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Usta O Berk - - 2008
Using simulation and theory, we demonstrate how nanoparticles can be harnessed to regulate the interaction between two initially stationary microcapsules on a surface and promote the self-propelled motion of these capsules along the substrate. The first microcapsule, the "signaling" capsule, encases nanoparticles, which diffuse from the interior of this carrier ...
Gueta R - - 2008
The exceptional performance of mammalian hearing is due to the cochlea's amplification of sound-induced mechanical stimuli. During acoustic stimulation, the vertical motion of the outer hair cells relative to the tectorial membrane (TM) is converted into the lateral motion of their stereocilia. The actual mode of this conversion, which represents ...
Wells Nathan P - - 2008
Two-color 3 pulse photon echo peak shift (2C-3PEPS) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (3PHT) demonstrate that spectral regions in the photoluminescence remain correlated with the excitation, despite large differences in energy (>0.5 eV). The observations are explained in terms of exciton-phonon coupling that is dominated by only two motions: one high frequency ...
Hobbie E K - - 2008
We use stroboscopic video microscopy to study the motion of a sheared fluid-gel interface. Mechanical noise plays a role analogous to temperature, but with a low-frequency breakdown of linear response consistent with an underlying instability. We relate the fast motion of the interface to the rheological properties of the gel, ...
Bergmann Jeroen H M - - 2008
After placement of a reverse shoulder endoprosthesis, range of motion is usually still compromised. To what extent this occurs from limitation in motion of the reverse endoprosthesis is, however, unclear. We measured the motion pattern of 16 patients (18 shoulders) during three active and passive range of motion tasks using ...
Eliazar Iddo - - 2008
We introduce and explore a model of an ensemble of agents searching, in parallel, a long circular strand for a target site. The agents performing the search combine local-scanning (conducted by a one-dimensional motion along the strand) and random relocations on the strand. The agent-ensemble search-durations are analyzed, their limiting ...
Arimitsu Sayuri - - 2008
PURPOSE: The kinematic evaluation of carpal motion, especially midcarpal motion, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been extremely difficult because of limited imaging techniques previously available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of radiocarpal and midcarpal motion in the flexion-extension plane in both stable and unstable rheumatoid ...
Yau Yi-Jan - - 2008
Many studies have investigated the performance of using nonkey-board input devices under static situations, but few have considered the effects of motion type on manipulating these input devices. In this study comparison of 12 mens' performance using four input devices (three trackballs: currently used, trackman wheel, and erectly held trackballs, ...
Moosavi A - - 2008
We investigate the dynamics of nanoscale droplets in the vicinity of chemical steps which separate parts of a substrate with different wettabilities. Due to long-ranged dispersion forces, nanodroplets positioned on one side of the step perceive the different character of the other side even at a finite distance from the ...
Yamaguchi Satoshi - - 2008
The artificial regulation of protein functions is essential for the realization of protein-based soft devices, because of their unique functions conducted within a nano-sized molecular space. We report that self-assembled nanomeshes comprising heat-responsive supramolecular hydrogel fibers can control the rotary motion of an enzyme-based biomotor (F(1)-ATPase) in an on/off manner ...
Birch B - - 2008
This paper presents the design of a novel, portable device for hand rehabilitation. The device provides for CPM (continuous passive motion) and CAM (continuous active motion) hand rehabilitation for patients recovering from damage such as flexor tendon repair and strokes. The device is capable of flexing/extending the MCP (metacarpophalangeal) and ...
Balk Stacy A - - 2008
Exploring how biological motion can make pedestrians more conspicuous to drivers at night, one-hundred-and-twenty participants were driven along an open-road route at night and pressed a button whenever they recognized that a pedestrian was present. A test pedestrian wearing black clothing alone or with 302 cm2 of retroreflective markings in ...
Shi Zhuanghua - - 2008
Motion from periphery to central vision (foveopetal motion) causes a greater flash-lag effect than motion in the opposite direction (foveofugal motion). In order to examine the factors that contribute to the motion direction-based anisotropic flash-lag effect, we investigated the mislocalization of the flash caused by motion and the mislocalization of ...
Gelin M F - - 2008
We demonstrate that a gas of classical particles trapped in an external asymmetric potential undergoes a quasiperiodic motion, if the temperature of its initial velocity distribution TNE differs from the equilibrium temperature Teq. The magnitude of the effect is determined by the value of TNE-Teq, and the direction of the ...
Kawashima Hirokazu - - 2008
The objective of this research is to develop a hand motion discrimination method that uses electromyogram (EMG) signals for controlling myoelectric prosthetic hands without the incorrect discriminations that elbow motions cause. We proposed a method that can discriminate hand motions using linear multiple regression models in the past. However, this ...
Morris James P - - 2008
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain activity in an observer who watched the hand and arm motions of an individual when that individual was, or was not, the cause of the motion. Subjects viewed a realistic animated 3D character who sat at a table containing four pistons. ...
Shang Allan B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximeter performance in the presence of motion varies among devices and manufacturers because of variations in hardware, software, testing, and calibration. Compounding these differences is a lack of uniform characterization of motion, and the consequential effects of motion upon the wide range of normal and abnormal human physiology. ...
Zamora-Sillero Elías - - 2007
We study the soliton ratchets in the damped sine-Gordon equation with periodic nonsinusoidal, additive, and parametric driving forces. By means of symmetry analysis of this system we show that the net motion of the kink is not possible if the frequencies of both forces satisfy a certain relationship. Using a ...
Harrison R G - - 2007
An instrument is described which carries three orthogonal geomagnetic field sensors on a standard meteorological balloon package, to sense rapid motion and position changes during ascent through the atmosphere. Because of the finite data bandwidth available over the UHF radio link, a burst sampling strategy is adopted. Bursts of 9 ...
Murphy T - - 2008
Standard armrests used in conjunction with joysticks of heavy mobile machinery have been proven to inadequately meet operator needs, resulting in excessive static loading of shoulder musculature. During joystick operation, the trajectory of the user's forearm is governed by the motion of the controller, which creates horizontal and vertical movement ...
De Carli Pablo - - 2007
PURPOSE: Evaluate the influence of the position of the lunate on postoperative wrist motion in four-corner arthrodesis. METHODS: Six upper cadaveric limbs were evaluated, comparing the total arc of motion in each wrist after simulating four-corner arthrodesis. The lunate was fixed in 3 different positions: neutral (0 degrees ), extended ...
Moritomo Hisao - - 2007
The dart-throwing motion (DTM) plane can be defined as a plane in which wrist functional oblique motion occurs, specifically from radial extension to ulnar flexion. Most activities of daily living are performed using a DTM. The DTM utilizes the midcarpal joint to a great extent. Scaphotrapezio-trapezoidal anatomy and kinematics may ...
Wigderowitz C A - - 2007
The Polhemus Fastrak short-range miniature transmitter and mini-receivers allow wrist motion to be measured continually in three dimensions, registering patterns of motion, which until now were difficult to quantify. The current study aimed to determine the applicability and repeatability of the Fastrak system when assessing wrist movements during a set ...
Patterson Rita M - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental control mechanisms, simulated active (tendon-driven) and passive (externally assisted), on carpal motion. METHODS: Kinematics of the carpal bones in five fresh-frozen cadaver upper extremities were studied using an optical motion analysis system. The wrist extensors and flexors ...
Howse Jonathan R - - 2007
The motion of an artificial microscale swimmer that uses a chemical reaction catalyzed on its own surface to achieve autonomous propulsion is fully characterized experimentally. It is shown that at short times it has a substantial component of directed motion, with a velocity that depends on the concentration of fuel ...
Jung Kwangmok - - 2007
The annelid provides a biological solution of effective locomotion adaptable to a large variety of unstructured environmental conditions. The undulated locomotion of the segmented body in the annelid is characterized by the combination of individual motion of the muscles distributed along the body, which has been of keen interest in ...
Gutiérrez Sergio - - 2007
Although clinical outcomes of the reverse shoulder replacement have noted improvements in pain and function, evaluation of these outcomes reveals concerns regarding progressive scapular notching and variability of functional improvements in range of motion. Therefore, an apparatus was designed to examine differences in abduction range of motion for seven configurations ...
Zammit Gerard V - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Previous two-dimensional kinematic studies that assessed the effect of foot orthoses on rearfoot motion have yielded mixed results regarding whether control of rearfoot motion is related to symptom relief. METHODS: We sought to determine the effect of foot orthoses on rearfoot motion and to correlate these changes with the ...
Rückner Gunnar - - 2007
Self-propelled motion of a chemically powered nanodimer is discussed. The nanodimer comprises two linked spheres, one of which has equal interactions with A and B solvent species but catalyzes the reaction A-->B. The other sphere is not chemically active but interacts differently with the two species. The nonequilibrium concentration gradient ...
Heinrich Sven P - - 2007
Motion visual evoked potentials (motion VEPs) have been used since the late 1960s to investigate the properties of human visual motion processing, and continue to be a popular tool with a possible future in clinical diagnosis. This review first provides a synopsis of the characteristics of motion VEPs and then ...
Page Don N - - 2007
We explicitly exhibit n-1=[D/2]-1 constants of motion for geodesics in the general D-dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS rotating black hole spacetime, arising from contractions of even powers of the 2-form obtained by contracting the geodesic velocity with the dual of the contraction of the velocity with the (D-2)-dimensional Killing-Yano tensor. These constants of ...
Karavitaki K Domenica - - 2007
The outer hair cell (OHC) of the mammalian inner ear exhibits an unusual form of somatic motility that can follow membrane-potential changes at acoustic frequencies. The cellular forces that produce this motility are believed to amplify the motion of the cochlear partition, thereby playing a key role in increasing hearing ...
Mendelsohn Abie H - - 2007
The clinical diagnosis of superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNp) is infrequently made, because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentations and laryngoscopic findings. Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) can provide the definitive diagnosis of this abnormality. With increasing use of LEMG in clinical practice, this condition is now more frequently appreciated by otolaryngologists. ...
Blankenhorn Brad D - - 2007
PURPOSE: Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a clinically useful motion-sparing procedure for the treatment of certain degenerative conditions of the wrist. Clinical outcome studies after PRC have shown that wrist flexion-extension averages approximately 60% of that of the contralateral wrist. The purpose of this study was to determine how the ...
Lee George R - - 2006
PURPOSE: To describe a new ictal sign in temporal lobe seizures-rhythmic ictal nonclonic hand (RINCH) motions and to determine its lateralizing significance and other ictal manifestations associated with it. METHODS: We identified 15 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who demonstrated RINCH motions and reviewed video-EEG recordings of all their seizures. ...
Jones-Smith Katherine - - 2006
We investigate the contentions that Jackson Pollock's drip paintings are fractals produced by the artist's Lévy distributed motion and that fractal analysis may be used to authenticate works of uncertain provenance. We find that the paintings exhibit fractal characteristics over too small a range to be usefully considered as fractal; ...
Thiele Uwe - - 2006
Pinning and depinning of driven drops on heterogeneous substrates is studied as a function of the driving and heterogeneity amplitude. Two types of heterogeneity are considered: a "hydrophobic" defect that blocks the drop in front and a "hydrophilic" one that holds it at the back. Two different types of depinning ...
Nagai Ken - - 2007
We describe here our recent work on spontaneous regular motion of liquid droplet powered by the chemical Marangoni effect under spatially symmetric conditions. It is shown that a spontaneously crawling oil droplet on a glass substrate with a nonequilibrium chemical condition of cationic surfactant exhibits regular rhythmic motion in a ...
Kishida Shunji - - 2006
To analyze the kinesis and morphology of the acetabular labrum (AL) noninvasively, we applied 4-dimensional arthrography with motion-gated multislice computed tomography and compared the results with arthroscopy and Harris hip score (HHS) in 49 symptomatic patients who performed reciprocating hip flexion-extension as we carried out mimic retrospective electrocardiogram-gating acquisition. The ...
Davies J J - - 2006
We report a remarkable enhancement of the magnetic moments of excitons as a result of their motion. This surprising result, which we have observed in magneto-optical studies of three distinct zinc-blende semiconductors, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnSe, becomes significant as the kinetic energy of the exciton becomes comparable with its Rydberg ...
Gardner Michael J - - 2006
The motion of the eight carpal bones is extremely complex, and their accurate measurement has been hampered by their multiplanar rotations and translations, the irregularity of their shape, and the small magnitudes of movements. However, an accurate three-dimensional understanding of carpal motion is critical for academic and clinical purposes, and ...
Ergenc Ali Fuat - - 2006
A novel noncontact sensor is developed to monitor the displacements of a drawn glass pipette tip. These pipettes are commonly used in various cellular-injection applications, from in vitro fertilization to cloning. The physics of the underlying cellular-piercing process, however, is quite complex and presently not fully understood primarily due to ...
Hannon J B - - 2006
We have used low-energy electron microscopy to measure step motion on Si(111) and Si(001) near dislocations during growth and sublimation. Steps on Si(111) exhibit the classic rotating Archimedean spiral motion, as predicted by Burton, Cabrera, and Frank. Steps on Si(001), however, move in a strikingly different manner. The strain-relieving anomalous ...
Krane Michael H - - 2006
This paper ranks the importance of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in glottal flow. Particular emphasis is given to separation point motion, acceleration of glottal airflow by vocal fold motion, and viscous blockage. How nondimensional parameters such as the Reynolds, Strouhal, and Womersley numbers help in this ranking is also addressed. An ...
Paxton Walter F - - 2006
Research into the autonomous motion of artificial nano- and microscale objects provides basic principles to explore possible applications, such as self-assembly of superstructures, roving sensors, and drug delivery. Although the systems described have unique propulsion mechanisms, motility in each case is made possible by the conversion of locally available chemical ...
Klapp Iftach - - 2006
When motion blur is considered, the optics point spread function (PSF) is conventionally assumed to be fixed, and therefore cascading of the motion optical transfer function (OTF) with the optics OTF is allowed. However, in angular motion conditions, the image is distorted by space-variant effects of wavefront aberrations, defocus, and ...
Goff L M - - 2006
Sacroiliac disease (SID) is an important cause of loss of performance in horses, yet little is known about the biomechanics of movement of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ). (a) To document the presence of equine SIJ motion by measuring the change in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the dorsal portion of the ...
Gonzalez David - - 2007
Computer-assisted analysis of wrist movement has recently emerged as an objective laparoscopic performance evaluation method. The first purpose of this study was to assess the differences in motion characteristics between the tip of the instrument and the wrist. The second purpose was to describe the control strategies used to move ...
Shirai Yasuhiro - - 2006
Design, syntheses, and testing of new, fullerene-wheeled single molecular nanomachines, namely, nanocars and nanotrucks, are presented. These nanovehicles are composed of three basic components that include spherical fullerene wheels, freely rotating alkynyl axles, and a molecular chassis. The use of spherical wheels based on C60 and freely rotating axles based ...
Yu Lian - - 2006
Noise degrades the accuracy of sonar systems. We demonstrate a practical method for increasing the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by fusing time delay information from a burst of multiple sonar pings. This approach can be useful when there is no relative motion between the sonar and the target during the ...
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