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Saga Yumiko Y Mammalian Development Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan. - - 2012
Many of the morphogenetic processes that occur during development in the mouse are based on cyclic events with defined time intervals, as exemplified by somitogenesis (every 2 h), hair cycles (every 25 d), and spermatogenesis (every 35 d). Among these events, somitogenesis is the most dynamic morphogenetic mechanism showing clear ...
Sentandreu Maria - - 2012
Plants need to accurately adjust their development after germination in the underground darkness to ensure survival of the seedling, both in the dark and in the light upon reaching the soil surface. Recent studies have established that the photoreceptors phytochromes and the bHLH phytochrome interacting factors PIFs regulate seedling development ...
Sand Andrea A Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, 6-145 Jackson Hall, 321 Church St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2012
Photoreceptors carry out the first step in vision by capturing light and transducing it into electrical signals. Rod and cone photoreceptors efficiently translate photon capture into electrical signals by light activation of opsin-type photopigments. Until recently, the central dogma was that, for mammals, all phototransduction occurred in rods and cones. ...
Koyama Kazuya - - 2012
Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine ...
Roy Amitava - - 2012
Human rhinovirus (HRV) and other members of the enterovirus genus bind small-molecule antiviral compounds in a cavity buried within the viral capsid protein VP1. These compounds block the release of the viral protein VP4 and RNA from inside the capsid during the uncoating process. In addition, the antiviral compounds prevent ...
Minke Baruch - - 2012
Abstract: In invertebrate photoreceptors, the photopigment exhibits a long-lived and physiologically active photoproduct, called metarhodopsin (M). The long life of invertebrate M implies that under physiological conditions, M and the original pigment state rhodopsin, R, are in photoequilibrium. In many invertebrates, the absorption spectra of R and M states are ...
Giden Ibrahim H - - 2012
In this paper complete photonic bandgap (PBG) and iso-frequency contours (IFCs) of two-dimensional modified annular photonic crystals (MAPC) for four different configurations are numerically studied and calculated by applying plane wave expansion method. The effects of opto-geometric parameters of the designed unit-cell structures are clearly demonstrated in terms of opening ...
Christie John M - - 2012
Optogenetics is an emerging field that combines optical and genetic approaches to non-invasively interfere with cellular events with exquisite spatiotemporal control. Although it arose originally from neuroscience, optogenetics is widely applicable to the study of many different biological systems and the range of applications arising from this technology continues to ...
Lailvaux Simon P - - 2012
Sexual signals are considered costly to produce and maintain under the handicap paradigm, and the reliability of signals is in turn thought to be maintained by these costs. Although previous studies have investigated the costly nature of signal production, few have considered whether honesty might be maintained not by the ...
Schnell Bettina - - 2012
Wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the lobula plate (lobula plate tangential cells, LPTCs) of the fly have been studied for decades. However, it has never been conclusively shown which cells constitute their major presynaptic elements. LPTCs are supposed to be rendered directionally selective by integrating excitatory as well as inhibitory input ...
Zhang Baohua - - 2012
An extremely high-efficiency solution-processed white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) is successfully developed by simultaneously using an ideal dendritic host material and a novel efficient orange phosphorescent iridium complex. The optimized device exhibits forward-viewing efficiencies of 70.6 cd A(-1) , 26.0%, and 47.6 lm W(-1) at a luminance of 100 cd ...
Lai Kun-Yu - - 2012
Antireflective Si/oxide core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) were fabricated by galvanic etching and subsequent annealing process. The excellent light-harvesting characteristics of the core-shell NWAs, such as broadband working ranges, omnidirectionality, and polarization-insensitivity, ascribed to the smooth index transition from air to the substrates, have been demonstrated. By tuning core-shell volume ratios, ...
Engelund Anna - - 2012
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is regulated by the classical photoreceptors, rods and cones, and by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin. IpRGCs receive input from rods and cones and project to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), which is the primary visual center involved in PLR. ...
Wang Xiaoyue X Departments of Biological Chemistry and Neuroscience, Center for Sensory Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, - - 2012
In mammalian rods and cones, light activation of the visual pigments leads to release of the chromophore, which is then recycled through a multistep enzymatic pathway, referred to as the visual or retinoid cycle. In invertebrates such as Drosophila, a visual cycle was thought not to exist since the rhodopsins ...
Zayner Josiah P JP Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2012
The mechanism of light-triggered conformational change and signaling in light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains remains elusive in spite of extensive investigation and their use in optogenetic studies. The LOV2 domain of Avenasativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2), a member of the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) family, contains a flavin mononucleotide chromophore that forms a covalent bond ...
Hu Wen - - 2012
Appropriate termination of the phototransduction cascade is critical for photoreceptors to achieve high temporal resolution and to prevent excessive Ca(2+)-induced cell toxicity. Using a genetic screen to identify defective photoresponse mutants in Drosophila, we isolated and identified a novel Gα(q) mutant allele, which has defects in both activation and deactivation. ...
Soibam Benjamin - - 2012
Drosophila adults, when placed into a novel open-field arena, initially exhibit an elevated level of activity followed by a reduced stable level of spontaneous activity and spend a majority of time near the arena edge, executing motions along the walls. In order to determine the environmental features that are responsible ...
Woronowicz Kamil - - 2012
In order to obtain an improved understanding of the assembly of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus, we have conducted a proteomic analysis of pigment-protein complexes isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides undergoing acclimation to reduced incident light intensity. Photoheterotrophically growing cells were shifted from 1,100 to 100 W/m(2) and intracytoplasmic membrane ...
Egri Adám - - 2012
The characteristic striped appearance of zebras has provoked much speculation about its function and why the pattern has evolved, but experimental evidence is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that a zebra-striped horse model attracts far fewer horseflies (tabanids) than either homogeneous black, brown, grey or white equivalents. Such biting flies are ...
Mochiji Shota S Department of Biological Sciences; Graduate School of Science; The University of Tokyo; Tokyo, - - 2012
Most flagellated green algae swim toward or away from the light source, i.e., display positive or negative phototaxis. Usually, the sign of phototaxis, positive or negative, is variable depending on various factors, but the mechanism that controls it has been unclear. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an excellent model organism for studying ...
Lee L Andrew - - 2012
Click, click, and lights on: A new generation of biomaterials for use as cell-supporting scaffolds includes added features to mimic the natural temporal and spatial control of bioactive ligands. The reported system uses one cycle to add and remove biorelevant ligands, which is a step towards representing the dynamic progression ...
Peruani Fernando - - 2012
We characterize cell motion in experiments and show that the transition to collective motion in colonies of gliding bacterial cells confined to a monolayer appears through the organization of cells into larger moving clusters. Collective motion by nonequilibrium cluster formation is detected for a critical cell packing fraction around 17%. ...
Albarracin Rizalyn - - 2012
Glial cells play an important role in the maintenance of normal structure and function of the neural components of the central nervous system. The Müller cells are one of the macroglial elements in the retina and their wide-ranging roles are responsible for the protection and proper functioning of the photoreceptors. ...
Yao Po-Hung - - 2012
Efficiency of liquid crystal displays highly depends on the amount of polarized light emerging from the backlight module. In this paper, a backlight architecture using a nanoimprint wire grid polarizer for polarization recycling is proposed and studied, in which the extraction efficiency of polarized light is the major concern. The ...
Del Olmo-Aguado Susana - - 2012
Visible light (360-760nm) entering the eye impinges on the many ganglion cell mitochondria in the non-myelinated part of their axons. The same light also disrupts isolated mitochondrial function in vitro and kills cells in culture with the blue light component being particularly lethal while red light has little effect. Significantly, ...
Matsushita-Ishiodori Yuka - - 2012
Because RNA interference (RNAi) can be applied to any gene, this technique has been widely used for studying gene functions. In addition, many researchers are attempting to use RNAi technology in RNAi-based therapies. However, several challenging and controversial issues have arisen during the widespread application of RNAi including target gene ...
Sakai Kazumi K Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, - - 2012
Parietopsin is a nonvisual green light-sensitive opsin closely related to vertebrate visual opsins and was originally identified in lizard parietal eye photoreceptor cells. To obtain insight into the functional diversity of opsins, we investigated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy the molecular properties of parietopsin and its mutants exogenously expressed in cultured ...
Sheue Chiou-Rong - - 2012
Foliar variegation is recognized as arising from two major mechanisms: leaf structure and pigment-related variegation. Begonia has species with a variety of natural foliar variegation patterns, providing diverse examples of this phenomenon. The aims of this work are to elucidate the mechanisms underlying different foliar variegation patterns in Begonia and ...
Li Guangtao - - 2012
Multimeric AAA ATPases represent a structurally homologous yet functionally diverse family of proteins. The essential and highly abundant hexameric AAA ATPase p97 is perhaps the best studied AAA protein, playing an essential role in various important cellular activities. During ATP-hydrolysis process, p97 undergoes dramatic conformational changes, and these changes are ...
Sun Wenliang - - 2012
A simple, label-free method for the detection of thrombin has been developed based on the conformational transition of aptamer in the presence of the target by using a molecular light switch, Ru polypyridine complex, and quantum dots as novel fluorescence probes in aqueous solution.
Boyer John-Christopher - - 2012
In vivo upconversion: Photoresponsive dithienylethene ligands decorated onto lanthanide-doped, upconverting nanoparticles are used to modulate the amount of emission from the nanoparticles. The hybrid system can be toggled between 'bright' and 'dark' states by using two different types of light in living nematodes.
Chiou Tsyr-Huei - - 2012
Biological signals based on color patterns are well known, but some animals communicate by producing patterns of polarized light. Known biological polarizers are all based on physical interactions with light such as birefringence, differential reflection or scattering. We describe a novel biological polarizer in a marine crustacean based on linear ...
Kruk Jerzy - - 2012
The redox state of plastoquinone-pool in chloroplasts is crucial for driving many responses to variable environment, from short-term effects to those at the gene expression level. In the present studies, we showed for the first time that the plastoquinone-pool undergoes relatively fast oxidation during high light stress of low light-grown ...
Pandey Rakesh - - 2012
Purple bacteria derive energy from aerobic respiration or photosynthesis depending on the availability of oxygen and light. Under aerobic conditions, photosynthesis genes are specifically repressed by the PpsR protein. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides,the repressive action ofPpsRis antagonizedby the blue-light and redox-sensitive fiavoproteinAppA which sequestersPpsR under anaerobic conditions into transcriptionally inactive complexes. ...
Fleige Emanuel - - 2012
The use of polymeric nanocarriers to transport active compounds like small-molecular drugs, peptides, or genes found an increased attention throughout the different fields of natural sciences. Not only that these nanocarriers enhance the properties of already existing drugs in terms of solubility, bioavailability, and prolonged circulation times, furthermore they can ...
Shikata Hiromasa - - 2012
Plants monitor the light environment through informational photoreceptors that include phytochromes. In seedling de-etiolation, phytochrome B (phyB), which is the most important member of the phytochrome family, interacts with transcription factors to regulate gene expression and transduce light signals. In this study, we identified rrc1 (reduced red-light responses in cry1cry2 ...
Moriwaki Teppei - - 2012
Plant roots undergo tropic growth in response to environmental cues, and each tropic response is affected by several environmental stimuli. Even its importance, molecular regulation of hydrotropism has not been largely uncovered. Tropic responses including hydrotropism were impacted by other environmental signal. We found that hydrotropism was reduced in dark ...
Okano Kiichiro K Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, - - 2012
All-trans-retinal and its condensation-products can cause retinal degeneration in a light-dependent manner and contribute to the pathogenesis of human macular diseases such as Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration. Although these toxic retinoid by-products originate from rod and cone photoreceptor cells, the contribution of each cell type to light-induced retinal ...
Garnett Erik C - - 2012
Nanoscience provides many strategies to construct high-performance materials and devices, including solar cells, thermoelectrics, sensors, transistors, and transparent electrodes. Bottom-up fabrication facilitates large-scale chemical synthesis without the need for patterning and etching processes that waste material and create surface defects. However, assembly and contacting procedures still require further development. Here, ...
Wan Yinglang - - 2012
Under blue light (BL) illumination, Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow away from the light source, showing a negative phototropic response. However, the mechanism of root phototropism is still unclear. Using a noninvasive microelectrode system, we showed that the BL sensor phototropin1 (phot1), the signal transducer NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3), and the auxin ...
Naydov I A - - 2012
The dye H2DCF-DA, which forms the fluorescent molecule DCF in the reaction with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, was used to study light-induced H2O2 production in isolated intact chloroplasts and in protoplasts of mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis, pea, and maize. A technique to follow the kinetics of light-induced H2O2 production in the ...
Kami Chitose - - 2012
Phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2 in Arabidopsis thaliana) enable responses to directional light cues (e.g., positive phototropism in the hypocotyl). In Arabidopsis, phot1 is essential for phototropism in response to low light, a response that is also modulated by phytochrome A (phyA), representing a classical example of photoreceptor coaction. The ...
Szular Joanna - - 2012
Circadian clocks of most organisms are synchronized with the 24-hour solar day by the changes of light and dark. In Drosophila, both the visual photoreceptors in the compound eyes as well as the blue-light photoreceptor Cryptochrome expressed within the brain clock neurons contribute to this clock synchronization. A specialized photoreceptive ...
Durette-Desset M C - - 2012
The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda) are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and ...
Ueno Hironori - - 2012
Mucociliary clearance on the surface of the tracheal lumen is an important component of lung defense against dust mites and viruses. However, the axonemal structure that achieves effective ciliary motion, and the mechanisms by which discretely distributed ciliary cells generate directional flow are unknown. In this study, we examined individual ...
Rao K Venkata - - 2012
Light-harvesting hybrids have gained much importance as they are considered as potential mimics for photosynthetic systems. In this Concept article we introduce the design concepts involved in the building up of light-harvesting hybrids; these resemble the well-studied organic-based assemblies for energy transfer. We have structured this article into three parts ...
Nogales Juan - - 2012
Photosynthesis has recently gained considerable attention for its potential role in the development of renewable energy sources. Optimizing photosynthetic organisms for biomass or biofuel production will therefore require a systems understanding of photosynthetic processes. We reconstructed a high-quality genome-scale metabolic network for Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 that describes key photosynthetic processes ...
Dmitriev Andrey V - - 2012
Starburst amacrine cells (SACs) are an essential component of the mechanism that generates direction selectivity in the retina. SACs exhibit opposite polarity, directionally selective (DS) light responses, depolarizing to stimuli that move centrifugally away from the cell through the receptive field surround, but hyperpolarizing to stimuli that move centripetally towards ...
Coleman Mark N - - 2012
Mammals are unique in being the only group of amniotes that can hear sounds in the upper frequency range (>12 kHz), yet details about the evolutionary development of hearing patterns remain poorly understood. In this study, we used high resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate several functionally relevant auditory structures ...
van der Steen Jeroen B - - 2012
The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis can be activated by a wide range of signals, including low intensities of visible light. It is regulated by a dedicated σ factor via a complex signal transduction pathway that makes use of stressosomes: hetero-oligomeric complexes that include one or more of the ...
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