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Koskella Britt B BioSciences, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Tremough, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, United - - 2014
Abstract The study of parasite local adaptation to host populations offers important insight into the spatial scale of host-parasite interactions. For parasites adapting to local hosts, the process is continually driven by change in the host population, in response to either the parasite or alternative selection pressures. In the case ...
Banik Bhabatosh B Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. - - 2014
Oxovanadium(iv) complexes [VO(R-tpy)(cur)](ClO4) (, ) of curcumin (Hcur) and terpyridine ligands (R-tpy) where R is phenyl (phtpy in ) or p-triphenylphosphonium methylphenyl bromide (C6H4CH2PPh3Br) (TPP-phtpy in ) were prepared and characterized and their DNA photocleavage activity, photocytotoxicity and cellular localization in cancer cells (HeLa and MCF-7) were studied. Acetylacetonate (acac) ...
Salmi Roberta R Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, - - 2014
The use of loud vocal signals to reduce distance among separated social partners is well documented in many species; however, the underlying mechanisms by which the reduction of spacing occurs and how they differ across species remain unclear. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) offer an opportunity to investigate these issues because ...
Prabhakaran Priya M PM Behavioural Neurogenetics Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, PB # 6436, Jakkur Post, Bangalore, 560064, - - 2014
Recent studies under semi-natural conditions have revealed various unique features of activity/rest rhythms in Drosophilids that differ from those under standard laboratory conditions. An additional afternoon peak (A-peak) has been reported for Drosophila melanogaster and another species D. malerkotliana while D. ananassae exhibited mostly unimodal diurnal activity. To tease apart ...
Nunes Mario Débora Alves DA Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - - 2014
Photodynamic therapy has been applied successfully against cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses. We applied methylene blue as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (InGaAlP) against Sporothrix schenckii complex species in an in vitro assay. The viability of the conidia was determined by counting colony-forming units. Methylene blue in conjunction with ...
Wrange Anna-Lisa - - 2014
Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species' capacities to acclimatise ...
Galis Frietson F Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333 CR, Leiden, The Netherlands; - - 2014
The mammalian vertebral column is highly variable, reflecting adaptations to a wide range of lifestyles, from burrowing in moles to flying in bats. However, in many taxa, the number of trunk vertebrae is surprisingly constant. We argue that this constancy results from strong selection against initial changes of these numbers ...
Titi A A PADESCA Laboratory, Veterinary Science Institute, University of Constantine 1, 25100, El Khroub, - - 2014
Laboratory investigations on Galba truncatula experimentally infected with Calicophoron daubneyi were carried out to study the influence of natural light and sky nebulosity on cercarial emergence in snails subjected every week outdoors to a thermal shock (a mean of 12 °C for 3 h) during the patent period. The same study was ...
Matsunaga Ryusuke R Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. matsunaga@thz.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp - - 2014
Superconductors host collective modes that can be manipulated with light. We show that strong terahertz light field can induce oscillations of the superconducting order parameter in NbN with twice the frequency of the terahertz field. The result can be captured as a collective precession of Anderson's pseudospins in ac driving ...
Doering Jennifer A - - 2014
The poikilohydric nature of lichens enables them to survive repeated episodes of desiccation by utilizing water when it becomes available. During rehydration, RNA-degrading endonucleases may be released, reducing RNA quantity and quality. Re-generation of a steady-state condition where RNA quantity and quality no longer fluctuate establishes a framework for development ...
Fridland Valerie V Department of English, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada - - 2014
Spectral differences among varieties of American English have been widely studied, typically recognizing three major regionally diagnostic vowel shift patterns [Labov, Ash, and Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change (De Gruyter, Berlin)]. Durational variability across dialects, on the other hand, has received relatively ...
Kurita Kazuki K Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, - - 2014
A scincid lizard of the genus Plestiodon from Kuchinoshima Island in the Tokara Group of the Northern Ryukyus, Japan, has proved to be genetically and morphologically differentiated from any previously recognized species in the genus. We thus describe this island population as a new species, Plestiodon kuchinoshimensis. The new species ...
Zhang Zhi-Gui ZG Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, - - 2014
In the present study, postnatal ontogenetic size and shape changes in the cranium of two lagomorph species, the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and woolly hare (Lepus oiostolus), were investigated by geometric morphometrics. The ontogenetic size and shape changes of their cranium exhibited different growth patterns in response to similar environmental ...
Ding Guo-Hua GH College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui Zhejiang 323000, China. - - 2014
Though light conditions are known to affect the development and anti-predation strategies of several aquatic species, relatively little is known about how different species react to light, or how light can affect these species during different points in their life-cycle. In this study, we used four sympatric anuran tadpoles (Bufo ...
Starnberger Iris I Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria, - - 2014
Undeniably, acoustic signals are the predominant mode of communication in frogs and toads. Acoustically active species are found throughout the vast diversity of anuran families. However, additional or alternative signal modalities have gained increasing attention. In several anurans, seismic, visual and chemical communications have convergently evolved due to ecological constraints ...
Claycomb Julie M JM Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Reporting in a recent study in Cell, Xiol and colleagues (2014) identify the conserved DEAD box helicase Vasa as a platform for secondary Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis in the insect nuage. This study represents a substantial breakthrough in understanding the mechanism and location of piRNA amplification by the "ping-pong" cycle.
Kanno Nanako N Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan - - 2014
Survivability under carbon-starvation conditions was investigated in four species of purple phototrophic bacteria: Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum rubrum, and Rubrivivax gelatinosus. All these test organisms survived longer in the light than in the dark. ATP levels in the cultures were maintained in the light, which indicated that survivability was ...
Cooper Kimberly L KL 1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. - - 2014
A reduction in the number of digits has evolved many times in tetrapods, particularly in cursorial mammals that travel over deserts and plains, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms have remained elusive. Here we show that digit loss can occur both during early limb patterning and at later post-patterning stages of ...
Baroncini Massimo M Dipartimento di Chimica "G. Giamician", Università di Bologna, via Selmi,2 40126 Bologna (Italy), Fax: - - 2014
Pseudorotaxanes are the simplest prototypes for the construction of molecular machines based on threaded species. Investigation on molecular motions in these model systems is a necessary action for an efficient design of working molecular machines and motors. Herein we report on photoactive pseudorotaxanes based on the interaction between bipyridinium and ...
Harrop Stephen J SJ School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, - - 2014
Observation of coherent oscillations in the 2D electronic spectra (2D ES) of photosynthetic proteins has led researchers to ask whether nontrivial quantum phenomena are biologically significant. Coherent oscillations have been reported for the soluble light-harvesting phycobiliprotein (PBP) antenna isolated from cryptophyte algae. To probe the link between spectral properties and ...
Hanzl Martin M Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Prague, Czech Republic Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zámek 1, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech - - 2014
• Premise of the study: Contact zones between polyploids and their diploid progenitors may provide important insights into the mechanisms of sympatric speciation and local adaptation. However, most published studies investigated secondary contact zones where the effects of genome duplication can be confounded by previous independent evolution of currently sympatric ...
Zhang Xuguang X Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; International Center for Marine Studies (SHOU-ICMS), Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Institute for Marine Biosystem and Neurosciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Recently, several rockfish species (genus Sebastes) were reported to be soniferous. To determine if an additional rockfish species produces sounds, passive acoustic recordings were analyzed from captive marbled rockfish (Sebasticus marmoratus Cuvier 1929) during the non-spawning season. Three distinct sounds were identified based on frequency features. The common characteristics among ...
Gallego V V Grupo de Acuicultura y Biodiversidad, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Animal, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain; Misaki Marine Biological Station, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Miura, - - 2014
The biodiversity of marine ecosystems is diverse and a high number of species coexist side by side. However, despite the fact that most of these species share a common fertilization strategy, a high variability in terms of the size, shape, and motion of spermatozoa can be found. In this study, ...
DeCoursey Patricia J PJ University of South - - 2014
Laboratory and field data relevant to the survival value of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) pacemaker are presented for 4 related North American squirrel species that evolved in habitats with markedly different environmental conditions. Laboratory studies used free-running activity rhythms under constant conditions as the signature of an endogenous pacemaker. Field ...
Färber Leonie - - 2014
Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the ...
Almeida F F Laboratory of Helminth Parasites of Vertebrates, Oswaldo Cruz Institute,Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos,21045-900,Rio de - - 2014
Polycystic echinococcosis, caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the small-sized tapeworm, Echinococcus vogeli, is an emerging parasitic zoonosis of great public health concern in the humid tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Because morphological and morphometric characteristics of the metacestode are not well known, hydatid cysts from the ...
Provini Pauline P Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil; - - 2014
Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared to wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explore coordination between wings and legs in two ...
Parr W C H WC Surgical and Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
The hominoid foot is of particular interest to biological anthropologists, as changes in its anatomy through time reflect the adoption of terrestrial locomotion, particularly in species of Australopithecus and Homo. Understanding the osteological morphology associated with changes in whole foot function and the development of the plantar medial longitudinal foot ...
Jrijer Jamel J Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3038, Sfax, - - 2014
Meggittina numida n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Catenotaeniidae: Skrjabinotaeniinae) is described from the small intestine of the Shaw's jird Meriones shawi (Duvernoy) (Rodentia, Muridae, Gerbillinae) trapped in central Tunisia. The new species can be distinguished from the four other members of Meggittina Lynsdale, 1953 by the high number of proglottids (8-25 vs ...
Castellote Manuel M National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA 98115, USA North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, AK 99603, - - 2014
While hearing is the primary sensory modality for odontocetes, there are few data addressing variation within a natural population. This work describes the hearing ranges (4-150 kHz) and sensitivities of seven apparently healthy, wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a population health assessment project that captured and released belugas in ...
Wang RuiWu R State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China, - - 2014
Co-evolutionary theory assumes co-adapted characteristics are a positive response to counter those of another species, whereby co-evolved species reach an evolutionarily stable interaction through bilateral adaptation. However, evidence from the fig-fig wasp mutualistic system implies very different co-evolutionary selection mechanisms, due to the inherent conflict among interacted partners. Fig plants ...
Hartbauer Manfred M Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010, - - 2014
In the genus Panorpa (Insecta: Mecoptera), also known as scorpionflies, premating behavior includes repeated sequences of slow wing movements (waving, fanning, flagging) which are accompanied by rapid abdomen vibrations that generate substantial substrate-borne sound. It is still unknown whether wing patternsor vibratory signals contain information about species identity, sex and/orthe ...
Constable Andrew J AJ Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania, 7050, Australia; Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Private Bag 80, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, - - 2014
Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea-ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of ...
Zhiyong Hu H Hubei University, - - 2014
Although many salticid spiders have been shown to have corneas that transmit ultraviolet light (UV). Whether the corneas of non-salticid spiders transmit UV has not been previously investigated. In this study, we determined the spectral corneal transmission properties of 38 species belonging to 13 non-salticid families. We used these data ...
Kéver Loïc L Université de Liège, - - 2014
Numerous studies have highlighted the diversity of fish inner ear morphology. However, the function of shape, size, and orientation of the different structures remains poorly understood. The saccule (otolithic endorgan) is considered as the principal hearing organ in fishes and it has been hypothesized that sagitta (saccular otolith) shape and ...
Bardarson H H Institute of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101, Reykjavík, - - 2014
Twenty-five Atlantic cod Gadus morhua otoliths were examined using eight shape measurements along with Fourier analysis of their outlines to test whether discrimination using otolith shape is affected by gluing broken otoliths. Small differences in seven of the eight shape measurements were found between unbroken otoliths and the same otoliths ...
Moen Daniel D Institut de Biologie (IBENS), École Normale Supérieure, Paris, - - 2014
What explains why some groups of organisms, like birds, are so species rich? And what explains their extraordinary ecological diversity, ranging from large, flightless birds to small migratory species that fly thousand of kilometers every year? These and similar questions have spurred great interest in adaptive radiation, the diversification of ...
Carter Richard T RT Antioch College, One Morgan Place, Yellow Springs, - - 2014
Echolocating bats have adaptations of the larynx such as hypertrophied intrinsic musculature and calcified or ossified cartilages to support sonar emission. We examined growth and development of the larynx relative to developing flight ability in Jamaican fruit bats to assess how changes in sonar production are coordinated with the onset ...
Miyazaki Junji J CSIRO Plant Industry, Locked Bag 59, Narrabri, NSW, 2390, - - 2014
The twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) is an important pest of cotton. This pest has a broad host range, but when changing between hosts an initial decline in fitness often occurs. This is usually followed by an increase in fitness after rapid adaptation to the new host, usually within ...
Maddin Hillary C HC Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
It is widely accepted that a relationship exists between inner ear morphology and functional aspects of an animal's biology, such as locomotor behaviour. Animals that engage in agile and spatially complex behaviours possess semicircular canals that morphologically maximise sensitivity to correspondingly complex physical stimuli. Stemming from the prediction that fossorial ...
Andres Brian B School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The pterosaurs were a diverse group of Mesozoic flying reptiles that underwent a body plan reorganization, adaptive radiation, and replacement of earlier forms midway through their long history, resulting in the origin of the Pterodactyloidea, a highly specialized clade containing the largest flying organisms. The sudden appearance and large suite ...
Chamero Beatriz B Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio, Depto. Paleontología de Vertebrados, Av. Fontana 140, Trelew, Patagonia, Argentina; Unidad de Paleontología. Dpto. de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, - - 2014
This study aims to interpret the axial patterning of the crocodylian neck, and to find a potential taxonomic signal that corresponds to vertebral position. Morphological variation in the cervico-thoracic vertebrae is compared in fifteen different crocodylian species using 3D geometric morphometric methods. Multivariate analysis indicated that the pattern of intracolumnar ...
How Martin J MJ University of Bristol, United - - 2014
The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such ...
Susoy V V Department of Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, - - 2014
Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the ...
Zhou Yi-Lin YL School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China. - - 2014
Anurans often have species-specific vocalizations. To quantify and compare the characteristics of anuran calls in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, we recorded the advertisement calls of eight species belonging to four families (Ranidae, Microhylidae, Megophryidae and Bufonidae) from June to September 2012 using Sony ICD-FX8 IC recorders. All recordings ...
Piazza S S Department of Neurology, Veterinary Hospital FREGIS, 43 Avenue Aristide Briand, Arcueil 94110, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) testing in pet ferrets in a clinical setting, and to describe a routine method and baseline data for normal hearing ferrets for future investigation of deafness in this species. Twenty-eight clinically normal client-owned ferrets were ...
Cho Yong Joo YJ Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, 126, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 448-701, - - 2014
High quantum efficiency close to 25% and long lifetime in green thermally activated delayed fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes are achieved using universal 3',5'-di(carbazol-9-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-dicarbonitrile host material.
Cutting James E JE Cornell University, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Using a sample of 24 movies I investigate narrative shifts in location, characters, and time frame that do and do not align with viewer segmentations of events (scenes and subscenes) in popular movies. Taken independently these dimensions create eight categories, seven of change and one of nonchange. Data show that ...
Crook Damon J - - 2014
The spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in three gypsy moth species from six different geographical regions (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij [Asian gypsy moth], Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky [Japanese gypsy moth], and Lymantria dispar dispar L. [North American gypsy moth]) was tested electrophysiologically in the wavelength region 300-700 nm. For ...
Becherucci Maria Eugenia ME 14 de julio 1425 PA (B7600GMI), Mar del Plata, Argentina. Electronic address: - - 2014
Nightlife activities represents an important source of urban litter; the latter often being left behind or abandoned in public places and streets. Mar del Plata is a very important city on the Atlantic coast of Argentina and is the main tourism destination in the South Atlantic region of South America. ...
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