the immunostaining pattern of Aκ amyloidosis with conventional rabbit clonal antibody against peptide derived from the C-terminal sequence of human κ light chain. This antihuman kappa light ...
Kristjánsson Arni - - 2012
The range of variation in environmental stimuli is much larger than the visual system can represent. It is therefore sensible for the system to adjust its responses to the momentary input statistics of the environment, such as when our pupils contract to limit the light entering the eye. Previous evidence ...
Koshelskaja E V - - 2012
Physiological and biomechanical characteristics of the kick and goal technique in football were studied in athletes of different qualification. The formation of technological skills of football players kicking the ball from the standard position requires coordinated movements and high differentiation of muscular activity.
Buckeridge John S - - 2012
Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most ...
Bakalar M - - 2012
When conducting optical imaging experiments, in vivo, the signal to noise ratio and effective spatial and temporal resolution is fundamentally limited by physiological motion of the tissue. A three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking scheme, using a multiphoton excitation microscope with a resonant galvanometer, (512 × 512 pixels at 33 frames s(-1)) ...
Saraiva J L - - 2012
The inter-populational variation in the reproductive behaviour of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo (Risso 1810), particularly the influence of the ecologic environment, was reviewed in the present work. Two populations of this species inhabiting contrasting environments were studied: the Ria Formosa population, a coastal lagoon with sandy/muddy substrate located in ...
García-Sánchez Marta - - 2012
The macroalga Caulerpa prolifera colonized the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after the enlargement of the main inlet in 1972, coexisting now with the previous Cymodocea nodosa meadows. The physiological response and the photoacclimation capacity of both species were studied. For this purpose in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, photoprotective mechanisms and ...
Frank Marion E - - 2012
Little is known about coding of taste mixtures in complex dynamic stimulus environments. A protocol developed for odor stimuli was used to test whether rapid selective adaptation extracted sugar and salt component tastes from mixtures as it did component odors. Seventeen human subjects identified taste components of "salt + sugar" ...
Olivier Anne-Hélène - - 2012
This study investigated collision avoidance between two walkers by focusing on the conditions that lead to avoidance manoeuvres in locomotor trajectories. Following the hypothesis of a reciprocal interaction, we suggested a mutual variable as a continuous function of the two walkers' states, denoted minimum predicted distance (MPD). This function predicts ...
Lan Ganhui - - 2012
Adaptation is the essential process by which an organism becomes better suited to its environment. The benefits of adaptation are well documented, but the cost it incurs remains poorly understood. Here, by analysing a stochastic model of a minimum feedback network underlying many sensory adaptation systems, we show that adaptive ...
Wong Shau-Lian - - 2012
We aimed to understand the relation of photosynthetic rate (A) with g(s) and electron transport rate (ETR) in species of great taxonomic range and light adaptation capability during photosynthetic light induction. We studied three woody species (Alnus formosana, Ardisia crenata and Ardisia cornudentata) and four fern species (Pyrrosia lingus, Asplenium ...
Drengstig Tormod - - 2012
Robust homeostatic mechanisms are essential for the protection and adaptation of organisms in a changing and challenging environment. Integral feedback is a control-engineering concept that leads to robust, i.e., perturbation-independent, adaptation and homeostatic behavior in the controlled variable. Addressing two-component negative feedback loops of a controlled variable A and a ...
Kates Robert W - - 2012
All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that ...
Pavan Andrea - - 2012
Visual adaptation is a critical and ubiquitous mechanism that occurs for any stimulus feature and involves a continuous adjustment of the neuronal contrast gain. These adjustments prevent our visual system from dropping in sensitivity for the prevailing ranges of stimulus features that are processed at a given time. In addition ...
Pincebourde Sylvain - - 2012
Ecology Letters (2012) ABSTRACT: Climate warming experiments generally test the ecological effects of constant treatments while neglecting the influence of more realistic patterns of environmental fluctuations. Thus, little is known regarding how the temporal interaction between multiple episodes of thermal stress influences biotic interactions. We measured the sensitivity of predation ...
Porcar-Castell Albert - - 2012
The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is regarded as a promising proxy to track the dynamics of photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) via remote sensing. The implementation of this approach requires the relationship between PRI and LUE to scale not only in space but also in time. The short-term relationship between ...
Correa Umberto C - - 2012
Some researchers have described team sports as complex, open, and hierarchical systems. This study aimed to investigate and describe how the game of futsal could be characterized as a dynamic adaptive process. One game, which included participation by two amateur teams, was analyzed by examining players' individual (space occupied, skills ...
Hegland Erica - - 2012
Psychophysical studies have shown that the ability to detect a signal in a masker may be improved by presenting a preceding sound (precursor) identical to the masker, an effect called overshoot. When the masker has no spectral notch around the signal frequency, overshoot has been predicted using a physiologically-realistic auditory ...
Bonanno Fabrizio Giuseppe - - 2012
Shock as reaction to life-threatening condition needs to be reclassified in a timely and more scientific synopsis. It is not possible or beneficial any longer to avoid a holistic approach in critical illness. Semantics of critical illness has often been unfriendly in the literature and a simplification with the elimination ...
Zheng Yu-Long - - 2012
To explore the traits contributing to invasiveness of Eupatorium adenophorum and to test the relationship between plasticity of these traits and invasiveness, we compared E. adenophorum with its two native congeners at four irradiances (10%, 23%, 40%, and 100%). The invader showed constantly higher performance (relative growth rate and total ...
Hume Ken - - 2012
Soundscape research indicates that sound perception is a complex auditory experience with emotional content and the potential for annoyance should not be measured simply in terms of loudness. However, there are limited objective tools available to investigate annoyance and the relative health implications of negative soundscape elements. As part of ...
Axe David - - 2012
Recent psychoacoustical studies have suggested a temporal-fine-structure (TFS) deficit in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Physiological studies generally have not found a reduction in the strength of TFS coding in auditory-nerve responses; however, a number of other effects on temporal coding have been found that may be related to ...
Claramunt Santiago - - 2012
Abstract Ecological theories of adaptive radiation predict that ecological opportunity stimulates cladogenesis through its effects on competitive release and niche expansion. Given that key innovations may confer ecological opportunity, we investigated the effect of the acquisition of climbing adaptations on rates of cladogenesis in a major avian radiation, the Neotropical ...
Haile-Selassie Yohannes - - 2012
A newly discovered partial hominin foot skeleton from eastern Africa indicates the presence of more than one hominin locomotor adaptation at the beginning of the Late Pliocene epoch. Here we show that new pedal elements, dated to about 3.4 million years ago, belong to a species that does not match ...
Wen Bo - - 2012
Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of ...
Pereira Daniel A - - 2012
Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of bioactive oligopeptides, which function, ecological, physiological roles and responses to environmental changes are still unclear. The influence of light intensity on the cell quota and the diversity of oligopeptides of two strains of the cyanobacterium Radiocystis fernandoii were experimentally tested. The peptides were quantified ...
Bao Min - - 2012
To optimize perception, neurons in the visual system adapt to the current environment. What determines the durability of this plasticity? Longer exposures to an environment produce longer-lasting effects, which could be due to either (i) a single mechanism controlling adaptation that gains strength over time, or (ii) long-term mechanisms that ...
Ashida Hiroshi - - 2012
The "Rotating Snakes" figure elicits a clear sense of anomalous motion in stationary repetitive patterns. We used an event-related fMRI adaptation paradigm to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying the illusory motion. Following an adapting stimulus (S1) and a blank period, a probe stimulus (S2) that elicited illusory motion either in the ...
Buzsáki György - - 2012
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) constitute a novel trend in neurophysiology that is fascinating neuroscientists in general, and epileptologists in particular. But what are HFOs? What is the frequency range of HFOs? Are there different types of HFOs, physiological and pathological? How are HFOs generated? Can HFOs represent temporal codes for ...
Jayaram Gowri - - 2012
Human locomotor adaptation is necessary to maintain flexibility of walking. Several lines of research suggest that the cerebellum plays a critical role in motor adaptation. In this study we investigated the effects of noninvasive stimulation of the cerebellum to enhance locomotor adaptation. We found that anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current ...
Rosen Arlene M - - 2012
Climatic forcing during the Younger Dryas (∼12.9-11.5 ky B.P.) event has become the theoretical basis to explain the origins of agricultural lifestyles in the Levant by suggesting a failure of foraging societies to adjust. This explanation however, does not fit the scarcity of data for predomestication cultivation in the Natufian ...
Savin Douglas N - - 2012
BACKGROUND: . Persons with stroke and hemiparesis walk with a characteristic pattern of spatial and temporal asymmetry that is resistant to most traditional interventions. It was recently shown in nondisabled persons that the degree of walking symmetry can be readily altered via locomotor adaptation. However, it is unclear whether stroke-related ...
Urbanski Jennifer - - 2012
Abstract Understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to spatiotemporal environmental variation is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. This issue also has important implications for anticipating biological responses to contemporary climate warming and determining the processes by which invasive species are able to spread rapidly across broad geographic ranges. Here, we ...
Buchheit Martin - - 2012
Abstract To examine whether performance, physiological and perceptual responses to repeated sprints including changes of direction are angle-dependent, twelve team-sport players performed (1) single 30-m sprints without or with two (45°, 90° or 135°) changes of direction and (2) repeated-sprint sequences matched for initial sprint time without (Line [6x30m]) or ...
Cagigas Miguel A - - 2012
In this paper we show new ways to improve the performance of ground-based coronagraphy. We introduce adaptive coronagraphic masks whose profile is a binary version of the instantaneous atmospherically degraded star image. We also propose the hyper-Gaussian profile masks obtained by averaging adaptive masks. In addition, adaptive Lyot stops and ...
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