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Click Kevin A KA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. - - 2014
Herein, we report three novel single donor double acceptor dyes, BH2, 4, and 6, for use in p-type dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). BH4 yields one of the highest photocurrents, 7.4 mA cm(-2), to date. The high performance is achieved via a shorter synthetic route and no exotic materials or ...
Lin Po-Hung PH a Department of Industrial Engineering & Management Information , Huafan University , New Taipei City 223 , - - 2014
This study examined the effects of panel type, frequency of use and arrangement of phonetic symbols on operation time, usability, visual fatigue and workload in text entry performance. Three types of panel (solid, touch and mixed), three types of frequency of use (low, medium and high) and two types of ...
Ripamonti Caterina C Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, 11-43 Bath Street, London, EC1V 9EL, United - - 2014
Purpose: To characterize visual losses associated with genetic mutations in the RPE65 gene that cause defects in the retinal pigment epithelium-specific isomerase, RPE65. RPE65 is an important component of the retinoid cycle that restores 11-cis-retinal after its photoisomerization to its all-trans form. The defects investigated here cause Leber's congenital amaurosis ...
Yoshida Yayoi M YM Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, Tanaka-sekiden, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8203, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhyncus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All ...
Rasool Brwa B Centre for Plant Sciences, School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds Leeds, - - 2014
The interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways are complex and poorly understood but protein kinase/phosphatase cascades are potentially important components. Aphid fecundity and susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae infection were determined in the low light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and in mutant lines defective in either the protein phosphatase ...
Green David J - - 2013
Primate shoulder morphology has been linked with locomotor habits, oftentimes irrespective of phylogenetic heritage. Among hominoids, juvenile African apes are known to climb more frequently than adults, while orangutans and gibbons maintain an arboreal lifestyle throughout ontogeny. This study examined if these ontogenetic locomotor differences carry a morphological signal, which ...
Jeong Myoungho - - 2013
The growth of high-quality indium (In)-rich In X Ga1-X N alloys is technologically important for applications to attain highly efficient green light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, phase separation and composition modulation in In-rich In X Ga1-X N alloys are inevitable phenomena that degrade the crystal quality of In-rich In ...
Ding D-S - - 2012
We experimentally demonstrated that infrared light imprinted with orbital angular momentum (OAM) was linearly converted into visible light using four-wave mixing (FWM) via a ladder-type configuration in Rb85 atoms. Simultaneously, we theoretically simulated this linear conversion process, and the theoretical analysis was in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. A ...
Desmet L - - 2012
We report conversion efficiencies of experimental single and dual light guide luminescent solar concentrators. We have built several 5  cm×5  cm and 10⁢  cm×10  cm luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) demonstrators consisting of c-Si photovoltaic cells attached to luminescent light guides of Lumogen F Red 305 dye and perylene perinone dye. The highest overall efficiency ...
Zu Liansuo L Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616, - - 2012
Mechanistic proposals for the carbocation cascade reaction leading to the tricyclic sesquiterpene pentalenene are assessed in light of the results of isotopically sensitive branching experiments with the H309A mutant of pentalenene synthase. These experimental results support a mechanism for pentalenene formation involving a 7-protoilludyl cation whose intermediacy was first predicted ...
Zhou Xinxing - - 2012
We reveal a large spin angular splitting of light beam on reflection at the Brewster angle both theoretically and experimentally. A simple weak measurements system manifesting itself for the built-in post-selection technique is proposed to explore this angular splitting. Remarkably, the directions of the spin accumulations can be switched by ...
Genzel Daria - - 2012
The unique combination of flight and echolocation has opened the nocturnal air space as a rich ecological niche for bats. By analysing echoes of their sonar emissions, bats discriminate and recognize three-dimensional (3-D) objects. However, in contrast to vision, the 3-D information that can be gained by ensonifying an object ...
Vandali Andrew E - - 2012
The abilities to hear changes in pitch for sung vowels and understand speech using an experimental sound coding strategy (eTone) that enhanced coding of temporal fundamental frequency (F0) information were tested in six cochlear implant users, and compared with performance using their clinical (ACE) strategy. In addition, rate- and modulation ...
Ivanov Eugene N - - 2012
This work describes various techniques for generation of pure phase and amplitude-modulated signals at microwave frequencies. It presents experimental study of a microwave phase modulator with spurious amplitude modulation of the order of 1 ppm.
Grabtchak Serge - - 2012
We present a new approach to the analysis of radiance in turbid media. The approach combines data from spectral, angular and spatial domains in a form of spectro-angular maps. Mapping provides a unique way to visualize details of light distribution in turbid media and allows tracking changes with distance. Information ...
Hui Alexandra E - - 2012
Shifts in the psychophysical study of sound sensation reinforced the changing status of musical expertise in the nineteenth century. The Carl Stumpf-Wilhelm Wundt debate about tone-differentiation experimentation narrowed the conception of hearing. For Stumpf, "music consciousness" (Musikbewusstsein) granted the experimental subjects exceptional insight into sound sensation. This belief reflected a ...
Siderius Daniel W - - 2012
Protein-protein interactions in solution may be quantified by the osmotic second virial coefficient (OSVC), which can be measured by various experimental techniques including light scattering. Analysis of Rayleigh light scattering measurements from such experiments requires identification of a scattering volume and the thermodynamic constraints imposed on that volume, i.e., the ...
Huang Hu - - 2012
This paper presents a novel driving principle by means of the parasitic motion of the microgripper. Actuators based on this principle can realize the large displacement range and high speed easily. Also the structure can be simple. A parasitic motion principle linear actuator mainly consisting of two piezoelectric stacks, two ...
Detmold William - - 2012
We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark ...
Ouyang Yuyu - - 2012
Through a combination of theory, numerical simulation, and experiment, we investigate the motion of magnetic beads on the surface of a magnetic ratchet driven by multifrequency fields. Here, we focus on the influence of static forcing terms, which were not included in previous models, and we derive analytical models that ...
Yu Ziying - - 2012
Ultrasonic signals can be conducted and perceived by bones when a certain part of human skull is pressed. Experiments show that hearing-impaired people may be able to perceive ultrasound, distinguish different frequencies, or even recognize words after training. This finding is very promising for hearing-aid studies. In this paper, a ...
King Daniel - - 2012
Measurement of the response of single, unconstrained ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) is useful for facilitating experiment interpretation and theoretical comparison. An experimental setup has been developed to characterize the acoustic large amplitude response of microbubbles called double passive cavitation detection (PCD) which consists of three confocally aligned transducers. The symmetric ...
Kim Tae-Il - - 2012
A method for forming efficient, ultrathin GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and for their assembly onto foreign substances is reported. The LEDs have lateral dimensions ranging from ∼1 mm × 1 mm to ∼25 μm × 25 μm. Quantitative experimental and theoretical studies show the benefits of small device geometry on ...
Thyrrestrup Henri - - 2012
A statistical theory of the coupling between a quantum emitter and Anderson-localized cavity modes is presented based on a dyadic Green's function formalism. The probability of achieving the strong light-matter coupling regime is extracted for an experimentally realistic system composed of InAs quantum dots embedded in a disordered photonic crystal ...
Zhu Weiren - - 2012
Metamaterials attain their behavior due to resonant interactions among their subwavelength components and thus show specific designer features only in a very narrow frequency band. There is no simple way to dynamically increase the operating bandwidth of a narrowband metamaterial, but it may be possible to change its central frequency, ...
Ligabue-Braun Rodrigo - - 2012
The occurrence of venom in mammals has long been considered of minor importance, but recent fossil discoveries and advances in experimental techniques have cast new light into this subject. Mammalian venoms form a heterogeneous group having different compositions and modes of action and are present in three classes of mammals, ...
Kampel N S - - 2012
We investigate experimentally the effects of light assisted collisions on the coherence between momentum states in Bose-Einstein condensates. The onset of superradiant Rayleigh scattering serves as a sensitive monitor for matter-wave coherence. A subtle interplay of binary and collective effects leads to a profound asymmetry between the two sides of ...
Do Khanh-Van - - 2012
Experimental results on light bending in a non-homogenizable graded photonic crystal operating at optical wavelengths are presented in this paper. A square lattice silicon on insulator photonic crystal made of a two-dimensional chirp of the air-hole filling factor is exploited to produce the bending effect in a near bandgap frequency ...
Mansurova S - - 2012
Non-steady-state photoelectromotive force effect in the presence of periodical and linear phase shift was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. It was shown that superposition of oscillating and linear movements of the interference pattern leads to the appearance of the sharp peak in the frequency dependence of the photoelectromotive force output ...
Grabovičkić Dejan - - 2012
An LED backlight has been designed using the flow-line design method. This method allows a very efficient control of the light extraction. The light is confined inside the guide by total internal reflection, being extracted only by specially calculated surfaces: the ejectors. Backlight designs presented here have a total optical ...
Chen Hongsheng - - 2012
Invisibility cloaks have recently become a topic of considerable interest thanks to the theoretical works of transformation optics and conformal mapping. The design of the cloak involves extreme values of material properties and spatially dependent parameter tensors, which are very difficult to implement. The realization of an isolated invisibility cloak ...
Alonso-González P - - 2012
Light scattering at nanoparticles and molecules can be dramatically enhanced in the 'hot spots' of optical antennas, where the incident light is highly concentrated. Although this effect is widely applied in surface-enhanced optical sensing, spectroscopy and microscopy, the underlying electromagnetic mechanism of the signal enhancement is challenging to trace experimentally. ...
Ishikawa Makoto - - 2012
We have constructed an experimental system to measure a piconewton lateral force using dual cantilevers which cross with each other. The resolution of the lateral force is estimated to be 3.3 p ± 0.2 pN, which is comparable to forces due to thermal fluctuation. This experimental apparatus works so easily ...
Titulaer Mieke - - 2012
Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that ...
Kline David I - - 2012
Ocean acidification poses multiple challenges for coral reefs on molecular to ecological scales, yet previous experimental studies of the impact of projected CO₂ concentrations have mostly been done in aquarium systems with corals removed from their natural ecosystem and placed under artificial light and seawater conditions. The Coral-Proto Free Ocean ...
Teotonio Henrique - - 2012
Caenorhabditis elegans can reproduce exclusively by self-fertilization. Yet, males can be maintained in laboratory populations, a phenomenon that continues to puzzle biologists. In this study we evaluated the role of males in facilitating adaptation to novel environments. For this, we contrasted the evolution of a fitness component exclusive to outcrossing ...
Eastman Kyler M - - 2012
Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and non-human) have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough ...
Reiss Lina A J - - 2012
Because some users of a Hybrid short-electrode cochlear implant (CI) lose their low-frequency residual hearing after receiving the CI, we tested whether increasing the CI speech processor frequency allocation range to include lower frequencies improves speech perception in these individuals. A secondary goal was to see if pitch perception changed ...
Rodes Roberto - - 2011
We experimentally demonstrate successful performance of VCSEL-based WDM link supporting advanced 16-level carrierless amplitude/phase modulation up to 1.25 Gbps, over 26 km SSMF with spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz for application in high capacity PONs.
Chen Yu - - 2012
Compromised clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL), a component of the retinoid cycle, increases the susceptibility of mouse retina to acute light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice featuring defective atRAL clearance were used to examine the one or more underlying molecular mechanisms, because exposure to intense light causes severe photoreceptor degeneration in these ...
Machatkova M - - 2011
The present study was designed to characterize bovine oocytes with different meiotic competence and atresia levels in terms of their mitochondrial status. Oocyte subpopulations were recovered either from medium (MF) or small (SF) follicles and categorized as healthy, light-atretic and mid-atretic according to oocyte morphology. Mitochondrial activity, morphology and distribution, ...
Tormos Kathryn V - - 2011
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) dictate biological outcomes and are linked with myriad pathologies. However, measuring ROS in vivo remains a major obstacle in the field. Here, Albrecht et al. (2011) demonstrate the efficacy of redox-sensitive GFP in measuring glutathione redox state and H(2)O(2) levels of tissues in Drosophila.
Skizim Nicholas J - - 2012
Current biotechnological interest in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria stems from their robust respiration and capacity to produce hydrogen. Here we quantify both dark- and light-induced H(2) effluxes by Cyanothece sp. Miami BG 043511 and establish their respective origins. Dark, anoxic H(2) production occurs via hydrogenase utilizing reductant from glycolytic catabolism of carbohydrates ...
Le Prell C G - - 2011
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant clinical, social, and economic issue. The development of novel therapeutic agents to reduce NIHL will potentially benefit multiple very large noise-exposed populations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a significant contributor to noise-induced sensory cell death and NIHL, and several antioxidant strategies have ...
Gray John C - - 2011
Stromules are highly dynamic stroma-filled tubules extending from the surface of all plastid types in all multicellular plants examined to date. The stromule frequency (% plastids with stromules) has generally been regarded as characteristic of the cell and tissue type. However, the present study shows that various stress treatments, including ...
Dasanayake Nilushi L NL Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1105, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, - - 2011
Stress generation by myosin minifilaments is analyzed via simulation of their motion in a random actin network. The stresses are overwhelmingly contractile because minifilament equilibrium positions having contractile stress have lower energy than those for expansive stress. Force chains lead to unexpectedly large stresses.
Zhang Yongqiang - - 2011
In the present study, the role of phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) on regulating the nitrate reductase (NR) activity was tested in Arabidopsis seedlings. The NR activity in light-grown Col-0 seedlings was reduced by exogenous GA(3) (an active form of GAs), but enhanced by exogenous paclobutrazol (PAC, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor), suggesting ...
Kotyczka Christine - - 2011
Recent results from prospective cohort studies have shown that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk for diabetes mellitus type II or Alzheimer's disease. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, antioxidants in coffee might contribute to this risk ...
Wen Shuo-Yang - - 2011
Most Drosophila species sing species-specific pulse songs during their "precopulatory courtship." Three sibling species of the Drosophila montium species subgroup performed "copulatory courtship": males generated courtship songs by vibrating either wing only after mounting and during copulation. In these three species, strong sexual isolation was detected between D. ohnishii and ...
Farhat Golnaz - - 2011
A dynamic light scattering technique is implemented using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the change in intracellular motion as cells undergo apoptosis. Acute myeloid leukemia cells were treated with cisplatin and imaged at a frame rate of 166 Hz using a 1300 nm swept-source OCT system at various times ...
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