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Akre Karin L KL Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY 10065, USA - - 2014
The human music faculty might have evolved from rudimentary components that occur in non-human animals. The evolutionary history of these rudimentary perceptual features is not well understood and rarely extends beyond a consideration of vertebrates that possess a cochlea. One such antecedent is a preferential response to what humans perceive ...
Da Gürbüz - - 2014
Density related effects, both inverse density- and density-dependent, contribute to regulating population dynamics of parasites. We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. gallinarum eggs in faeces samples (N = 1365) from chickens (N = 39) were quantified starting ...
Halfwerk Wouter W Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, PO Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panama; Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Animals have multiple senses through which they detect their surroundings and often integrate sensory information across different modalities to generate perceptions [1, 2]. Animal communication, likewise, often consists of signals containing stimuli processed by different senses [3-6]. Stimuli with different physical forms (i.e., from different sensory modalities) travel at different ...
Formosa D D University of the Sunshine Coast, School of Health & Sports Science, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering School of Health & Sports Science, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Sunshine Coast, - - 2014
20 elite swimmers completed a total of 6 randomized net drag force trials in 2 conditions (i) 3 breathing and (ii) 3 non-breathing. Net drag force was measured using an assisted motorized dynamometer device mounted upon a Kistler force-platform. The male participants demonstrated no statistical differences in stroke rates between ...
Reichert Michael S MS Humboldt University-Berlin, Germany; - - 2014
The visual ecology of nocturnal anurans is poorly understood but there is growing evidence that vision plays a role in important behaviors such as mate choice. While several recent studies demonstrated that females are responsive to visual cues when selecting mates, the forces responsible for these preferences are unknown. We ...
Ingebrigtsen Jørgen J a Department of Sports, Centre for Practical Knowledge , University of Nordland , Bodø , - - 2014
Abstract The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic ...
Waaramaa Teija T University of Tampere, School of Communication, Media and Theatre , Tampere , - - 2014
Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their ...
Reiter Russel J RJ Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. Electronic address: - - 2014
To summarize the role of melatonin and circadian rhythms in determining optimal female reproductive physiology, especially at the peripheral level. Databases were searched for the related English-language literature published up to March 1, 2014. Only papers in peer-reviewed journals are cited. Not applicable. Not applicable. Melatonin treatment, alterations of the ...
Keyte Anna L AL Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United - - 2014
Heterochrony, or a change in developmental timing, is an important mechanism of evolutionary change. Historically the concept of heterochrony has focused alternatively on changes in size and shape or changes in developmental sequence, but most have focused on the pattern of change. Few studies have examined changes in the mechanisms ...
Wong Jason Y L JY School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland; School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, - - 2014
Objective: To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. Methods: A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion ...
Aubrecht Taryn G TG Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Columbus, - - 2014
Winter is a challenging time to survive and breed outside of the tropics. Animals use day length (photoperiod) to regulate seasonally appropriate adaptations in anticipation of challenging winter conditions. The net result of these photoperiod-mediated adjustments is enhanced immune function and increased survival. Thus, the ability to discriminate day length ...
Ouergui Ibrahim I 1High Institute of Sport and Physical Education (ISSEP) Kef, Kef, Tunisia. 2Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University. Douha, Qatar. 3Martial Arts and Combat Sports Research Group - School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 4Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Montpellier, France. 5School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. 6Human Performance Laboratory, The Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 7Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia. 8High Institute of Sports and Physical Education (ISSEP) Ksar Said, University of Manouba, - - 2014
The objective of the study was to analyze the time structure of high-level kickboxing matches. A total of 45 combats from two male World Championships were monitored using a time motion analysis system. The combat time structure (i.e., high-intensity activity: HIA; low-intensity activity: LIA; and referee breaks or pauses) during ...
de Lacey James J 1Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand 2Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Savoie, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France. 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Lyon, Saint-Etienne, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a pre-season taper on individual power-force-velocity profiles and jump performance in professional National Rugby League (NRL) players. Seven professional rugby league players performed concentric squat jumps using ascending loads of 25, 50, 75, 100% body mass before and after ...
Surbhi DST-IRHPA Center for Excellence in Biological Rhythms Research; Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007, - - 2014
Day length regulates seasonal plasticity connected with reproduction in birds. Rhythmic pineal melatonin secretion is a reliable indicator of the night length, hence day length. Removal of rhythmic melatonin secretion by exposure to constant bright light (LLbright) or by pinealectomy renders several species of songbirds including Indian weaver bird (Ploceus ...
Zhang Da - - 2014
Investigating the responses of autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypoxia may provide some knowledge about the mechanism of neural control and rhythmic adjustment. The integrated cardiac and respiratory system display complicated dynamics that are affected by intrinsic feedback mechanisms controlling their interaction. To probe how the cardiac and respiratory system ...
Singh Navinder J NJ Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå 90183, Sweden - - 2014
A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive ...
Hughes Robert N RN Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Male and female PVG/c rats were observed in an open field (OF) and an elevated plus maze (EPM) either with or without a bright light stressor (600-692lx) following an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 25 or 50mg/kg of caffeine. One week later, the same rats were observed under the same drug ...
Thurman Lindsey L LL Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA, - - 2014
Amphibian species capable of optimizing trait response to environmental stressors may develop complex strategies for defending against rapid environmental change. Trait responses may differ between populations, particularly if stressor strength varies across spatial or temporal gradients. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one such stressor that poses a significant threat to amphibian ...
Hodges-Simeon Carolyn R CR Department of Anthropology, University of California , Santa Barbara, CA 93106 , USA - - 2014
Fundamental and formant frequencies influence perceived pitch and are sexually dimorphic in humans. The information content of these acoustic parameters can illuminate the forces of sexual selection shaping vocal sex differences as well as the mechanisms that ensure signal reliability. We use multiple regression to examine the relationships between somatic ...
Jimenez-Marco Teresa T Fundació Banc de Sang i Teixits de les Illes Balears, Spain ; Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Palma de Mallorca. - - 2014
Risk reduction strategies for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) include the preferential use of male donors to provide fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Implementing this measure based on FFP quarantine program is a very complex process. To improve FFP inventory management and the availability of FFP from male donors, the Mirasol ...
Budki Puja P University of Lucknow, - - 2014
Circannual rhythms regulate seasonal reproduction in many vertebrates. The present study investigated if circannual reproductive phenotypes (rhythms in growth of gonads and molt) were generated independently of the circadian clocks in the subtropical non-photoperiodic spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata). Birds were subjected to light-dark (LD) cycles with identical light but varying ...
Bohm S S Department of Training and Movement Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, - - 2014
Although symmetry of Achilles tendon (AT) properties between legs is commonly assumed in research and clinical settings, different loading profiles of both legs in daily life (i.e., foot dominance) may affect the tendon properties in a side-depended manner. Therefore, AT properties were examined with regard to symmetry between legs. Thirty-six ...
Varea Carlos C Department of Biology, Madrid Autonomous University, Madrid, 28049, - - 2014
Among the ancestral characteristics of the primate group to which Homo sapiens belongs we find a pattern of daytime physical activity, but one notable exception is birthing which usually begins with night-time labor. In populations with a moderate or high level of medicalized labor, there is evidence that the medical ...
Vescovi Jason D JD School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Purpose: To quantify the locomotor demands of college female soccer matches and compare the relative proportion of distances in specified velocity bands between players completing an entire half with substitutes. Methods: College female soccer players (n = 113) were assessed during a regular-season match using global positioning system technology. An ...
McCallion Ciara C Departments of Anatomy and Physiology, Trinity College Dublin , Dublin 2, - - 2014
This study compared stride length, stride frequency, contact time, flight time and foot-strike patterns (FSP) when running barefoot, and in minimalist and conventional running shoes. Habitually shod male athletes (n = 14; age 25 ± 6 yr; competitive running experience 8 ± 3 yr) completed a randomised order of 6 ...
Recalde-Salas A A Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University, G.P.O. Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia angela.recaldesalas@uqconnect.edu.au, C.Salgado@cmst.curtin.edu.au, Miles.Parsons@curtin.edu.au, sarah.marley@gmail.com, - - 2014
Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with ...
Malik Shalie - - 2014
Animals in the wild are exposed to daily variations in sun light, viz. duration, intensity and spectrum. Photosensitive blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala) were exposed to photoperiods differing in the length of light period, wavelengths and intensity. The effects of such light changes were measured on locomotor activity rhythm as well ...
Yadav Suneeta - - 2014
Specific temporal phase relation of neural oscillations appears to be the regulator of gonadal development in many seasonally breeding species. To find out the specific phase angle of two neural oscillations that triggers gonado-inhibitory or gonado-stimulatory response, and to test the internal coincidence model, sexually immature male Japanese quail were ...
Singh Namram Sushindrajit - - 2014
Resonance experiment was employed to investigate the mechanism of photoperiodic time measurement during initiation of ovarian growth and functions in the subtropical population of female tree sparrow (Passer montanus) at Shillong (Latitude 25 degrees 34 'N, Longitude 91 degrees 53 'E). Photosensitive birds were subjected to various resonance light dark ...
GuptA Neelu Jain - - 2014
To test the circadian clock characteristics, activity behaviour of male blackheaded munia was recorded. Two experiments were performed. In experiment 1A, activity of munia was recorded under long days, LD (14L: 10D); and short days, SD (10L: 14D). Locomotor activity of two groups of munia exposed to equinox (12L: 12D) ...
Yoo Won-Gyu WG Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Inje University, Republic of - - 2014
[Purpose] This study compared the cervical range of motion and cervical FRR between computer users in their early and late 20s in Korea. [Subjects] Eleven male and 7 female computer users in their early 20s and 10 male and 6 female computer users in their late 20s participated in this ...
Edholm P P School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, - - 2014
This study investigated the acute effects of a half-time re-warm up on performance and movement patterns in soccer match play. Using a crossover design, 22 professional male players performed traditional passive rest (CON) or a low-intensity re-warm up (RW) during the half-time period of two soccer matches. Before and after ...
van den Tillaar Roland R a Department of Teacher Education of Nord Trøndelag University College , Levanger , - - 2014
ABSTRACT. The authors' aim was to investigate the speed-accuracy tradeoff in soccer kicking with the dominant and nondominant foot by using different types of instructions prioritizing speed or accuracy in experienced soccer players. Ten male soccer players were randomly given 1 of the 4 instructions that differed in aspects of ...
Bertossa Rinaldo C RC Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Centre for Behaviour and Neurosciences, University of Groningen , Groningen , The Netherlands - - 2014
Photoperiodism, the ability to respond to seasonal varying day length with suitable life history changes, is a common trait in organisms that live in temperate regions. In most studied organisms, the circadian system appears to be the basis for photoperiodic time measurement. In insects this is still controversial: while some ...
Tianxue Yang Y College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academic of Environmental Sciences, - - 2014
Dynamic variation in the spatial structure of corn stover during alkali and biological co-pretreatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The result for crystallinity and microcrystalline size of cellulose showed periodic changes during the pretreatment process. The dominant destruction periods of crystalline areas were mainly located at 3-5d and 7-17d, and ...
Jeseta M M Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech - - 2014
This study was designed to specify chromatin and mitochondrial patterns in bovine oocytes with different meiotic competence in relation to maturation progress, resumption of meiosis, MII onset and completion of maturation. Oocytes with greater or lesser meiotic competence, recovered separately from medium (MF) and small follicles (SF), were categorized according ...
Robbins Lindsey L Department of Animal Behavior, Ecology and Conservation, Canisius College, Buffalo, New - - 2014
Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three ...
Wespi B B Swiss Institute of Equine Medicine, Agroscope and University of Berne, Avenches, - - 2014
Horses (Equus caballus) belong to the group of seasonally polyestrous mammals. Estrous cycles typically start with increasing daylight length after winter, but mares can differ greatly in the timing of onset of regular estrus cycles. Here, we test whether spatial proximity to a stallion also plays a role. Twenty-two anestrous ...
Moharekar Lokhande Shubhangi - - 2014
Four ecotypes of A. thaliana (L.) (Ct-1, Pf-0, Old-1 and Per-i) from low to high latitudes were grown under different light (300 micro mol photon m-2s-1 and 150 micromol photon m-2s') and temperature (22 and 14 degreesC) conditions to investigate their effects on phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in plant ...
Eissa Abeer A Faculty of Physical Education for Girls, Helwan University, - - 2014
The triple jump is one of two track and field events in which the athlete aims to maximize the horizontal distance jumped. This jump is comprised of 3 take-off phases (hop, step, and jump), each playing an important role, as they require the jumper to tolerate extremely high forces of ...
Jackson Chad R CR Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee - - 2014
Visual system development depends on neural activity, driven by intrinsic and light-sensitive mechanisms. Here, we examined the effects on retinal function due to exposure to summer- and winter-like circadian light cycles during development and adulthood. Retinal light responses, visual behaviors, dopamine content, retinal morphology, and gene expression were assessed in ...
Monecke Stefanie S Biological Institute, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
In contrast to photoperiodic rodent species, adult circannual European hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) do not rely on melatonin as transducer of the photoperiodic message. Instead, seasonal entrainment involves a special circadian organisation which characterizes a photoperiod-sensitive phase. When days shorten a precise activity pattern ("summer pattern") switches to a weak or ...
Pfeiffer Julie L JL Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, United - - 2014
Physical activity is recommended for older adults, including those with knee pathology. However, demands on the knee during popular recreational activities are unclear. The study purpose was to determine knee biomechanics in healthy older men during golf and bowling and compare them to activities of daily living. Three-dimensional motion analysis ...
Soares Susana M SM Faculty of Sport and Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Porto, - - 2014
To determine the swimmer's anaerobic potential and better plan training, understanding physiological effects of the fatigue is essential. Study changes in the characteristics of the intra-cyclic velocity variation during an all-out 50m swim and to observe differences in speed and stroking parameters between these changes. 28 competitive swimmers performed a ...
Haller Sven S Service Neuro-diagnostique et Neuro-interventionnel, Department of Imaging and Medical Informatics, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211, Geneva 14, Switzerland, - - 2014
Motion artifacts are a well-known and frequent limitation during neuroimaging workup of cognitive decline. While head motion typically deteriorates image quality, we test the hypothesis that head motion differs systematically between healthy controls (HC), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) and consequently might contain diagnostic information. This ...
Roselló-Díez Alberto - - 2014
Developing vertebrate limbs initiate proximo-distal patterning by interpreting opposing gradients of diffusible signaling molecules. We report two thresholds of proximo-distal signals in the limb bud: a higher threshold that establishes the upper-arm to forearm transition; and a lower one that positions a later transition from forearm to hand. For this ...
Tenbroek Trampas M TM New Balance Sports Research Laboratory, New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc., Lawrence, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was: 1) to investigate how kinematic patterns are adjusted while running in footwear with THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsole thicknesses; and 2) to determine if these patterns are adjusted over time during a sustained run in footwear of different thicknesses. Ten male heel-toe runners performed ...
Spiteri Tania T Edith Cowan University, School of Exercise and Health Science, Joondalup, Western Australia, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare biomechanical and perceptual-cognitive variables between genders during an offensive and defensive agility protocol. Twelve male and female (n=24) recreational team sport athletes participated in this study, each performing 12 offensive and defensive agility trials (six left, six right) changing direction in response ...
Lenske Ariel K AK Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather ...
Roper JulieAnne M JM *OD, MS †BAppSc(Optom), PhD, FAAO Indiana University School of Optometry, Bloomington, - - 2014
To determine how accurate normally sighted male and female pedestrians were at making time-to-arrival (TTA) judgments of approaching vehicles when using just their hearing or both their hearing and vision. Ten male and 14 female subjects with confirmed normal vision and hearing estimated the TTA of approaching vehicles along an ...
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