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Takaki Yasuhiro - - 2014
Horizontally scanning holography using a spatial light modulator based on microelectromechanical system, which we previously proposed for enlarging both the screen size and the viewing zone, utilized a screen scanning system with elementary holograms being scanned horizontally on the screen. In this study, to enlarge the screen size and the ...
Bakker Jaco J Animal Science Department, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, the - - 2014
The vocal repertoire in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) has been assumed to consist not only of vocalizations audible to humans but also of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). The use of USVs to socially indicate distress has not been evaluated in this species, however. The authors analyzed the ultrasonic vocal repertoire of ...
Callahan Benjamin J BJ Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University. - - 2014
Many species engage in adaptive niche construction: modification of the local environment that increases the modifying organism's competitive fitness. Adaptive niche construction provides an alternative pathway to higher fitness, shaping the environment rather than conforming to it. Yet, experimental evidence for the evolutionary emergence of adaptive niche construction is lacking, ...
Casaril Aline Etelvina - - 2014
Environmental changes caused by urbanization can cause alterations in the ecology and behavior of sandflies and in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Geotechnological tools allow the analysis and recognition of spatiotemporal patterns by monitoring and mapping risk areas of this vector-borne disease. This study aims to describe the sandfly fauna in ...
Cvijanović Milena M Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", University of Belgrade, 11060, Belgrade, - - 2014
Comparative studies of ontogenies of closely related species provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for morphological diversification. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigated the ontogenetic dynamics of postlarval skull shape and disparity in three closely related crested newt species. The skull shapes of juveniles just after metamorphosis (hereafter metamorphs) and adult ...
Feng Yanhao Y Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10, D-78464 Konstanz, Germany - - 2014
Recent studies have suggested that responses to shading gradients may play an important role in establishment success of exotic plants, but hitherto few studies have tested this. Therefore, a common-garden experiment was conducted using multiple Asian woody plant species that were introduced to Europe >100 years ago in order to ...
Qadri Muhammad A J - - 2014
Birds behave as if they quickly and accurately perceive an object-filled visual world. Beyond the extensive research with pigeons, however, there is a large and important gap in our knowledge about the mechanisms of object perception and recognition in other avian visual systems. The pattern of shading reflected from the ...
Rice Lisa M LM Department of Biology, Brandeis University , Waltham, MA , - - 2014
Abstract The present study describes a rapid, universal, easy-to-use, closed-tube, non-sequencing method that should also be able to uniquely identify almost any animal species on earth. The approach, called Virtual Barcoding, is illustrated using five species of nematodes from three genera. Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE) PCR was used to amplify a portion ...
Kamiyama Chiho C Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan; Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8562, - - 2014
Species niches are expected to differ between different functional groups and between species with different functional traits. However, it is still unclear how functional traits contribute to niche separation between species coexisting in a community and between sites along environmental gradients. We studied seasonal changes in light partitioning among coexisting ...
Roiloa Sergio R SR Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3001-455 - - 2014
• Premise of the study: Clonality has been proposed as an important mechanism favoring plant invasions, but few studies have been conducted to determine the role of clonal traits on successful invaders. An interesting trait associated with clonality is the capacity for division of labor. Division of labor requires a ...
How Martin J MJ University of Bristol, - - 2014
The polarization of light provides information that is used by many animals for a number of different visually guided behaviours. Several marine species, such as stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs, communicate using visual signals that contain polarized information, content that is often part of a more complex multi-dimensional visual signal. ...
Aguilera Moisés A MA Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile. Electronic address: - - 2014
Strong differences have been observed between the assemblages on artificial reefs and on natural hard-bottom habitats worldwide, but little is known about the mechanisms that cause contrasting biodiversity patterns. We examined the influence of spatial attributes in relation to both biogenic and topographic microhabitats, in the distribution and composition of ...
Schmitz Anke A Institute of Zoology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Bonn, - - 2014
We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). ...
Koskella Britt B BioSciences, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Tremough, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, United - - 2014
Abstract The study of parasite local adaptation to host populations offers important insight into the spatial scale of host-parasite interactions. For parasites adapting to local hosts, the process is continually driven by change in the host population, in response to either the parasite or alternative selection pressures. In the case ...
Fernández María Del Pilar MD Laboratory of Eco-Epidemiology, Department of Ecology, Genetics and Evolution, Universidad de Buenos Aires-IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires, - - 2014
We assessed the diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU) in Triatoma infestans populations and its association with local vector-borne transmission levels at various geographic scales. At a local scale, we found high predominance (92.4%) of TcVI over TcV in 68 microscope-positive T. infestans collected in rural ...
Berg Soto Alvaro A School of Earth and Environmental Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, - - 2014
Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations ...
Stanley Jenni A JA a Leigh Marine Laboratory, Institute of Marine Science , University of Auckland , Auckland , New - - 2014
Globally billions of dollars are spent each year on attempting to reduce marine biofouling on commercial vessels, largely because it results in higher fuel costs due to increased hydrodynamic drag. Biofouling has been long assumed to be primarily due to the availability of vacant space on the surface of the ...
Zhang Chunhui C State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, China; Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai, 810008, - - 2014
Within a community, species may germinate at different times so as to mitigate competition and to take advantage of different aspects of the seasonal environment (temporal niche differentiation). We illustrated a hypothesis of the combined effects of abiotic and biotic competitive factors on germination timing and the subsequent upscale effects ...
Parra-Tabla V V Departamento de Ecología Tropical, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, - - 2014
Although it is known that floral dimorphism contributes to the maintenance of mixed breeding systems, the consequences of producing progeny of a contrasting genetic background and seeds with differential resource allocation has been practically ignored regarding establishment of belowground organisms-plant interactions. This article evaluates the combined effect of floral dimorphism ...
Banik Bhabatosh B Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. - - 2014
Oxovanadium(iv) complexes [VO(R-tpy)(cur)](ClO4) (, ) of curcumin (Hcur) and terpyridine ligands (R-tpy) where R is phenyl (phtpy in ) or p-triphenylphosphonium methylphenyl bromide (C6H4CH2PPh3Br) (TPP-phtpy in ) were prepared and characterized and their DNA photocleavage activity, photocytotoxicity and cellular localization in cancer cells (HeLa and MCF-7) were studied. Acetylacetonate (acac) ...
Salmi Roberta R Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, - - 2014
The use of loud vocal signals to reduce distance among separated social partners is well documented in many species; however, the underlying mechanisms by which the reduction of spacing occurs and how they differ across species remain unclear. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) offer an opportunity to investigate these issues because ...
Prabhakaran Priya M PM Behavioural Neurogenetics Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, PB # 6436, Jakkur Post, Bangalore, 560064, - - 2014
Recent studies under semi-natural conditions have revealed various unique features of activity/rest rhythms in Drosophilids that differ from those under standard laboratory conditions. An additional afternoon peak (A-peak) has been reported for Drosophila melanogaster and another species D. malerkotliana while D. ananassae exhibited mostly unimodal diurnal activity. To tease apart ...
Nunes Mario Débora Alves DA Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - - 2014
Photodynamic therapy has been applied successfully against cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses. We applied methylene blue as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (InGaAlP) against Sporothrix schenckii complex species in an in vitro assay. The viability of the conidia was determined by counting colony-forming units. Methylene blue in conjunction with ...
Galis Frietson F Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333 CR, Leiden, The Netherlands; - - 2014
The mammalian vertebral column is highly variable, reflecting adaptations to a wide range of lifestyles, from burrowing in moles to flying in bats. However, in many taxa, the number of trunk vertebrae is surprisingly constant. We argue that this constancy results from strong selection against initial changes of these numbers ...
Titi A A PADESCA Laboratory, Veterinary Science Institute, University of Constantine 1, 25100, El Khroub, - - 2014
Laboratory investigations on Galba truncatula experimentally infected with Calicophoron daubneyi were carried out to study the influence of natural light and sky nebulosity on cercarial emergence in snails subjected every week outdoors to a thermal shock (a mean of 12 °C for 3 h) during the patent period. The same study was ...
Matsunaga Ryusuke R Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. matsunaga@thz.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp - - 2014
Superconductors host collective modes that can be manipulated with light. We show that strong terahertz light field can induce oscillations of the superconducting order parameter in NbN with twice the frequency of the terahertz field. The result can be captured as a collective precession of Anderson's pseudospins in ac driving ...
Doering Jennifer A - - 2014
The poikilohydric nature of lichens enables them to survive repeated episodes of desiccation by utilizing water when it becomes available. During rehydration, RNA-degrading endonucleases may be released, reducing RNA quantity and quality. Re-generation of a steady-state condition where RNA quantity and quality no longer fluctuate establishes a framework for development ...
Fridland Valerie V Department of English, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada - - 2014
Spectral differences among varieties of American English have been widely studied, typically recognizing three major regionally diagnostic vowel shift patterns [Labov, Ash, and Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change (De Gruyter, Berlin)]. Durational variability across dialects, on the other hand, has received relatively ...
Kurita Kazuki K Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, - - 2014
A scincid lizard of the genus Plestiodon from Kuchinoshima Island in the Tokara Group of the Northern Ryukyus, Japan, has proved to be genetically and morphologically differentiated from any previously recognized species in the genus. We thus describe this island population as a new species, Plestiodon kuchinoshimensis. The new species ...
Zhang Zhi-Gui ZG Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, - - 2014
In the present study, postnatal ontogenetic size and shape changes in the cranium of two lagomorph species, the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and woolly hare (Lepus oiostolus), were investigated by geometric morphometrics. The ontogenetic size and shape changes of their cranium exhibited different growth patterns in response to similar environmental ...
Ding Guo-Hua GH College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui Zhejiang 323000, China. - - 2014
Though light conditions are known to affect the development and anti-predation strategies of several aquatic species, relatively little is known about how different species react to light, or how light can affect these species during different points in their life-cycle. In this study, we used four sympatric anuran tadpoles (Bufo ...
Starnberger Iris I Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria, - - 2014
Undeniably, acoustic signals are the predominant mode of communication in frogs and toads. Acoustically active species are found throughout the vast diversity of anuran families. However, additional or alternative signal modalities have gained increasing attention. In several anurans, seismic, visual and chemical communications have convergently evolved due to ecological constraints ...
Claycomb Julie M JM Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Reporting in a recent study in Cell, Xiol and colleagues (2014) identify the conserved DEAD box helicase Vasa as a platform for secondary Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis in the insect nuage. This study represents a substantial breakthrough in understanding the mechanism and location of piRNA amplification by the "ping-pong" cycle.
Kanno Nanako N Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan - - 2014
Survivability under carbon-starvation conditions was investigated in four species of purple phototrophic bacteria: Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum rubrum, and Rubrivivax gelatinosus. All these test organisms survived longer in the light than in the dark. ATP levels in the cultures were maintained in the light, which indicated that survivability was ...
Cooper Kimberly L KL 1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. - - 2014
A reduction in the number of digits has evolved many times in tetrapods, particularly in cursorial mammals that travel over deserts and plains, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms have remained elusive. Here we show that digit loss can occur both during early limb patterning and at later post-patterning stages of ...
Baroncini Massimo M Dipartimento di Chimica "G. Giamician", Università di Bologna, via Selmi,2 40126 Bologna (Italy), Fax: - - 2014
Pseudorotaxanes are the simplest prototypes for the construction of molecular machines based on threaded species. Investigation on molecular motions in these model systems is a necessary action for an efficient design of working molecular machines and motors. Herein we report on photoactive pseudorotaxanes based on the interaction between bipyridinium and ...
Harrop Stephen J SJ School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, - - 2014
Observation of coherent oscillations in the 2D electronic spectra (2D ES) of photosynthetic proteins has led researchers to ask whether nontrivial quantum phenomena are biologically significant. Coherent oscillations have been reported for the soluble light-harvesting phycobiliprotein (PBP) antenna isolated from cryptophyte algae. To probe the link between spectral properties and ...
Hanzl Martin M Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Prague, Czech Republic Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zámek 1, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech - - 2014
• Premise of the study: Contact zones between polyploids and their diploid progenitors may provide important insights into the mechanisms of sympatric speciation and local adaptation. However, most published studies investigated secondary contact zones where the effects of genome duplication can be confounded by previous independent evolution of currently sympatric ...
Zhang Xuguang X Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; International Center for Marine Studies (SHOU-ICMS), Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Institute for Marine Biosystem and Neurosciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Recently, several rockfish species (genus Sebastes) were reported to be soniferous. To determine if an additional rockfish species produces sounds, passive acoustic recordings were analyzed from captive marbled rockfish (Sebasticus marmoratus Cuvier 1929) during the non-spawning season. Three distinct sounds were identified based on frequency features. The common characteristics among ...
Gallego V V Grupo de Acuicultura y Biodiversidad, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Animal, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain; Misaki Marine Biological Station, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Miura, - - 2014
The biodiversity of marine ecosystems is diverse and a high number of species coexist side by side. However, despite the fact that most of these species share a common fertilization strategy, a high variability in terms of the size, shape, and motion of spermatozoa can be found. In this study, ...
DeCoursey Patricia J PJ University of South - - 2014
Laboratory and field data relevant to the survival value of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) pacemaker are presented for 4 related North American squirrel species that evolved in habitats with markedly different environmental conditions. Laboratory studies used free-running activity rhythms under constant conditions as the signature of an endogenous pacemaker. Field ...
Färber Leonie - - 2014
Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the ...
Dunphy Brendan M - - 2014
The last published report of the mosquito species composition present in the state of Iowa was published in 1969 and included 43 species in 8 genera. Since that time, reassessment of specimens in the Iowa State Insect Collection and annual mosquito surveillance efforts have yielded 12 new species records, bringing ...
Almeida F F Laboratory of Helminth Parasites of Vertebrates, Oswaldo Cruz Institute,Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos,21045-900,Rio de - - 2014
Polycystic echinococcosis, caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the small-sized tapeworm, Echinococcus vogeli, is an emerging parasitic zoonosis of great public health concern in the humid tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Because morphological and morphometric characteristics of the metacestode are not well known, hydatid cysts from the ...
Provini Pauline P Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil; - - 2014
Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared to wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explore coordination between wings and legs in two ...
Parr W C H WC Surgical and Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
The hominoid foot is of particular interest to biological anthropologists, as changes in its anatomy through time reflect the adoption of terrestrial locomotion, particularly in species of Australopithecus and Homo. Understanding the osteological morphology associated with changes in whole foot function and the development of the plantar medial longitudinal foot ...
Jrijer Jamel J Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3038, Sfax, - - 2014
Meggittina numida n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Catenotaeniidae: Skrjabinotaeniinae) is described from the small intestine of the Shaw's jird Meriones shawi (Duvernoy) (Rodentia, Muridae, Gerbillinae) trapped in central Tunisia. The new species can be distinguished from the four other members of Meggittina Lynsdale, 1953 by the high number of proglottids (8-25 vs ...
Castellote Manuel M National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA 98115, USA North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, AK 99603, - - 2014
While hearing is the primary sensory modality for odontocetes, there are few data addressing variation within a natural population. This work describes the hearing ranges (4-150 kHz) and sensitivities of seven apparently healthy, wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a population health assessment project that captured and released belugas in ...
Wang RuiWu R State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China, - - 2014
Co-evolutionary theory assumes co-adapted characteristics are a positive response to counter those of another species, whereby co-evolved species reach an evolutionarily stable interaction through bilateral adaptation. However, evidence from the fig-fig wasp mutualistic system implies very different co-evolutionary selection mechanisms, due to the inherent conflict among interacted partners. Fig plants ...
Hartbauer Manfred M Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010, - - 2014
In the genus Panorpa (Insecta: Mecoptera), also known as scorpionflies, premating behavior includes repeated sequences of slow wing movements (waving, fanning, flagging) which are accompanied by rapid abdomen vibrations that generate substantial substrate-borne sound. It is still unknown whether wing patternsor vibratory signals contain information about species identity, sex and/orthe ...
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