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Albarello Flavia F Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Italy - - 2014
This article addresses the role of perceived (reduced) humanity and group membership of others in producing linguistic discrimination. Study 1 assessed the effects of these factors on a subtle measure of linguistic discrimination, namely, linguistic abstraction. Study 2 considered the explicit level of verbal abuse. Results highlighted that target's reduced ...
Neilans Erikson G - - 2014
Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not ...
Reyes-Martínez Ma José MJ Departamento de Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera Km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In ...
Voisin J-L JL UMR 7268 ADES, Aix-Marseille Université/EFS/CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, La Timone, 27, boulevard Jean-Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France; Département de Préhistoire, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7194 et USM 103/CNRS, 1, rue René-Panhard, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The high prevalence of rotator cuff tendinopathy in modern humans may be partly related to the shape acquired by the scapula as species changed throughout evolution. Here, we compared the anatomic features of the scapula across members of the Hominoid group. The results support the hypothesis that the scapula of ...
Russo Gabrielle A GA Department of Anthropology and IDPAS, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, - - 2014
A "long-backed" scenario of hominin vertebral evolution posits that early hominins possessed six lumbar vertebrae coupled with a high frequency of four sacral vertebrae (7:12-13:6:4), a configuration acquired from a hominin-panin last common ancestor (PLCA) having a vertebral formula of 7:13:6-7:4. One founding line of evidence for this hypothesis is ...
Stowie Adam C AC Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University , Kent, OH , - - 2014
Few, if any studies have focused on the daily rhythmic nature of modern industrialized populations. The present study utilized real-time load data from the U.S. Pacific Northwest electrical power grid as a reflection of human operative household activity. This approach involved actigraphic analyses of continuously streaming internet data (provided in ...
Chaudhry Hans H From the departments of biomedical engineering (Dr Chaudhry), mathematical sciences, center for applied mathematics and statistics (Dr Bukiet), and mechanical engineering (Dr Zhiming) at the New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark; the Sport Medicine Unit of the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Padua in Padua, Italy (Dr Stecco); and the Research Service at Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in East Orange and Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Stratford, New Jersey (Dr - - 2014
Osteopathic manipulative medicine techniques involve compressive and tangential forces to target the fascia. These forces are transmitted to the skin and adipose tissue before the fascia is encountered. Knowing the extent of deformation of these 2 tissue layers relative to the fascia will assist osteopathic physicians in evaluating techniques for ...
Ogihara Naomichi N Keio University, Japan; - - 2014
In human bipedal walking, temporal changes in the elevation angle of the thigh, shank and foot segments covary to form a regular loop within a single plane in three-dimensional space. In this study, we quantified the planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails to test ...
Mollalo Abolfazl A Department of Geo-spatial Information System (GIS), Center of Excellence in GIS, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran - - 2014
Brucellosis is an important public and veterinary health problem in Iran and poses enormous economic burdens and significant human morbidity. In order to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in Iran, yearly spatial distribution and possible hotspots of the disease have been investigated in this study. A cross-sectional survey ...
Akre Karin L KL Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY 10065, USA - - 2014
The human music faculty might have evolved from rudimentary components that occur in non-human animals. The evolutionary history of these rudimentary perceptual features is not well understood and rarely extends beyond a consideration of vertebrates that possess a cochlea. One such antecedent is a preferential response to what humans perceive ...
Otaki Sho S Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Course for School Teachers, Osaka Kyoiku University, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Retinotopic encoding is preserved in primate visual cortex. However, several physiological and psychophysical studies have revealed that visual processes can be disengaged from retinotopic coordinates. We examined whether this non-retinotopic processing is common to humans and pigeons, two visually dominant vertebrate species with similar retinotopic organizations in their brains. We ...
Martin Michael D MD University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, 21250. - - 2014
Understanding the mechanisms by which phenotypic divergence occurs is central to speciation research. These mechanisms can be revealed by measuring differences in traits that are subject to different selection pressures; greater influence of different types of selection can be inferred from greater divergence in associated traits. Here, we address the ...
Liu Xuehua X School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China, - - 2014
The spatial separation of the Qinling Mountains from the western mountains has caused morphological and genetic distinctions of giant pandas. Could this separation also cause the pandas' behavior change? In this research, we focused on the pandas' movement pattern and selected two wild panda groups in Foping and Wolong Nature ...
Kianianmomeni Arash A Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology of Plants, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, D-33615, Bielefeld, Germany, - - 2014
Photosynthetic organisms, e.g., plants including green algae, use a sophisticated light-sensing system, composed of primary photoreceptors and additional downstream signaling components, to monitor changes in the ambient light environment towards adjust their growth and development. Although a variety of cellular processes, e.g., initiation of cleavage division and final cellular differentiation, ...
Yan Yuanyuan Y Department of Biological Sciences and Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, - - 2014
Plants adjust the timing of the transition to flowering to ensure their reproductive success in changing environments. Temperature and light are major environmental signals that affect flowering time through converging on the transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding the florigen in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that a MYB transcription ...
Hibberd Elizabeth E EE Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel - - 2014
Context :  Biomechanically, the motions used by baseball and softball pitchers differ greatly; however, the throwing motions of position players in both sports are strikingly similar. Although the adaptations to the dominant limb from overhead throwing have been well documented in baseball athletes, these adaptations have not been clearly identified ...
Han Shuyang S College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China Julius Wolff Institute, Charite Universitätmedizin Berlin, Berlin, - - 2014
There were gender differences regarding lower extremity kinematics. The purpose of this study was to investigate three-dimensional kinematics of lower extremity for young Chinese during daily activities and to identify gender differences in lower extremity kinematics.METHODS: Lower extremity motions of 40 healthy volunteers (20 males and 20 females) were recorded ...
George Kelly A KA School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Locked Bag 20000, Geelong, Vic., 3220, - - 2014
This study explored the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying blow fly nocturnal oviposition. A behavioral study revealed that Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) possesses a diel rhythm of oviposition in light under 12:12 light/dark conditions. Reversal to 12:12 dark/light resulted in oviposition behavior changing to align with the adjusted regime in ...
Lee Michael S Y MS Earth Sciences Section, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, Australia. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide 5005, Australia. - - 2014
Recent discoveries have highlighted the dramatic evolutionary transformation of massive, ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs into light, volant birds. Here, we apply Bayesian approaches (originally developed for inferring geographic spread and rates of molecular evolution in viruses) in a different context: to infer size changes and rates of anatomical innovation (across up ...
Dattolo E E Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Here we investigated mechanisms underlying the acclimation to light in the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica, along its bathymetric distribution (at -5 m and -25 m), combining molecular and photo-physiological approaches. Analyses were performed during two seasons, summer and autumn, in a meadow located in the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy), ...
Piepenbrock Cosima - - 2014
To test the display luminance hypothesis of the positive polarity advantage and gain insights for display design, the joint effects of display polarity and character size were assessed with a proofreading task Studies have shown that dark characters on light background (positive polarity) lead to better legibility than do light ...
Blair-Pattison Aubrey A Biomedical Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, - - 2014
Pedicle screw insertion, to stabilize or correct the spine, relies on creating a probe path with the correct trajectory to prevent unsafe breaching of the cortical wall. Safe pedicle cannulation is aided when the surgeon can feel the difference between a safe and unsafe path. Pedicle probe forces and torques ...
James Logan S LS McGill - - 2014
Behavior is critically shaped during sensitive periods in development. Birdsong is a learned vocal behavior that undergoes dramatic plasticity during a sensitive period of sensorimotor learning. During this period, juvenile songbirds engage in vocal practice to shape their vocalizations into relatively stereotyped songs. By the time songbirds reach adulthood, their ...
Da Gürbüz - - 2014
Density related effects, both inverse density- and density-dependent, contribute to regulating population dynamics of parasites. We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. gallinarum eggs in faeces samples (N = 1365) from chickens (N = 39) were quantified starting ...
Halfwerk Wouter W Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, PO Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panama; Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Animals have multiple senses through which they detect their surroundings and often integrate sensory information across different modalities to generate perceptions [1, 2]. Animal communication, likewise, often consists of signals containing stimuli processed by different senses [3-6]. Stimuli with different physical forms (i.e., from different sensory modalities) travel at different ...
Formosa D D University of the Sunshine Coast, School of Health & Sports Science, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering School of Health & Sports Science, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Sunshine Coast, - - 2014
20 elite swimmers completed a total of 6 randomized net drag force trials in 2 conditions (i) 3 breathing and (ii) 3 non-breathing. Net drag force was measured using an assisted motorized dynamometer device mounted upon a Kistler force-platform. The male participants demonstrated no statistical differences in stroke rates between ...
Reichert Michael S MS Humboldt University-Berlin, Germany; - - 2014
The visual ecology of nocturnal anurans is poorly understood but there is growing evidence that vision plays a role in important behaviors such as mate choice. While several recent studies demonstrated that females are responsive to visual cues when selecting mates, the forces responsible for these preferences are unknown. We ...
Ingebrigtsen Jørgen J a Department of Sports, Centre for Practical Knowledge , University of Nordland , Bodø , - - 2014
Abstract The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic ...
Waaramaa Teija T University of Tampere, School of Communication, Media and Theatre , Tampere , - - 2014
Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their ...
Reiter Russel J RJ Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. Electronic address: - - 2014
To summarize the role of melatonin and circadian rhythms in determining optimal female reproductive physiology, especially at the peripheral level. Databases were searched for the related English-language literature published up to March 1, 2014. Only papers in peer-reviewed journals are cited. Not applicable. Not applicable. Melatonin treatment, alterations of the ...
Keyte Anna L AL Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United - - 2014
Heterochrony, or a change in developmental timing, is an important mechanism of evolutionary change. Historically the concept of heterochrony has focused alternatively on changes in size and shape or changes in developmental sequence, but most have focused on the pattern of change. Few studies have examined changes in the mechanisms ...
Wong Jason Y L JY School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland; School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, - - 2014
Objective: To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. Methods: A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion ...
Aubrecht Taryn G TG Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Columbus, - - 2014
Winter is a challenging time to survive and breed outside of the tropics. Animals use day length (photoperiod) to regulate seasonally appropriate adaptations in anticipation of challenging winter conditions. The net result of these photoperiod-mediated adjustments is enhanced immune function and increased survival. Thus, the ability to discriminate day length ...
Ouergui Ibrahim I 1High Institute of Sport and Physical Education (ISSEP) Kef, Kef, Tunisia. 2Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University. Douha, Qatar. 3Martial Arts and Combat Sports Research Group - School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 4Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Montpellier, France. 5School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. 6Human Performance Laboratory, The Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 7Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia. 8High Institute of Sports and Physical Education (ISSEP) Ksar Said, University of Manouba, - - 2014
The objective of the study was to analyze the time structure of high-level kickboxing matches. A total of 45 combats from two male World Championships were monitored using a time motion analysis system. The combat time structure (i.e., high-intensity activity: HIA; low-intensity activity: LIA; and referee breaks or pauses) during ...
de Lacey James J 1Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand 2Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Savoie, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France. 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Lyon, Saint-Etienne, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a pre-season taper on individual power-force-velocity profiles and jump performance in professional National Rugby League (NRL) players. Seven professional rugby league players performed concentric squat jumps using ascending loads of 25, 50, 75, 100% body mass before and after ...
Surbhi DST-IRHPA Center for Excellence in Biological Rhythms Research; Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007, - - 2014
Day length regulates seasonal plasticity connected with reproduction in birds. Rhythmic pineal melatonin secretion is a reliable indicator of the night length, hence day length. Removal of rhythmic melatonin secretion by exposure to constant bright light (LLbright) or by pinealectomy renders several species of songbirds including Indian weaver bird (Ploceus ...
Zhang Da - - 2014
Investigating the responses of autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypoxia may provide some knowledge about the mechanism of neural control and rhythmic adjustment. The integrated cardiac and respiratory system display complicated dynamics that are affected by intrinsic feedback mechanisms controlling their interaction. To probe how the cardiac and respiratory system ...
Oostra Vicencio V Institute of Biology, Leiden University PO Box 9505, 2300 RA, Leiden, the Netherlands ; Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University and Research Centre P.O. Box 309, 6700 AH, Wageningen, the Netherlands ; Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, - - 2014
Many organisms display phenotypic plasticity as adaptation to seasonal environmental fluctuations. Often, such seasonal responses entails plasticity of a whole suite of morphological and life-history traits that together contribute to the adaptive phenotypes in the alternative environments. While phenotypic plasticity in general is a well-studied phenomenon, little is known about ...
Singh Navinder J NJ Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå 90183, Sweden - - 2014
A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive ...
Nguyen Cecilia - - 2014
This study aimed to determine if starting with the feet above the water (FAW) in male backstroke swimming resulted in faster start times (15-m time) than when the feet were underwater (FUW). It was hypothesised that setting higher on the wall would generate increased horizontal force and velocity, resulting in ...
Hughes Robert N RN Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Male and female PVG/c rats were observed in an open field (OF) and an elevated plus maze (EPM) either with or without a bright light stressor (600-692lx) following an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 25 or 50mg/kg of caffeine. One week later, the same rats were observed under the same drug ...
Thurman Lindsey L LL Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA, - - 2014
Amphibian species capable of optimizing trait response to environmental stressors may develop complex strategies for defending against rapid environmental change. Trait responses may differ between populations, particularly if stressor strength varies across spatial or temporal gradients. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one such stressor that poses a significant threat to amphibian ...
Hodges-Simeon Carolyn R CR Department of Anthropology, University of California , Santa Barbara, CA 93106 , USA - - 2014
Fundamental and formant frequencies influence perceived pitch and are sexually dimorphic in humans. The information content of these acoustic parameters can illuminate the forces of sexual selection shaping vocal sex differences as well as the mechanisms that ensure signal reliability. We use multiple regression to examine the relationships between somatic ...
Jimenez-Marco Teresa T Fundació Banc de Sang i Teixits de les Illes Balears, Spain ; Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Palma de Mallorca. - - 2014
Risk reduction strategies for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) include the preferential use of male donors to provide fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Implementing this measure based on FFP quarantine program is a very complex process. To improve FFP inventory management and the availability of FFP from male donors, the Mirasol ...
Budki Puja P University of Lucknow, - - 2014
Circannual rhythms regulate seasonal reproduction in many vertebrates. The present study investigated if circannual reproductive phenotypes (rhythms in growth of gonads and molt) were generated independently of the circadian clocks in the subtropical non-photoperiodic spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata). Birds were subjected to light-dark (LD) cycles with identical light but varying ...
Bohm S S Department of Training and Movement Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, - - 2014
Although symmetry of Achilles tendon (AT) properties between legs is commonly assumed in research and clinical settings, different loading profiles of both legs in daily life (i.e., foot dominance) may affect the tendon properties in a side-depended manner. Therefore, AT properties were examined with regard to symmetry between legs. Thirty-six ...
Varea Carlos C Department of Biology, Madrid Autonomous University, Madrid, 28049, - - 2014
Among the ancestral characteristics of the primate group to which Homo sapiens belongs we find a pattern of daytime physical activity, but one notable exception is birthing which usually begins with night-time labor. In populations with a moderate or high level of medicalized labor, there is evidence that the medical ...
Vescovi Jason D JD School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Purpose: To quantify the locomotor demands of college female soccer matches and compare the relative proportion of distances in specified velocity bands between players completing an entire half with substitutes. Methods: College female soccer players (n = 113) were assessed during a regular-season match using global positioning system technology. An ...
McCallion Ciara C Departments of Anatomy and Physiology, Trinity College Dublin , Dublin 2, - - 2014
This study compared stride length, stride frequency, contact time, flight time and foot-strike patterns (FSP) when running barefoot, and in minimalist and conventional running shoes. Habitually shod male athletes (n = 14; age 25 ± 6 yr; competitive running experience 8 ± 3 yr) completed a randomised order of 6 ...
Recalde-Salas A A Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University, G.P.O. Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia angela.recaldesalas@uqconnect.edu.au, C.Salgado@cmst.curtin.edu.au, Miles.Parsons@curtin.edu.au, sarah.marley@gmail.com, - - 2014
Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with ...
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