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Kates Robert W - - 2012
All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that ...
Pavan Andrea - - 2012
Visual adaptation is a critical and ubiquitous mechanism that occurs for any stimulus feature and involves a continuous adjustment of the neuronal contrast gain. These adjustments prevent our visual system from dropping in sensitivity for the prevailing ranges of stimulus features that are processed at a given time. In addition ...
Pincebourde Sylvain - - 2012
Ecology Letters (2012) ABSTRACT: Climate warming experiments generally test the ecological effects of constant treatments while neglecting the influence of more realistic patterns of environmental fluctuations. Thus, little is known regarding how the temporal interaction between multiple episodes of thermal stress influences biotic interactions. We measured the sensitivity of predation ...
Porcar-Castell Albert - - 2012
The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is regarded as a promising proxy to track the dynamics of photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) via remote sensing. The implementation of this approach requires the relationship between PRI and LUE to scale not only in space but also in time. The short-term relationship between ...
Correa Umberto C - - 2012
Some researchers have described team sports as complex, open, and hierarchical systems. This study aimed to investigate and describe how the game of futsal could be characterized as a dynamic adaptive process. One game, which included participation by two amateur teams, was analyzed by examining players' individual (space occupied, skills ...
Hegland Erica - - 2012
Psychophysical studies have shown that the ability to detect a signal in a masker may be improved by presenting a preceding sound (precursor) identical to the masker, an effect called overshoot. When the masker has no spectral notch around the signal frequency, overshoot has been predicted using a physiologically-realistic auditory ...
Bonanno Fabrizio Giuseppe - - 2012
Shock as reaction to life-threatening condition needs to be reclassified in a timely and more scientific synopsis. It is not possible or beneficial any longer to avoid a holistic approach in critical illness. Semantics of critical illness has often been unfriendly in the literature and a simplification with the elimination ...
Zheng Yu-Long - - 2012
To explore the traits contributing to invasiveness of Eupatorium adenophorum and to test the relationship between plasticity of these traits and invasiveness, we compared E. adenophorum with its two native congeners at four irradiances (10%, 23%, 40%, and 100%). The invader showed constantly higher performance (relative growth rate and total ...
Hume Ken - - 2012
Soundscape research indicates that sound perception is a complex auditory experience with emotional content and the potential for annoyance should not be measured simply in terms of loudness. However, there are limited objective tools available to investigate annoyance and the relative health implications of negative soundscape elements. As part of ...
Axe David - - 2012
Recent psychoacoustical studies have suggested a temporal-fine-structure (TFS) deficit in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Physiological studies generally have not found a reduction in the strength of TFS coding in auditory-nerve responses; however, a number of other effects on temporal coding have been found that may be related to ...
Claramunt Santiago - - 2012
Abstract Ecological theories of adaptive radiation predict that ecological opportunity stimulates cladogenesis through its effects on competitive release and niche expansion. Given that key innovations may confer ecological opportunity, we investigated the effect of the acquisition of climbing adaptations on rates of cladogenesis in a major avian radiation, the Neotropical ...
Haile-Selassie Yohannes - - 2012
A newly discovered partial hominin foot skeleton from eastern Africa indicates the presence of more than one hominin locomotor adaptation at the beginning of the Late Pliocene epoch. Here we show that new pedal elements, dated to about 3.4 million years ago, belong to a species that does not match ...
Wen Bo - - 2012
Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of ...
Pereira Daniel A - - 2012
Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of bioactive oligopeptides, which function, ecological, physiological roles and responses to environmental changes are still unclear. The influence of light intensity on the cell quota and the diversity of oligopeptides of two strains of the cyanobacterium Radiocystis fernandoii were experimentally tested. The peptides were quantified ...
Bao Min - - 2012
To optimize perception, neurons in the visual system adapt to the current environment. What determines the durability of this plasticity? Longer exposures to an environment produce longer-lasting effects, which could be due to either (i) a single mechanism controlling adaptation that gains strength over time, or (ii) long-term mechanisms that ...
Ashida Hiroshi - - 2012
The "Rotating Snakes" figure elicits a clear sense of anomalous motion in stationary repetitive patterns. We used an event-related fMRI adaptation paradigm to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying the illusory motion. Following an adapting stimulus (S1) and a blank period, a probe stimulus (S2) that elicited illusory motion either in the ...
Buzsáki György - - 2012
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) constitute a novel trend in neurophysiology that is fascinating neuroscientists in general, and epileptologists in particular. But what are HFOs? What is the frequency range of HFOs? Are there different types of HFOs, physiological and pathological? How are HFOs generated? Can HFOs represent temporal codes for ...
Jayaram Gowri - - 2012
Human locomotor adaptation is necessary to maintain flexibility of walking. Several lines of research suggest that the cerebellum plays a critical role in motor adaptation. In this study we investigated the effects of noninvasive stimulation of the cerebellum to enhance locomotor adaptation. We found that anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current ...
Rosen Arlene M - - 2012
Climatic forcing during the Younger Dryas (∼12.9-11.5 ky B.P.) event has become the theoretical basis to explain the origins of agricultural lifestyles in the Levant by suggesting a failure of foraging societies to adjust. This explanation however, does not fit the scarcity of data for predomestication cultivation in the Natufian ...
Savin Douglas N - - 2012
BACKGROUND: . Persons with stroke and hemiparesis walk with a characteristic pattern of spatial and temporal asymmetry that is resistant to most traditional interventions. It was recently shown in nondisabled persons that the degree of walking symmetry can be readily altered via locomotor adaptation. However, it is unclear whether stroke-related ...
Urbanski Jennifer - - 2012
Abstract Understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to spatiotemporal environmental variation is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. This issue also has important implications for anticipating biological responses to contemporary climate warming and determining the processes by which invasive species are able to spread rapidly across broad geographic ranges. Here, we ...
Buchheit Martin - - 2012
Abstract To examine whether performance, physiological and perceptual responses to repeated sprints including changes of direction are angle-dependent, twelve team-sport players performed (1) single 30-m sprints without or with two (45°, 90° or 135°) changes of direction and (2) repeated-sprint sequences matched for initial sprint time without (Line [6x30m]) or ...
Cagigas Miguel A - - 2012
In this paper we show new ways to improve the performance of ground-based coronagraphy. We introduce adaptive coronagraphic masks whose profile is a binary version of the instantaneous atmospherically degraded star image. We also propose the hyper-Gaussian profile masks obtained by averaging adaptive masks. In addition, adaptive Lyot stops and ...
Depauw Frauke Angelique - - 2012
Light is an essential source of energy for life on Earth and is one of the most important signals that organisms use to obtain information from the surrounding environment, on land and in the oceans. Prominent marine microalgae, such as diatoms, display a suite of sophisticated responses (physiological, biochemical, and ...
Cooper Bonnie - - 2012
Gratings that contain luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies were used to study the segregation of signals in luminance and chromatic pathways. Psychophysical detection and discrimination thresholds to these compound gratings, with luminance and chromatic components of the one either half or double the spatial frequency of the ...
Tucker Joseph W - - 2012
Photoredox catalysis is emerging as a powerful tool in synthetic organic chemistry. The aim of this synopsis is to provide an overview of the photoelectronic properties of photoredox catalysts as they are applied to organic transformations. In addition, recent synthetic applications of photoredox catalysis are presented.
Kasahara Yusuke - - 2012
Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. A telerobotic-assisted drilling system ...
Li Xu - - 2012
Linkages among bioreactor operation and performance and microbial community structure were investigated for a fixed-bed biofilm system designed to remove perchlorate from drinking water. Perchlorate removal was monitored to evaluate reactor performance during and after the frequency and intensity of the backwash procedure were changed, while the microbial community structure ...
Flodman Hunter R - - 2012
Several strategies have been proposed to increase the operating efficiency of batch distillation. In this study, conventional batch rectification and inverted batch stripping are used cyclically to promote high product flow rates for a binary fractionation. Process controls are implemented to maintain constant product purity specifications by varying the slope ...
Hsieh Po-Jang - - 2012
A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here ...
Majid Kamran - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Integrated plate-spacer may provide adequate construct stability while potentially lowering operative time, decreasing complications, and providing less mechanical obstruction. The purpose of the current study was to compare the biomechanical stability of an anatomically profiled 2-screw integrated plate-spacer to a traditional spacer only and to a spacer and anterior ...
Elidan Gal - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Detection and quantification of oscillatory irregularities in laryngeal videostroboscopy can be particularly difficult for the human expert. Accordingly, there is a wide interest in automated methods for recovering the folds' temporal trajectory. Unfortunately, current methods typically provide only crude glottal measurements. OBJECTIVES: An automated procedure for consistently tracking the ...
Yoshioka Tohru - - 2012
Physical aspects of medical science involve making physical models, physical approaches, and measurements by physical instruments. Among these, the physical approach is the most important for an exact elucidation of the physiological function of living materials. What is a physical approach? In the first step, the molecular mechanism of visual ...
Town G - - 2012
In the past 5 years since their US introduction, there has been a rapid proliferation of light-based hair removal devices intended for home-use. In the last 2 years in Europe, sales already run into many tens of thousands of units with well-known multi-national companies entering the market. These guidelines provide a definition ...
Alcock Alison M - - 2012
Abstract The three-dimensional kinematics of international female footballers performing a simulated direct free kick (curve kick) were compared with those of an instep kick. Reflective markers attached to the participants were tracked by 17 Vicon cameras sampling at 250 Hz. Foot velocity at ball impact did not differ between the two ...
Mehlenbacher Adam - - 2012
Mehlenbacher A, Capehart B, Bass D, Burke JR. Sound induced vertigo: superior canal dehiscence resulting from blast exposure. Barotrauma is common in modern warfare. We present the first description of sound induced vertigo caused by superior canal dehiscence (SCD) precipitated by blast exposure. Patients who complain of balance or visual ...
Lee Alan L F - - 2012
Visual adaptation produces remarkable perceptual aftereffects. However, it remains unclear what basic neural mechanisms underlie visual adaptation and how these adaptation-induced neural changes are related to perceptual aftereffects. To address these questions, we examined transparent motion adaptation and traced the effects of adaptation through the motion processing hierarchy. We found ...
Ai Todd - - 2012
There has been limited attention given to the physiological demands of pushing and pulling, especially in industrially developing countries such as South Africa. Two key factors affecting the physiological demands of these tasks are the hand forces exerted and the start/stop frequency. The purpose of the current study was therefore ...
Cardeña Etzel - - 2012
Abstract This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, ...
Barclay Johanna L - - 2012
In mammals, circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are regulated by a complex network of cellular molecular oscillators distributed throughout the brain and peripheral tissues. A master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) synchronizes internal time with the external light-dark cycle, thus entraining the overall rhythmicity of the organism. ...
Kwacz Monika - - 2012
A stapedotomy surgery using a piston stapes prosthesis significantly modifies the perilymph fluid stimulation level and always leads to alteration of conditions in sound transmission through the cochlea. This paper shows the results of non-contact measurements of the stapes head velocity, a Teflon piston stapes prosthesis velocity and round window ...
Rahne Torsten - - 2012
The identification and discrimination of timbre are essential features of music perception. One dominating parameter within the multidimensional timbre space is the spectral shape of complex sounds. As hearing loss interferes with the perception and enjoyment of music, we approach the individual timbre discrimination skills in individuals with severe to ...
Shen Tong - - 2012
Cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) are a group of adapted marine mammals with an enigmatic history of transition from terrestrial to full aquatic habitat and rapid radiation in waters around the world. Throughout this evolution, the pathogen stress-response proteins must have faced challenges from the dramatic change of environmental pathogens ...
Iserbyt Arne - - 2012
The contribution of adaptive mechanisms in maintaining genetic polymorphisms is still debated in many systems. To understand the contribution of selective factors in maintaining polymorphism, we investigated large-scale (>1000 km) geographic variation in morph frequencies and fitness-related physiological traits in the damselfly Nehalennia irene. As fitness-related physiological traits, we investigated ...
Morris Daniel F - - 2012
The need for transparency is taking more prominence in international climate negotiations as developed countries pledge large sums of money to foster adaptation efforts in developing countries. Tools that provide accurate and up-to-date spatial information that can be easily used and vetted by local practitioners may provide effective and affordable ...
Jachowski David S - - 2012
Physiological stress responses allow individuals to adapt to changes in their status or surroundings, but chronic exposure to stressors could have detrimental effects. Increased stress hormone secretion leads to short-term escape behavior; however, no studies have assessed the potential of longer-term escape behavior, when individuals are in a chronic physiological ...
Ač Alexander - - 2012
We explored ability of reflectance vegetation indexes (VIs) related to chlorophyll fluorescence emission (R₆₈₆/R₆₃₀, R₇₄₀/R₈₀₀) and de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments (PRI, calculated as (R₅₃₁- R₅₇₀)/(R₅₃₁-R₅₇₀) to track changes in the CO₂ assimilation rate and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) in montane grassland and Norway spruce forest ecosystems, both at ...
Hummel Dennis - - 2012
Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting ...
Sauer Juergen - - 2012
The effectiveness of different forms of adaptive and adaptable automation was examined under low- and high-stress conditions, in the form of different levels of noise. Thirty-six participants were assigned to one of the three types of variable automation (adaptive event-based, adaptive performance-based and adaptable serving as a control condition). Participants ...
Oliveira A B - - 2012
In this study, we investigated how experienced and inexperienced subjects handle a box when it could be approached from any of its sides. Subjects moved a box (11 kg) either to a high (HS) or a low surface (LS). Wrist movements and grip force were synchronised and recorded, respectively, by ...
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