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Weerasinghe Lasantha K LK Division of Plant Sciences, Research School of Biology, Building 46, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, - - 2014
We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok ...
Singh Manjul M National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, - - 2014
Directional growth of roots is a complex process that is modulated by various environmental signals. This work shows that presence of glucose (Glc) in the medium also extensively modulated seedling root growth direction. Glc modulation of root growth direction was dramatically enhanced by simultaneous brassinosteroid (BR) application. Glc enhanced BR ...
Vandenbussche Filip F Laboratory of Functional Plant Biology, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, - - 2014
Plants reorient their growth towards light to optimize photosynthetic light capture, a process known as phototropism. Phototropins are the photoreceptors essential for phototropic growth towards blue and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light. Here we detail a phototropic response towards UV-B in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. We report that early differential growth is mediated ...
Kotula-Balak Malgorzata M Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Photoperiod is an environmental signal that controls physiology and behavior of all organisms. Bank voles, which are seasonal breeders, are stimulated to reproduce by the long photoperiod associated with spring and summer. To date, physiology of bank vole spermatozoa has not been explored, although they constitute an interesting model for ...
Wittenberg Gal G Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, - - 2014
A chloroplast protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was previously proposed to regulate the translation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast psbA mRNA, encoding the D1 protein, in response to light. Here we show that AtPDI6, a member of the 13 Arabidopsis thaliana PDI genes, plays a role in the ...
Tattini Massimiliano M The National Research Council of Italy, Department of Biology, Agriculture and Food Sciences; Institute for Plant Protection, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, - - 2014
The putative photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins continues to attract heated debate. Strikingly different experimental set-ups coupled with a poor knowledge of anthocyanin identity have likely contributed to such disparate opinions. Here, the photosynthetic responses to 30% or 100% solar irradiance were compared in two cultivars of basil, the green-leafed ...
Aan Anne A Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, 40 Lai St., 51005, Tartu, Estonia, - - 2014
Light- and nitrogen-use change was examined along productivity gradients in natural grasslands at Laelatu, western Estonia, both at community level and in most abundant species. Aboveground biomass (M) ranged from 341 to 503 g m(-2) in wet (W) and from 248 to 682 g m(-2) in dry (D) community. Aboveground leaf area ratio (aLAR) ...
Kim Seung-Won SW Biorobotics Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institute of Advanced Machinery and Design, Seoul National University, 151-744, Seoul, - - 2014
The Venus flytrap uses bistability, the structural characteristic of its leaf, to actuate the leaf's rapid closing motion for catching its prey. This paper presents a flytrap-inspired robot and novel actuation mechanism that exploits the structural characteristics of this structure and a developable surface. We focus on the concept of ...
Williams Mathew M School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, - - 2014
We investigated how radiation conditions within a tundra canopy were linked to canopy photosynthesis, and how this linkage explained photosynthetic sensitivity to sky conditions, that is total radiation and its diffuse fraction. We measured within canopy radiation at leaf scales and net CO2 exchanges at canopy scales, under varied total ...
Bellasio Chandra C Physiological Ecology Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, - - 2014
C4 plants have a biochemical carbon-concentrating mechanism that increases CO2 concentration around Rubisco in the bundle sheath. Under low light, the activity of the carbon-concentrating mechanism generally decreases, associated with an increase in leakiness (), the ratio of CO2 retrodiffusing from the bundle sheath relative to C4 carboxylation. This increase ...
Esteban R R Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao, - - 2014
The photosynthesis in evergreen trees living in Mediterranean ecosystems is subjected to multiple climatic stresses due to water shortage and high temperatures during the summer and to low temperatures during the winter. Mediterranean perennials deploy different photoprotective mechanisms to prevent damage to the photosynthetic system. Wax accumulation in leaves is ...
Kramer Russell D RD Department of Forestry and Wildland Resources, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst St Arcata, CA 95521, - - 2014
Redwood branches provide all the carbohydrates for the most carbon-heavy forests on Earth, and recent whole-tree measurements have quantified trunk growth rates associated with complete branch inventories. Providing all of a tree's photosynthetic capacity, branches represent an increasing proportion of total aboveground wood production as trees enlarge. To examine branch ...
Christensen Jared D JD Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, - - 2014
This retrospective study assessed whether dual-source high-pitch computed tomographic angiography (CTA) offered advantages over single-source standard-pitch techniques in the evaluation of the ascending aorta. Twenty patients who received both thoracic dual-source high-pitch and single-source standard-pitch CTAs within 1 year were assessed. Dual-source CTAs were performed; standard-pitch imaging used dose-modulated 120 kVp/150 mAs and ...
Schertzer E E UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires, CNRS UMR 7599, Paris, France, - - 2014
The role of fire in expanding the global distribution of savanna is well recognized. Empirical observations and modeling suggest that fire spread has a threshold response to fuel-layer continuity, which sets up a positive feedback that maintains savanna-forest bistability. However, modeling has so far failed to examine fire spread as ...
Brown H Carolyn Peach HC University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada, - - 2014
Tropical forests are vulnerable to climate-change representing a risk for indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. Mechanisms to conserve the forest, such as REDD+, could assist in the mitigation of climate change, reduce vulnerability, and enable people to adapt. Ninety-eight interviews were conducted in three countries containing the Congo Basin forest, ...
Mitchell V V EA 4308 Gametogenese et qualite du gamete, Lille, France; Institut de Biologie de la Reproduction-Spermiologie-CECOS, CHRU, Lille, - - 2014
Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a ...
Bringmann Torsten T Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Box 1048, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway and II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, DE-22761 Hamburg, - - 2014
Indirect searches for the cosmological dark matter have become ever more competitive during the past years. Here, we report the first full calculation of leading electroweak corrections to the annihilation rate of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. We find that these corrections can be huge, partially due to contributions that have ...
Klong-Klaew Tunwadee T Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, - - 2014
Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult ...
Oh Sookyung S Department of Energy-Plant Research Laboratory; Michigan State University; Plant Biology Laboratories; East Lansing, MI - - 2014
Abiotic stress and light induce anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that mesophyll-localized phytochromes regulate nitrogen-, phosphate- and cold-induced anthocyanin accumulation in shoots of Arabidopsis. Whereas ecotype-dependent differences result in distinct total levels of anthocyanin accumulation in response to light, cold, or nutrient-deficient treatments, phytochromes generally gate light- and/or ...
Coble Adam P AP School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, U.J. Noblet Building, 1400 Townsend Dr, Houghton, MI 49931, - - 2014
Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to ...
Iida Yoshiko - - 2014
Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian ...
Sun Wei W 1 1Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Key Laboratory of Vegetation - - 2014
Unequal absorption of photons between photosystems I and II, and between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells are likely to affect the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism in C4 plants. Under steady state conditions it is expected that the biochemical distribution of energy (ATP and NADPH) and photosynthetic metabolite concentrations ...
Haig Jordahna J Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870, - - 2014
The assessment of changes in tropical cyclone activity within the context of anthropogenically influenced climate change has been limited by the short temporal resolution of the instrumental tropical cyclone record (less than 50 years). Furthermore, controversy exists regarding the robustness of the observational record, especially before 1990. Here we show, ...
Li Hongwei H State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, - - 2014
Growth light intensities largely determines photosynthesis, biomass, and grain yield of cereal crops. To explore the genetic basis of light responses of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid (DH) population grown in low light ...
Zhang Kun-Xiao KX State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, - - 2014
Plants can be adapted to the changing environments through tropic responses, such as light and gravity. One of them is root negative phototropism, which is needed for root growth and nutrient absorption. Here, we show that the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) 1 is involved in asymmetric auxin distribution and ...
Zivcak Marek M Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak Agricultural University, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76, Nitra, Slovak Republic, - - 2014
In this study, we have compared photosynthetic performance of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under sun and shade light regimes during their entire growth period, under field conditions. Analyses were based on measurements of both slow and fast chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence kinetics, gas exchange, pigment composition; and of ...
Chao Qing Q Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing, 100093, - - 2014
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-the major decarboxylase in PEPCK-type C4 plants-is also present in appreciable amounts in the bundle sheath cells of NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 plants, such as maize (Zea mays), where it plays an apparent crucial role during photosynthesis (Wingler et al., in Plant Physiol 120(2):539-546, 1999; Furumoto et al., in ...
Brestic Marian M Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak Agricultural University, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
The chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activity was previously shown to be the limiting step of photorespiratory pathway. In our experiment, we examined the photosynthetic high-light responses of the GS2-mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with reduced GS activity, in comparison to wild type (WT). The biophysical methods based ...
Bolaños J M Gallardo JM Laboratory of Equine Reproduction and Equine Spermatology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Extremadura Cáceres, Cáceres, - - 2014
To investigate the role of the processed autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3B) protein in sperm survival in stallion semen processing during cooled storage, split ejaculates were diluted in two different extenders, KMT and INRA 96, and LC3B processing and sperm quality evaluated during incubation at 5°C for five days. ...
Stutz Samantha S SS School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 99164, - - 2014
Traditionally, it was believed that C4 photosynthesis required two types of chlorenchyma cells to concentrate CO2 within the leaf. However, several species have been identified that perform C4 photosynthesis using dimorphic chloroplasts within an individual cell. The goal of this research was to determine how growth under limited light affects ...
Simon Judy J Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Tree Physiology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 53/54, 79110 Freiburg, - - 2014
Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for ...
Fry Danny L DL Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of - - 2014
In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest ...
Zhang Shengrui S Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, , Ithaca, NY 14853-1801, - - 2014
Plants respond to environmental changes by acclimation that activates defence mechanisms and enhances the plant's resistance against a subsequent more severe stress. Chloroplasts play an important role as a sensor of environmental stress factors that interfere with the photosynthetic electron transport and enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ...
Wang Li-Feng LF Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Rubber Tree, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory Incubation Base for Cultivation and Physiology of Tropical Crops, Rubber Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, Hainan, - - 2014
Light is one of most important factors to plants because it is necessary for photosynthesis. In this study, physiological and gene expression analyses under different light intensities were performed in the seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) clone GT1. When light intensity increased from 20 to 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), ...
de Visser Pieter H B PH Department of Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University and Research Centre Wageningen, - - 2014
Reduction of energy use for assimilation lighting is one of the most urgent goals of current greenhouse horticulture in the Netherlands. In recent years numerous lighting systems have been tested in greenhouses, yet their efficiency has been very difficult to measure in practice. This simulation study evaluated a number of ...
Mazzella Maria A MA Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular, "Dr. Héctor Torres" (INGEBI-CONICET) Buenos Aires, - - 2014
In darkness, the dicot seedlings produce an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs) pathway, and ...
Li Yaqiong Y School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris) was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. The extremely slow growth rate of H. hongdechloris has hindered research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for ...
Meunier Jed - - 2014
Extensive changes in montane forest structure have occurred throughout the U.S. Southwest following Euro-American settlement. These changes are a product of confounding effects of disturbance, climate variability, species competition, and modern land use changes. Pronounced forest reproduction events in the Southwest have generally occurred in climatically wet periods but have ...
Saito Akinori A Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan. - - 2014
The application of combined nitrogen, especially nitrate, to soybean plants is known to strongly inhibit nodule formation, growth and nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we measured the effects of supplying 5 mM nitrate on the growth of nodules, primary root, and lateral roots under light at 28 °C or ...
Muneer Sowbiya S Department of Horticulture, College of Agricultural Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, 300 Young Bong-Dong Buk-Gu, Gwangju, 500-757, Korea. - - 2014
The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs) at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m-2 s-1 for blue LEDs) at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were ...
Consolaro Alberto - - 2014
A common question about root resorption is raised in orthodontic practice: What is more important, the intensity of force or its distribution along the root, periodontal and alveolar structures? Diffuse distribution of forces applied to periodontal tissues during tooth movement tends not to promote neither extensive areas of cell matrix ...
Orozco-Nunnelly Danielle A DA Molecular, Cell and Developmental Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Chicago, Illinois, United States of - - 2014
Pirins are cupin-fold proteins, implicated in apoptosis and cellular stress in eukaryotic organisms. Pirin1 (PRN1) plays a role in seed germination and transcription of a light- and ABA-regulated gene under specific conditions in the model plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Herein, we describe that PRN1 possesses previously unreported functions that can ...
Chen Anping A Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of - - 2014
The ability to down-regulate leaf maximum net photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and dark respiration rate (Rdark) in response to shading is thought to be an important adaptation of trees to the wide range of light environments that they are exposed to across space and time. A simple, general rule that accurately ...
Cope Kevin R KR Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Plants Soils and Climate, Utah State University, Logan, - - 2013
Photosynthesis (Pn) and photomorphogenesis (Pm) are affected by light quality, light intensity and photoperiod. Although blue light (BL) is necessary for normal development, it is less efficient in driving Pn than other wavelengths of photosynthetically active radiation. The effects of BL on Pm are highly species-dependent. Here we report the ...
Day Michael E ME School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, 5755 Nutting Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 - - 2013
Seedling success is determined by evolved strategies of intrinsic genetic programming and plasticity that are regulated by extrinsic pathways. We tested the relative importance of these mechanisms in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea Lin.), which share understory regeneration niches in northeastern North America. Although its ...
Hebets Eileen A EA School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, 348 Manter Hall, Lincoln, NE, 68588, USA, - - 2013
Arthropods are renowned for their navigational capabilities, with numerous examples known from insects and crustaceans. Early studies of amblypygids (Class Arachnida, Order Amblypygi) also suggest complex nocturnal navigation, despite their apparent lack of visual adaptations to the low-light conditions of a tropical understory. In a series of two studies, we ...
Kar R K RK Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal, - - 2013
Regulation of stomatal aperture is crucial in terrestrial plants for controlling water loss and gaseous exchange with environment. While much is known of signaling for stomatal opening induced by blue light and the role of hormones, little is known about the regulation of stomatal closing in darkness. The present study ...
Marín Dolores D Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, - - 2013
Experimental and theoretical flux models have been developed to reveal the influence of sun flecks and increasing CO2 concentrations on the energy and entropy balances of the leaf. The rapid and wide range of fluctuations in light intensity under field conditions were simulated in a climatic gas exchange chamber and ...
Zhou Peng P 1 Institute of Crop - - 2013
Arabidopsis seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ...
Furet Pierre-Maxime PM Université d'Angers, UMR 1345 Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences (Université d'Angers, Agrocampus-Ouest, INRA), SFR 4207 QUASAV, PRES L'UNAM, 2 Bd Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers, - - 2014
Apical control is defined as the inhibition of basal axillary bud outgrowth by an upper actively growing axillary axis, whose regulation is poorly understood yet differs markedly from the better-known apical dominance. We studied the regulation of apical control by environmental factors in decapitated Rosa hybrida in order to remove ...
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