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Boga Ayper - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a low frequency electric field on the early embryonic development of frogs. The embryos of African clawed toads, Xenopus laevis, were exposed to a 20-μA electric current during the cleavage stages. The developmental processes of embryos during and after ...
Yu Hua - - 2012
A new type of bilayered photoanodes with cubic CeO(2) nanoparticles as mirror-like scattering thin layers was prepared via a screen-printing technique for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The light harvesting efficiency was significantly enhanced due to the mirror-like light scattering effect, resulting in noticeable ∼17.8% improvement of light-to-electric conversion efficiency.
Xuan Jun - - 2012
In the last few years, visible-light initiated organic transformations have attracted increasing attention. The development of visible-light-promoted photocatalytic reactions, which enable rapid and efficient synthesis of fine chemicals, is highly desirable from the viewpoint of cost, safety, availability, and environmental friendliness. In this Minireview, recent advances made in this fast ...
Kraus Johanna M - - 2012
Adult aquatic insects are a common resource for many terrestrial predators, often considered to subsidize terrestrial food webs. However, larval aquatic insects themselves consume both aquatic primary producers and allochthonous terrestrial detritus, suggesting that adults could provide aquatic subsidy and/or recycled terrestrial energy to terrestrial consumers. Understanding the source of ...
Kincses András - - 2012
Our objective was to develop a simple procedure for the detection of light-induced ion currents of photomotile cells in two dimensions. The novel technique was based on the light gradient method (LGM), and the model object was Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a phototactic unicellular alga, ideal for such experiments. The conventional LGM ...
Kong Weidong - - 2012
The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, harbor microbially dominated food webs. These organisms are adapted to a variety of unusual environmental extremes, including low temperature, low light and permanently stratified water columns with strong chemo- and oxy-clines. Owing to the low light levels during summer caused ...
Song Zhuoyi Z Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, - - 2012
In fly photoreceptors, light is focused onto a photosensitive waveguide, the rhabdomere, consisting of tens of thousands of microvilli. Each microvillus is capable of generating elementary responses, quantum bumps, in response to single photons using a stochastically operating phototransduction cascade. Whereas much is known about the cascade reactions, less is ...
Salgado-Luarte Cristian - - 2012
Abstract There is limited evidence regarding the adaptive value of plant functional traits in contrasting light environments. It has been suggested that changes in these traits in response to light availability can increase herbivore susceptibility. We tested the adaptive value of plant functional traits linked with carbon gain in contrasting ...
Abidi F - - 2012
Through its impact on photosynthesis and morphogenesis, light is the environmental factor that most affects plant architecture. Using light rather than chemicals to manage plant architecture could reduce the impact on the environment. However, the understanding of how light modulates plant architecture is still poor and further research is needed. ...
Beltrami Giulia - - 2012
The present study first examined whether ruin lizards Podarcis sicula are able to orientate using plane polarized light produced by a LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside an hexagonal Morris water maze, positioned under the LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which ...
Ryberg Hans - - 2012
We pay tribute to the life and work of Margareta Ryberg (1946-2012). She was an expert on the different forms of protochlorophyll(ide), their protein partners, and their transformations in angiosperms; on the structural aspects, and the nature of prolamellar bodies, as well as on the localization of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxido-reductase. ...
Cardarelli Francesco - - 2012
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are gateways for nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Intrinsically disordered nucleoporins (Nups) form a selective filter inside the NPC, taking a central role in the vital nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism. How such intricate meshwork relates to function and gives rise to a transport mechanism is still unclear. Here we set ...
Kotani H - - 2012
LIGHT [the name of which is derived from 'homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpes simplex virus entry mediator (HVEM), and expressed by T lymphocytes'], is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that is involved in various inflammatory diseases. We ...
Ayliffe Michael John - - 2012
This study investigated bone marrow plasma cell subsets and monoclonal free light chain concentrations in blood of monoclonal gammopathy patients. 54 bone marrow samples were stained by double immunofluorescence to enumerate cellular subsets making either intact monoclonal immunoglobulin or free light chains only. Blood taken at the same time was ...
Davies Wayne I L - - 2012
In craniates, opsin-based photopigments expressed in the eye encode molecular 'light sensors' that constitute the initial protein in photoreception and the activation of the phototransduction cascade. Since the cloning and sequencing of the first vertebrate opsin gene (bovine rod opsin) nearly 30 years ago (Ovchinnikov Yu 1982, FEBS Letters, 148, 179-191; ...
Ruiz-Gomez M L - - 2012
Levels of boldness and the degree of aggressiveness were compared in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus that had hatched early and late in the breeding season. The most striking result found in this study was that early hatched individuals were bolder when exploring a novel environment than were late-hatched individuals. ...
Gardner Laura - - 2012
Highly complex synthetic gene circuits have been engineered in living organisms to develop systems with new biological properties. A precise trigger to activate or deactivate these complex systems is desired in order to tightly control different parts of a synthetic or natural network. Light represents an excellent tool to achieve ...
Savakis Philipp - - 2012
Cph2 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a hybrid photoreceptor that comprises an N-terminal module for red/far-red light reception and a C-terminal module switching between a blue- and a green-receptive state. This unusual photoreceptor exerts complex, light quality-dependent control of the motility of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells ...
Sotka Erik E - - 2012
Populations evolve generalist, specialist, and plastic strategies in response to environmental heterogeneity. Describing such within-species variation in phenotype and how it arises is central to understanding a variety of ecological and evolutionary topics. The literature on phenotypic differences among populations is highly biased; for every one article published on a ...
Tan Swee Ching - - 2012
AC or DC? Protein-based photoelectrochemical cells that were constructed using a photosynthetic reaction center (left) generated a conventional direct current (DC) output during continuous illumination but an alternating current (AC) during regular light-on/light-off cycles (right). The mechanism of AC generation exploits the ability of nature's reaction centers to store charge ...
Sinimbu G - - 2012
Treefall gaps in tropical forests have a profound effect on plants growing in the understory, primarily due to increased light availability. In higher light, mature leaves typically have increased anti-herbivore defenses. However, since the majority of herbivory occurs while leaves are expanding, it is important to determine whether defense expression ...
Wardill Trevor J - - 2012
Color and motion information are thought to be channeled through separate neural pathways, but it remains unclear whether and how these pathways interact to improve motion perception. In insects, such as Drosophila, it has long been believed that motion information is fed exclusively by one spectral class of photoreceptor, so-called ...
Górska-Andrzejak Jolanta - - 2012
In the fly's visual system, the morphology of cells and the number of synapses change during the day. In the present study we show, that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian rhythm in abundance. In day/night (or ...
Zhang Chunxiang - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Paradental tissues (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament (PDL), and gingiva) have the capacity to adapt to their functional environment. The principal cellular elements of the PDL play an important role in normal function, regeneration of periodontal tissue and in orthodontic treatment. Recently, several studies have shown that low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) ...
Li Xiaohua - - 2012
Buckwheat sprouts are considered an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds. The time duration and amount of light for sprouting strongly affect the nutritional quality of sprouts. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated in 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat sprouts: Hokkai T8 and T10. The transcriptional levels of ...
Kumar Shailesh S Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2012
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is generally diurnal, but a few mutant strains, such as the circadian clock mutant Clk(Jrk), have been described as nocturnal. We report here that increased nighttime activity of Clk mutants is mediated by high levels of the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) in large ventral lateral ...
Seibel Christian - - 2012
Light is one crucial environmental signal which can determine whether a fungus reproduces asexually or initiates sexual development. Mating in the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) occurs preferentially in light. We therefore investigated the relevance of the light response machinery for sexual development in H. jecorina. We found that ...
Chen Ting-Gang - - 2012
Nano-patterned glass superstrates obtained via a large-area production approach are desirable for antireflection and light trapping in thin-film solar cells. The tapered nanostructures allow a graded refractive index profile between the glass and material interfaces, leading to suppressed surface reflection and increased forward diffraction of light. In this work, we ...
Kiorpes Lynne - - 2012
To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally ...
Miyashiro Tim T Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706-1521, USA. - - 2012
The bioluminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is a particularly striking result of individual microbial cells co-ordinating a group behaviour. The genes responsible for light production are principally regulated by the LuxR-LuxI quorum-sensing system. In addition to LuxR-LuxI, numerous other genetic elements and environmental conditions control bioluminescence production. ...
Yang Rui - - 2012
Phytochromes are photoreceptors with a bilin chromophore in which light triggers the conversion between the red light-absorbing form, Pr, and the far-red-light-absorbing form, Pfr. Here we performed in vitro and in vivo studies using locked phycocyanobilin derivatives, termed 15 Z anti phycocyanobilin (15ZaPCB) and 15 E anti PCB (15EaPCB). Recombinant ...
Keuskamp Diederik H - - 2012
Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the ...
Tang Weijiang - - 2012
Successful chlorophyll biosynthesis during initial light exposure is critical for plant survival and growth, as excess accumulation of chlorophyll precursors in darkness can cause photooxidative damage to cells. Therefore, efficient mechanisms have evolved to precisely regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis in plants. Here, we identify FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED IMPAIRED ...
Belcastro Marycharmain - - 2012
In rods saturated by light, the G protein transducin undergoes translocation from the outer segment compartment, which results in the uncoupling of transducin from its innate receptor, rhodopsin. We measured the kinetics of recovery from this adaptive cellular response, while also investigating the role of phosducin, a phosphoprotein binding transducin ...
Bomben Paolo G - - 2012
A cyclometalated Ru dye bearing two triphenylamine groups to augment light absorption exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) in excess of 7% in the dye-sensitized solar cell despite having a large molecular footprint on TiO(2).
Fan Xi-Ying - - 2012
Photomorphogenesis is controlled by multiple signaling pathways, including the light and brassinosteroid (BR) pathways. BR signaling activates the BZR1 transcription factor, which is required for suppressing photomorphogenesis in the dark. We identified a suppressor of the BR hypersensitive mutant bzr1-1D and named it bzr1-1D suppressor1-Dominant (bzs1-D). The bzs1-D mutation was ...
van Zanten Martijn - - 2012
Plants need to respond quickly and appropriately to various types of light signals from the environment to optimize growth and development. The immediate response to shading, reduced photon flux (low light), and changes in spectral quality involves changes in gene regulation. In the case of more persistent shade, the plant ...
Mandel Mark J - - 2012
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae ("vibrios"), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous ...
Leitgeb Balázs - - 2012
Phytochromes (PHYs) are photoreceptors of the red (R ~660 nm) and far-red (FR ~730 nm) light, and they control a wide range of responses affecting crucial aspects of plant life. There are five genes PHYA-PHYE encoding for phytochromes of different but overlapping function. One of these, PHYA has the unique ...
Weber Stephanie C - - 2012
Chromosomal loci jiggle in place between segregation events in prokaryotic cells and during interphase in eukaryotic nuclei. This motion seems random and is often attributed to brownian motion. However, we show here that locus dynamics in live bacteria and yeast are sensitive to metabolic activity. When ATP synthesis is inhibited, ...
Chen Chen - - 2012
The stomatal pores of plant leaves, situated in the epidermis and surrounded by a pair of guard cells, allow CO(2) uptake for photosynthesis and water loss through transpiration. Blue light is one of the dominant environmental signals that control stomatal movements in leaves of plants in a natural environment. This ...
Rabot Amelie - - 2012
Bud burst is a decisive process in plant architecture that requires light in Rosa sp. This light effect was correlated with stimulation of sugar transport and metabolism in favor of buds outgrowth. We investigated whether sugars could act as signaling entities in the light- mediated regulation of vacuolar invertases and ...
Viczián András - - 2012
Phytochrome A (phyA) is the dominant photoreceptor of far-red light sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana. phyA accumulates at high levels in the cytoplasm of etiolated seedlings, and light-induced phyA signaling is mediated by a complex regulatory network. This includes light- and FHY1/FHL protein-dependent translocation of native phyA into the nucleus in ...
Cohen James I - - 2012
• Premise of the study: The evolution and development of floral developmental patterns were investigated in three heterostylous and three homostylous species of Lithospermum to determine whether species that independently acquired the same floral form follow the same pattern of development or different patterns.• Methods: Using light and scanning electron ...
Montell Craig C Departments of Biological Chemistry and Neuroscience, Center for Sensory Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2012
Visual transduction in the Drosophila compound eye functions through a pathway that couples rhodopsin to phospholipase C (PLC) and the opening of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. This cascade differs from phototransduction in mammalian rods and cones, but is remarkably similar to signaling in mammalian intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells ...
Kong Weidong - - 2012
The autotrophic communities in the lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, have generated interest since the early 1960s owing to low light transmission through the permanent ice covers, a strongly bimodal seasonal light cycle, constant cold water temperatures, and geographical isolation. Previous work has shown that autotrophic carbon fixation ...
Leivar Pablo - - 2012
The reversibly red (R)/far-red (FR)-light-responsive phytochrome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light, and the shade-avoidance process in fully deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade. The intracellular signaling pathway from the light-activated photoreceptor conformer (Pfr) to the transcriptional network that ...
Mitra Devrani D Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, 929 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2012
Aureochrome1, a signaling photoreceptor from a eukaryotic photosynthetic stramenopile, confers blue-light-regulated DNA binding on the organism. Its topology, in which a C-terminal LOV sensor domain is linked to an N-terminal DNA-binding bZIP effector domain, contrasts with the reverse sensor-effector topology in most other known LOV-photoreceptors. How, then, is signal transmitted ...
Ben Baaziz Khaoula - - 2012
Understanding the response of leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) to light is a challenge in elucidating plant-water relationships. Recent data have shown that the effect of light on K(leaf) is not systematically related to aquaporin regulation, leading to conflicting conclusions. Here we investigated the relationship between light, K(leaf), and aquaporin transcript ...
Keuskamp Diederik H - - 2012
Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the ...
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