Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 957
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White J Wilson - - 2007
In coral reef fishes, density-dependent population regulation is commonly mediated via predation on juveniles that have recently settled from the plankton. All else being equal, strong density-dependent mortality should select against the formation of high-density aggregations, yet the juveniles of many reef fishes aggregate. In light of this apparent contradiction, ...
Liu Jianguo - - 2007
Humans have continuously interacted with natural systems, resulting in the formation and development of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS). Recent studies reveal the complexity of organizational, spatial, and temporal couplings of CHANS. These couplings have evolved from direct to more indirect interactions, from adjacent to more distant linkages, from ...
Strauss Sharon Y - - 2008
Rapid evolution in response to strong selection, much of which is human-induced, has been indisputably documented. In this perspective, we suggest that adaptation may influence the effect size of treatments in ecological field experiments and alter our predictions of future dynamics in ecological systems. Field experiments often impose very strong ...
Peischl Stephan - - 2008
A population-genetic analysis is performed of a two-locus two-allele model, in which the primary locus has a major effect on a quantitative trait that is under frequency-dependent disruptive selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The modifier locus determines the degree of dominance at the trait level. ...
Masuda Naoki - - 2008
Game dynamics in which three or more strategies are cyclically competitive, as represented by the rock-scissors-paper game, have attracted practical and theoretical interests. In evolutionary dynamics, cyclic competition results in oscillatory dynamics of densities of individual strategists. In finite-size populations, it is known that oscillations blow up until all but ...
Galloway Laura F - - 2007
Plants exhibit adaptive responses to light, but it is not known whether parental plants transmit environmental cues that elicit adaptive responses in offspring. We show that offspring life history (annual versus biennial) is influenced by the maternal light environment (understory versus light gap). This transgenerational plasticity is adaptive when offspring ...
Shindell Drew - - 2007
I investigate the potential for sudden climate change during the current century. This investigation takes into account evidence from the Earth's history, from climate models and our understanding of the physical processes governing climate shifts. Sudden alterations to climate forcing seem to be improbable, with sudden changes instead most likely ...
Einum Sigurd - - 2008
1. Spatial heterogeneity in population density is predicted to have important effects on population characteristics, such as competition intensity and carrying capacity. Patchy breeding distributions will tend to increase spatial heterogeneity in population density, whereas dispersal from breeding patches will tend to decrease it. The potential for dispersal to homogenize ...
Freitas Carla - - 2008
Intra-specific and intra-population variation in movement tactics have been observed in many species, sometimes in association with alternative foraging techniques or large-scale habitat selection. However, whether animals adjust their small-scale habitat selection according to their large-scale tactics has rarely been studied. This study identified two large-scale movement tactics in ringed ...
Greig Duncan - - 2008
The ability of rare types to invade populations is important for the maintenance of diversity and spread of beneficial variants. Spatial structure promotes strategies of interference competition by limiting diffusion of interference toxins and resources, often allowing interference competitors to invade when rare. Consistent with previous results in other microbial ...
Kingston John D - - 2007
Global climate change, linked to astronomical forcing factors, has been implicated in faunal evolutionary change in equatorial Africa, including the origin and diversification of hominin lineages. Empirical terrestrial data demonstrating that orbital forcing has a significant effect, or is detectable, at early hominin sites in equatorial continental interiors during the ...
Huitu Otso - - 2008
Small mammal populations often exhibit large-scale spatial synchrony, which is purportedly caused by stochastic weather-related environmental perturbations, predation or dispersal. To elucidate the relative synchronizing effects of environmental perturbations from those of dispersal movements of small mammalian prey or their predators, we investigated the spatial dynamics of Microtus vole populations ...
Garmendia Alfonso - - 2008
An iterative model is developed to evaluate the reproductive strategies of plants in environments with different frequencies and intensities of disturbance. Two extreme reproductive strategies are compared: the "homocarpic" strategy, in which all the seeds germinate the following spring, without dormancy, and the "heterocarpic" strategy, whereby, each year, half of ...
Brock Marcus T - - 2007
Floral traits are commonly thought to be more canalized than vegetative ones. In addition, floral and vegetative traits are hypothesized to be genetically decoupled, enabling vegetative structures to respond plastically to environmental heterogeneity, and to evolve in response to selection without disrupting the reproductive function of flowers. To test these ...
Showalter Mark R - - 2007
The dusty jovian ring system must be replenished continuously from embedded source bodies. The New Horizons spacecraft has performed a comprehensive search for kilometer-sized moons within the system, which might have revealed the larger members of this population. No new moons were found, however, indicating a sharp cutoff in the ...
Bittencourt J V M - - 2007
Paternity analysis based on eight microsatellite loci was used to investigate pollen and seed dispersal patterns of the dioecious wind-pollinated tree, Araucaria angustifolia. The study sites were a 5.4 ha isolated forest fragment and a small tree group situated 1.7 km away, located in Paranalpha State, Brazil. In the forest ...
Cohen Andrew S - - 2007
Extremely arid conditions in tropical Africa occurred in several discrete episodes between 135 and 90 ka, as demonstrated by lake core and seismic records from multiple basins [Scholz CA, Johnson TC, Cohen AS, King JW, Peck J, Overpeck JT, Talbot MR, Brown ET, Kalindekafe L, Amoako PYO, et al. (2007) ...
Reynolds Sally Christine - - 2007
This study examines geographic and temporal variation in three mammalian taxa co-occurring in eastern and southern Africa. The selected taxa-the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the plains zebra (Equus burchellii), and the impala (Aepyceros melampus)--are geographically widespread in modern times and are abundant in eastern and southern African Plio-Pleistocene fossil sites. ...
Maslin Mark A - - 2007
The late Cenozoic climate of Africa is a critical component for understanding human evolution. African climate is controlled by major tectonic changes, global climate transitions, and local variations in orbital forcing. We introduce the special African Paleoclimate Issue of the Journal of Human Evolution by providing a background for and ...
Jones Jason - - 2007
Synchrony in population fluctuations has been identified as an important component of population dynamics. In a previous study, we determined that local-scale (<15-km) spatial synchrony of bird populations in New England was correlated with synchronous fluctuations in lepidopteran larvae abundance and with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we address five ...
van Kleunen M - - 2007
Adaptive evolution of phenotypic plasticity requires that plastic genotypes have the highest global fitness. We studied selection by spatial heterogeneity of interspecific competition and flooding, and by temporal heterogeneity of flooding on morphological plasticity of 52 genotypes of the clonal shore plant Ranunculus reptans. Competition reduced clone size, rosette size, ...
Edeline Eric - - 2007
Selective harvest of large individuals should alter natural adaptive landscapes and drive evolution toward reduced somatic growth and increased reproductive investment. However, few studies have simultaneously considered the relative importance of artificial and natural selection in driving trait changes in wild populations. Using 50 years of individual-based data on Windermere ...
Poe Steven - - 2007
Independent evolutionary lineages often display similar characteristics in comparable environments. Three kinds of historical hypotheses could explain this convergence. The first is adaptive and evolutionary: nonrandom patterns may result from analogous evolutionary responses to shared conditions. The second explanation is exaptive and ecological: species may be filtered by their suitability ...
Hoffmann A A - - 2007
Attempts to explain size variation in Drosophila and other small insects often focus on the larval stage and association between development time and size, but patterns are also influenced by direct selection on size-related traits in the adults. Here we use multiple field releases of Drosophila melanogaster to test the ...
Purcell Jessica - - 2007
We used stochastic dynamic programming to investigate a spectacular migration strategy in the black brant Branta bernicla nigricans, a species of goose. Black brant migration is well suited for theoretical analysis since there are a number of existing strategies that easily can be compared. In early autumn, almost the entire ...
Bolnick Daniel I - - 2007
Migration tends to oppose the effects of divergent natural selection among populations. Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have demonstrated that this migration-selection balance constrains genetic divergence among populations. In contrast, relatively few studies have examined immigration's effects on fitness and natural selection within recipient populations. By constraining local adaptation, migration ...
Reynolds R Graham - - 2007
The origin of new species can be influenced by both deterministic and stochastic factors. Mate choice and natural selection may be important deterministic causes of speciation (as opposed to the essentially stochastic factors of geographic isolation and genetic drift). Theoretical models predict that speciation is more likely when mate choice ...
Rózsa Lajos - - 2008
Cleverness made our species the most successful primate on Earth, thus claiming that human intelligence is adaptive sounds to be a triviality. Not surprisingly, when establishing long-lasting pair-bonds, humans exhibit mate preferences in favour of clever partners, apparently to increase the chance that their offspring will be as clever as ...
Arnhem E - - 2008
We examined range use by great apes during logging activities and investigated associations between local variations in ape abundance and changes in the structure of the habitat or in the availability of fruits after disturbances. We carried out two annual censuses of western lowland gorilla (G. g. gorilla) and chimpanzee ...
Vincent G - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Morphogenetic plasticity may be as important as physiological plasticity in determining plant adaptability to changing environmental conditions. This study examines the importance of crown plasticity of trees in stands. METHODS: A three-dimensional forest simulator is used to explore the impact of crown shape plasticity on tree growth. ...
Calsbeek Ryan - - 2007
Natural selection is an important driver of microevolution. Yet, despite significant theoretical debate, we still have a poor understanding of how selection operates on interacting traits (i.e., morphology, performance, habitat use). Locomotor performance is often assumed to impact survival because of its key role in foraging, predator escape, and social ...
Bleay C - - 2007
We provide field-based experimental evidence for the frequency-dependent nature of the fitness of alternative mating strategies. We manipulated the frequency of genetically determined phenotypic strategies in six wild populations of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. The within-population pattern of mating was assessed using nine microsatellite loci to assign paternity. Within ...
Martin, Andrew Robert
Productivity in the Southern Ocean reflects both the spatial and temporal dynamics of the sea ice ecosystem, as well as the complex cycling of energy through the microbial community. Marine bacteria are thought to be integral to trophodynamics and the functioning of a microbial loop within the ice matrix, but ...
Biuw M - - 2007
Responses by marine top predators to environmental variability have previously been almost impossible to observe directly. By using animal-mounted instruments simultaneously recording movements, diving behavior, and in situ oceanographic properties, we studied the behavioral and physiological responses of southern elephant seals to spatial environmental variability throughout their circumpolar range. Improved ...
Tokarev, Yu. N.
The method of acoustic express-evaluation of the krill (Euphausia superba Dana) population spatial structure and determination of its accumulations biomass, with 80 kHz echosounding frequencies has been worked out during the 7-th Ukrainian Antarctic expedition. The method error does not exceed 10 %, which permits to recommend it for usage ...
Zhang Xuebin - - 2007
Human influence on climate has been detected in surface air temperature, sea level pressure, free atmospheric temperature, tropopause height and ocean heat content. Human-induced changes have not, however, previously been detected in precipitation at the global scale, partly because changes in precipitation in different regions cancel each other out and ...
Ross-Gillespie Adin - - 2007
Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory provides a leading explanation for the problem of cooperation. A general result from inclusive fitness theory is that, except under restrictive conditions, cooperation should not be subject to frequency-dependent selection. However, several recent studies in microbial systems have demonstrated that the relative fitness of cheaters, which ...
Hansen James - - 2007
Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient ...
Geymen Abdurrahman - - 2008
The effect of land cover change, from natural to anthropogenic, on physical geography conditions has been studied in Kayisdagi Mountain. Land degradation is the most important environmental issue involved in this study. Most forms of land degradation are natural processes accelerated by human activity. Land degradation is a human induced ...
Avetisov Vladik - - 2007
These short remarks about the origin of biological homochirality are focused on the questions related to the origin and selection of homochiral polymers and the broken mirror symmetry. They are important questions, but still equally unanswered, since the answers, I believe, closely relate to the evolutionary paradigm we accept. The ...
Mayor S J - - 2007
Detecting habitat selection depends on the spatial scale of analysis, but multi-scale studies have been limited by the use of a few, spatially variable, hierarchical levels. We developed spatially explicit approaches to quantify selection along a continuum of scales using spatial (coarse-graining) and geostatistical (variogram) pattern analyses at multiple levels ...
Munguia Pablo - - 2007
In metapopulations, the maintenance of local populations can depend on source-sink dynamics, where populations with positive growth rate seed populations with negative growth rate. The pattern and probability of successful dispersal among habitats can therefore be crucial in determining whether local populations will become rare or increase in abundance. We ...
Carlson Stephanie M - - 2007
The ability of natural selection to drive local adaptation has been appreciated ever since Darwin. Whether human impacts can impede the adaptive process has received less attention. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying natural selection and harvest selection acting on a freshwater fish (pike) over four decades. Across the time ...
Kleiter Gernot D - - 2007
The hypothesis that structural properties and not frequencies per se improve base-rate sensitivity is supported from the perspective of natural sampling. Natural sampling uses a special frequency format that makes base-rates redundant. Unfortunately, however, it does not allow us to empirically investigate human understanding of essential properties of uncertainty - ...
Weldeab Syee - - 2007
A detailed reconstruction of West African monsoon hydrology over the past 155,000 years suggests a close linkage to northern high-latitude climate oscillations. Ba/Ca ratio and oxygen isotope composition of planktonic foraminifera in a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Guinea, in the eastern equatorial Atlantic (EEA), reveal centennial-scale variations ...
Manolakos Elias - - 2007
Multi-metric indices of biological integrity (IBIs) are most frequently created by examining single biological metrics along gradients of environmental degradation, and then combining multiple metrics using "best professional judgment" to characterize and calibrate stressor-response relationships. We aim to provide an efficient data analysis and visualization tool to assess the simultaneous ...
Baskett Marissa L - - 2007
The fragmentation of an environment into developed and protected areas may influence selection pressure on dispersal by increasing the chance of moving from a favorable to an unfavorable habitat. We theoretically explore this possibility through two cases: (1) marine systems in which reduced predation and/or increased feeding drive the evolution ...
Maegawa, Miyuki
This study was designed to examine the ecological characteristics of two brown algae, Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia caba, and the marine forests formed by these species. These species are widely distributed along the Pacific coast of central Japan and are important algae both ecologically and economically. Wherever the water conditions ...
Ayala Francisco J - - 2007
Darwin's greatest contribution to science is that he completed the Copernican Revolution by drawing out for biology the notion of nature as a system of matter in motion governed by natural laws. With Darwin's discovery of natural selection, the origin and adaptations of organisms were brought into the realm of ...
Herrel Anthony - - 2007
The evolution of cranial design in lepidosaurians is characterized by a general trend toward the loss of cranial elements. The evolution of relatively lighter skulls in squamates appears tightly coupled to a reduction in relative mass of the jaw adductor, implying functional consequences for bite force and feeding behavior. Interestingly, ...
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