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Results 451 - 500 of 952
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Martikainen Ilkka K - - 2002
We determined whether the ability to localize a single noxious cold versus innocuous tactile stimulus is associated with the ability to discriminate between two stimuli in the forearm skin of healthy human subjects. When single stimuli were applied, the localization of a noxious cold stimulus was at least as good ...
Paredes-Olay Concepción - - 2002
Four experiments were conducted to explore outcome-specific transfer from causal predictive judgments to instrumental responding. A video game was designed in which participants had to defend Andalusia from navy and air force attacks. First, they learned the relationship between two instrumental responses (two key on a standard keyboard) and two ...
Tass Peter A - - 2002
Composite stimulation techniques are presented here which are based on a soft (i.e., slow and mild) reset. They effectively desynchronize a cluster of globally coupled phase oscillators in the presence of noise. A composite stimulus contains two qualitatively different stimuli. The first stimulus is either a periodic pulse train or ...
Brand G - - 2002
The study of olfactory lateralization in humans has given rise to many publications, but the findings have often been contradictory. There is growing evidence to suggest that the nature of the olfactory stimulus influences the processes of lateralization. An important factor could be the trigeminal component. Indeed, most odorants simultaneously ...
Vu Kim-Phuong L - - 2002
When stimulus-response (S-R) sets vary along horizontal and vertical dimensions, a right-left prevalence effect is often obtained in which the horizontal compatibility effect is larger than the vertical compatibility effect. Vu and Proctor (2001) showed that the prevalence effect varies as a function of the dimension made salient by the ...
Dragoi Valentin - - 2002
Simple exposure to repetitive stimulation is known to induce short-term learning effects across a wide range of species. These effects can be both suppressive and facilitatory depending on stimulus conditions: repetitive presentation of a weak stimulus decreases the strength of the response (habituation), whereas presentation of a tonic stimulus following ...
Levin David N - - 2002
This paper shows how time-dependent sensory data from an evolving stimulus can be blindly rescaled in a nonlinear time-dependent fashion to create a time series of stimulus representations that are invariant under any unknown invertible transformation of the sensory data. These representations are invariant, because they encode "inner" properties of ...
Fries Pascal - - 2002
Spike and local field potential activity were recorded simultaneously from multiple sites in primary visual cortex of strabismic cats, while monocular stimulation alternated with dichoptic stimulation, inducing interocular rivalry. During interocular rivalry, there is competition between the two nonfusible stimuli presented to the two eyes, and only one stimulus is ...
John M Sasha - - 2002
This article considers the efficiency of evoked potential audiometry using steady-state responses evoked by multiple simultaneous stimuli with carrier frequencies at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The general principles of signal-to-noise enhancement through averaging provide a basis for determining the time required to estimate thresholds. The advantage of the ...
Phillips D P - - 2002
Historically, central auditory responses have been studied for their sensitivity to various parameters of tone and noise burst stimulation, with response rate plotted as a function of the stimulus variable. The responses themselves are often quite brief, and locked in time to stimulus onset. In the stimulus amplitude domain, it ...
Malkin Robert A - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: An unknown mechanism causes defibrillation efficacy to be sensitive to the temporal pattern (waveform) of the delivered energy. Using a guinea pig model, we tested hypotheses in 140 defibrillation waveforms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred seven male guinea pigs (950 +/- 100 g) were instrumented to continuously monitor the ...
Proctor Robert W - - 2002
The performance advantage for spatially compatible mappings of physical locations to keypress responses, relative to incompatible mappings, is eliminated when stimulus color, rather than location, is relevant on half of the trials. In Experiment 1, we compared the effects of mixing for different stimulus modes (physical locations, arrow directions, and ...
Keysers Christian - - 2002
A test visual stimulus is harder to recognize when another stimulus is presented in close temporal vicinity; presenting stimuli in close spatial vicinity of a test stimulus reduces its visibility; presenting a stimulus to one eye can render invisible another stimulus presented to the other eye; and perceiving one interpretation ...
Andrade Chittaranjan - - 2002
A selected electroconvulsive therapy stimulus dose can result from different combinations of pulse amplitude, pulse width, pulse frequency, and stimulus duration; however, the roles of these stimulus variables in the effects of the overall stimulus dose are not clearly understood. A series of studies on Wistar rats was therefore conducted ...
Wall Michael - - 2002
To investigate the relationship between reaction time (RT), stimulus intensity and visual field eccentricity. We generated frequency of seeing (FOS) curves and measured RTs by testing 10 perimetrically experienced normal subjects with a Humphrey perimeter controlled by a custom program. Subjects were tested from 10 degrees to 50 degrees eccentricity ...
Mulder Elles J C M - - 2002
We examined differences between migraine patients and matched healthy controls in anticipatory processes preceding a warning stimulus and preceding a response stimulus during a forewarned choice reaction time task. We manipulated stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) by inserting full response information either at the instant of the warning stimulus (cue) or ...
Taylor Tracy L - - 2002
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to slowed reaction times when a target repeats in the same location as a preceding stimulus. In four experiments, the participants were presented with two successive stimuli, S1 and S2. In Experiments 1 and 2, the participants made a speeded discrimination of the identity or ...
Birn Rasmus M - - 2002
With the advent of event-related paradigms in functional MRI, there has been interest in finding the optimal stimulus timing, especially when the interstimulus interval is varied during the imaging run. Previous works have proposed stimulus timings to optimize either the estimation of the impulse response function (IRF) or the detection ...
Gescheider George A - - 2002
Thresholds were measured for the detection of vibratory stimuli of variable frequency and duration applied to the index fingertip and thenar eminence through contactors of different sizes. The effects of stimulus frequency could be accounted for by the frequency characteristics of the Pacinian (P), non-Pacinian (NP) I, and NP III ...
Ramón F - - 2001
Electrical signs of neural activity correlated with stimuli or states include a subclass called event-related potentials. These overlap with, but can often be distinguished from, simple stimulus-bound evoked potentials by their greater dependence on endogenous (internal state) factors. Studied mainly in humans, where they are commonly associated with cognition, they ...
Omoto S - - 2001
We investigated how visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are modulated by visual divided attention using an S1-S2 paradigm. Stimulus S2 consisted of non-target stimuli (Stimulus 1, 2, 3) and a target stimulus (Stimulus 4). The spatial/color factor was compared between S1 and S2: same/same (Stimulus 1); same/different (Stimulus 2); different/same (Stimulus ...
Wühr P - - 2001
This article examines the time course of a deficit in identifying a stimulus sharing a compatible feature with a response that is executed in parallel ("blindness to response-compatible stimuli," J. Müsseler & B. Hommel, 1997a). In 5 experiments, participants performed a timed response, and the presentation point of time of ...
Dzhafarov Ehtibar N. - - 2001
Fechnerian scaling is a theory of how a certain (Fechnerian) metric can be computed in a continuous stimulus space of arbitrary dimensionality from the shapes of psychometric (discrimination probability) functions taken in small vicinities of stimuli at which these functions reach their minima. This theory is rigorously derived in this ...
Murphy P J - - 2001
PURPOSE: To estimate the minimum stimulus energy required to stimulate the corneal nerves, using a thermally cooling stimulus. METHODS: The localised temperature change produced in the pre-corneal tear film by the air-pulse stimulus of the Non-Contact Corneal Aesthesiometer (NCCA) was analysed using a thermal imaging camera. Assuming that the cornea ...
Grosjean M - - 2001
The study of element-level stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) has predominantly focused on spatial and symbolic relationships and has involved measures of response time and (dichotomous) error rate. This article explores a new form of SRC that is observed when duration is the relevant feature of both the stimulus and the response, ...
Schiefer U - - 2001
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of stimulus eccentricity and luminance level on the reaction time (RT) of young normal volunteers during automated kinetic campimetry. METHODS: We used a specially designed video-campimetric device equipped with a continuous infrared (IR) pupillographic fixation control (Tübingen Computer Campimeter) and recorded reaction times upon presenting ...
Azevedo E L - - 2001
We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1) on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2). A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a ...
Cassadayl H J - - 2001
Dark Agouti rats were lesioned by intra-ventricular injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (DHT) and, 2 weeks later, learning was tested in a conditioned suppression of drinking procedure. Lesioned and vehicle-injected control rats were conditioned with a discrete stimulus (tone or light conditioned stimulus, CS) twice paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus), with or ...
Wascher E - - 2001
Three experiments were conducted to determine whether spatial stimulus-response compatibility effects are caused by automatic response activation by stimulus properties or by interference between codes during translation of stimulus into response coordinates. The main evidence against activation has been that in a Simon task with hands crossed, responses are faster ...
White J E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Uncorrected diplopia is a condition that may make it unsafe for a person to operate a motor vehicle. In some jurisdictions, physicians are required by law to report the person with diplopia to the appropriate authority. METHODS: In this masked study, 10 patients of varying ages with stable diplopia ...
Kang K - - 2001
We studied the mutual information between a stimulus and a system consisting of stochastic, statistically independent elements that respond to a stimulus. Using statistical mechanical methods the properties of the mutual information (MI) in the limit of a large system size N are calculated. For continuous valued stimuli, the MI ...
Yamagishi N - - 2001
When a visual stimulus is continuously moved behind a small stationary window, the window appears displaced in the direction of motion of the stimulus. In this study we showed that the magnitude of this illusion is dependent on (i) whether a perceptual or visuomotor task is used for judging the ...
Martin P R - - 2001
This study tested two contrasting theories of how trigger factors acquire the capacity to precipitate headaches. The sample consisted of 110 participants, of whom 48 suffered from regular headaches. Participants were exposed to a validated headache trigger factor for one of five exposure durations. The trigger used was "visual disturbance" ...
Yang Z - - 2001
Because the retinal activity generated by a moving object cannot specify which of an infinite number of possible physical displacements underlies the stimulus, its real-world cause is necessarily uncertain. How, then, do observers respond successfully to sequences of images whose provenance is ambiguous? Here we explore the hypothesis that the ...
Sommer W - - 2001
When two stimuli are to be processed in rapid succession, reaction time (RT) to the second stimulus is delayed. The slowing of RT has been attributed to a single processing bottleneck at response selection (RS) or to a central bottleneck following the initiation of the first response. The hypothesis of ...
Lammertmann C - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) magnetic field components evoked by long-duration tonebursts. The following two questions were of central interest. Does the sustained field (SF) show adaptation as described before for the sustained potential (SP)? How does the field ...
Nguyen V A - - 2001
Binocular rivalry occurs when the two eyes are presented with incompatible stimuli and the perceived image alternates between the two stimuli. The aim of this study was to find out whether the periodic perceptual loss of a monocular stimulus during binocular rivalry is mirrored by a comparable loss of contrast ...
Sagi Elad - - 2001
This paper considers the information transmitted in absolute judgments as encoded in a stimulus-response matrix (e.g., see Garner and Hake, 1951). When transmitted information is plotted against the number of stimulus categories in the matrix, one obtains a curve that increases monotonically toward a plateau, which is the maximum information ...
Lippa Y - - 2001
This study presents an explanation of orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effects that vary with hand or response location: the end-state comfort hypothesis. It posits that responses are spatially transformed and cognitively mapped onto the stimulus dimension according to relative hand posture, thereby mediating the pattern of facilitation and interference in ...
Taylor T E - - 2001
S. J. Lupker, P. Brown, and L. Colombo (1997) reported that target naming latencies are strongly affected by the difficulty of the other stimuli in a trial block, an effect they attributed to readers' strategic use of a time criterion to guide responding. In the present research, the authors asked ...
Carr D - - 2001
Three studies were conducted with different groups of 6 students each to explore the effects of training class-inconsistent relations and naming on demonstrations of emergent arbitrary stimulus relations. In all studies, two three-member equivalence classes of Greek symbols (A1B1C1 and A2B2C2) emerged as a result of training in conditional discriminations. ...
Niepel M - - 2001
Results obtained with the standard repetition-change paradigm of orienting research cannot be attributed unambiguously to either stimulus change or to unexpectedness. By adding announcement conditions, in which participants were told about an impending stimulus change, these two factors were disentangled. In Experiment 1, reaction times (RTs) were longer and ratings ...
Op de Beeck H - - 2001
We designed a new stimulus set with 269 line drawings of everyday artifacts and animals. The stimulus set contains several typical exemplars from a sample of 25 basic-level categories. We determined to what extent these stimuli were named at the basic level and at a more subordinate level. An additional ...
Mayer MS - - 2001
Responses from single receptor cells, electroantennograms (EAGs) and the proportion of upwind flight in a wind tunnel elicited by graded stimulus strengths of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac) were measured from male cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner). The approach that was taken to illustrate the relationship between these three measures on the ...
Joosse M V - - 2000
PURPOSE: To determine the optimal stimulus duration as well as the most appropriate luminance profile to elicit suppression in small-angle convergent strabismus. METHODS: In 10 subjects with small-angle convergent strabismus, using a device allowing binocular viewing and peripheral fusion, we determined what the optimal stimulus would be to elicit suppression. ...
Simpson W A - - 2000
By presenting a Poisson process of flashes to observers who hit a button as quickly as possible after each, the authors identified the system involved in simple reaction time (RT). The nonlinear kernels up to 2nd order were measured from the stimulus and response point processes. The 1st-order kernel is ...
Quill U - - 2000
Although the functional role synchronous oscillations may play has been investigated in depth, the underlying processes and spatio-temporal aspects that establish the synchrony are still not thoroughly understood. Experimental studies suggest the existence of two types of activity: stimulus locked and stimulus induced. While stimulus-locked oscillations are systematically dependent on ...
Hiraguchi T - - 2000
We studied behavioral responses of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, to mechanical stimulation of the hindwing tip using three different kinds of stimuli: touching, bending and pinching. The most characteristic was a sequence of initial jump-like movements and subsequent running steps, that is referred to as escape behavior in this study. ...
Allen J - - 2000
The concept of subliminal perception has been a subject of interest and controversy for decades. Of interest in the present investigation was whether a neurophysiologic index of stimulus change could be elicited to speech sound contrasts that were consciously indiscriminable. The stimuli were chosen on the basis of each individual ...
Cheng K - - 2000
An animal that is rewarded for a response in one situation (the S+) is likely to respond to similar but recognizably different stimuli, the ubiquitous phenomenon of stimulus generalization. On the basis of functional analyses of the probabilistic structure of the world, Shepard formulated a universal law of generalization, claiming ...
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