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Results 151 - 200 of 1817
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Hsu Zoe Y - - 2013
Bright light is used to treat winter depression and may also have positive effects on mood in some healthy individuals. However, there is little information on how bright light treatment influences social behavior. We performed a cross-over study in winter comparing the effects of morning bright light administration with placebo ...
Ferrera Isabel - - 2013
The abundance and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) were studied for a year cycle at the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (NW Mediterranean) and their potential links to an array of environmental variables were explored. Cell numbers were low in winter and peaked in summer, showing a marked seasonality that ...
Varley Matthew C - - 2013
Abstract We compared the match activity profiles of elite footballers from Australian football (AF), rugby league (RL) and soccer (SOC), using identical movement definitions. Ninety-four elite footballers from AF, RL or SOC clubs in Australia participated in this study. Movement data were collected using a 5-Hz global positioning system from ...
Jenkins Brittany R - - 2013
Sexually selected traits confer greater reproductive benefits to individuals with more elaborate forms of the signal. However, whether these signals convey reliable information about the physiology underlying trait development remains unknown in many species. The steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) mediates important physiological and behavioral processes during the vertebrate stress response, ...
Lammers Marc O - - 2013
The endangered beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population in Cook Inlet, AK faces threats from a variety of anthropogenic factors, including coastal development, oil and gas exploration, vessel traffic, and military activities. To address existing gaps in understanding about the occurrence of belugas in Cook Inlet, a project was developed to ...
Xia Canwei - - 2013
The repertoires of most songbirds consist of two or more different song types. Studies on a growing number of species have indicated that song types are used selectively in different contexts. For example, two bush warblers (Cettia diphone and C. cettia) use song types selectively in spontaneous singing and playback-evoked ...
Hatosy Stephen M - - 2013
Factors controlling the spatial distribution of bacterial diversity have been intensely studied, whereas less is known about temporal changes. To address this, we tested whether the mechanisms that underlie bacterial temporal beta-diversity vary across different scales in three marine microbial communities. While seasonal turnover was detected, at least 73% of ...
Willson John D - - 2013
Minimalistic footwear has garnered widespread interest in the running community based largely on the premise that the footwear may reduce certain running-related injury risk factors through adaptations in running mechanics and foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study is to examine short term adaptations in running mechanics among runners ...
Paternotte Cédric - - 2013
Climate stresses and monetary resources seem to lead to different collective adaptations. However, the reference to adaptation and to ambiguous collective dimensions appears premature; populations may entertain nothing more than shared adaptiveness. At this point, the intricacy of the underlying evolutionary processes (cultural selection, fitness-utility decoupling) very much obscures any ...
Clayson Peter E - - 2013
We assessed the psychometric properties, including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and number of trials needed for stability, for response time (RT) and conflict N2 amplitude measures of conflict adaptation (i.e., sequential trial or Gratton effects). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 79 healthy individuals (44 female) during completion of a ...
Cunea Alexander - - 2013
Photostasis is a phenomenon where the photoreceptor outer segment (OS) length and its rhodopsin content vary depending on environmental lighting. When light is reduced for extended periods, it is argued that OS lengthen and its rhodopsin concentration rises to increase photon capture in darker environment. Increases in OS length may ...
Geberzahn Nicole N Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Neuroscience Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8195, 91405 Orsay, France ; Equipe Communications Acoustiques, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, Centre de Neuroscience Paris-Sud, UMR 8195, Bat. 446, Univ. Paris XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex, - - 2014
In songbirds of the temperate zone, often only males sing and their songs serve to attract females and to deter territorial rivals. In many species, males vary certain aspects of their singing behavior when engaged in territorial interactions. Such variation may be an honest signal of the traits of the ...
Judge Lawrence W - - 2013
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of heavy and light implements on subsequent overhead back (OHB) shot put performance with a competition weight shot put. The present investigation was designed test the efficacy of heavy implements for potentiating subsequent OHB performance. Participants included 41 athletes ...
Master Suely - - 2013
Vocally trained actresses are expected to have more vocal economy than nonactresses. Therefore, we hypothesize that there will be differences in the electroglottogram-based voice economy parameter quasi-output cost ratio (QOCR) between actresses and nonactresses. This difference should remain across different levels of intensity. A total of 30 actresses and 30 ...
Murphy B A - - 2013
Artificial lighting is commonly used to advance the breeding season in horses. Light masks were developed that direct light at a single eye to inhibit the production of melatonin, the decoder of photoperiod for seasonally breeding animals. To investigate whether low intensity blue light from light masks was effective at ...
Monecke Stefanie - - 2013
In mammals, the pineal hormone melatonin is thought to be essential to process environmental photoperiodic information. In this study, we demonstrate in a circannual species, the European hamster Cricetus cricetus, the existence of a melatonin-independent second pathway. In 4 physiological parameters (reproduction, body weight, activity pattern, body temperature), a large ...
Blattner Margaret S - - 2013
Steroid hormones including estrogens modulate the expression of daily activity and circadian rhythms, including free-running period, phase angle of activity onset, and response to light. The mechanisms underlying these effects, however, are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that estrogen signaling is required for photic responsiveness of the circadian ...
Lin Chia-Wei - - 2013
Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. ...
Skuk Verena G - - 2013
To determine the relative importance of acoustic parameters (fundamental frequency, F0; formant frequencies, FF; aperiodicity, AP; spectrum level; SL) on voice gender perception, we used a novel parameter-morphing approach that, unlike spectral envelope shifting, allows (a) applying non-uniform scale factors to transform formants and (b) more direct comparison of parameter ...
Ayabe Makoto - - 2013
Abstract The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between the accumulation of 1000 steps in 10 minutes (1K) and 3000 steps in 30 minutes (3K) with the amount and intensity of daily physical activity. Thirty-three adults (16 males and 17 females, 53 ± 19 years) wore an accelerometer ...
Ito Emi - - 2013
Superparasitism in solitary parasitoids results in fatal competition between the immature parasitoids, and consequently only one individual can emerge. In the semisolitary ovicidal parasitoid Echthrodelphax fairchildii (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), two adults can emerge under superparasitism with a short interval (<24 h) between the first and second ovipositions. We determined the female ...
Ręk Paweł P Department of Behavioural Ecology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan, - - 2014
Although the use of sounds in spatial orientation is widespread among animals, only a few groups advanced such specific adaptations as echolocation. In contrast, practically all animals and night-active species in particular, must occasionally orient themselves relative to invisible but audible objects such as a hidden rival or predator. In ...
Ręk Paweł - - 2013
Because birds' acoustic signals function in antagonistic interactions between males and in female attraction, a majority of vocalisations are loud. In contrast, some birds, additionally produce soft vocalisations in escalated agonistic and sexual contexts. Nevertheless, the relationship between the acoustic parameters of such signals and their function is not clear. ...
Hong Jui-Yang JY Gail and Gerald Oppenheimer Family Center for Neurobiology of Stress, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2013
Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may ...
Chaturvedi Chandra Mohini - - 2013
This article is focused on the effect of specific phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations on the gonadal responses of different avian species. These species include (i) summer breeding birds - Red headed bunting (exhibiting post-reproductive absolute photorefractoriness) and Indian Weaver bird (which lacks absolute photorefractoriness), (ii) autumn breeding ...
Krupp Joshua J JJ Department of Biology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L1C6, - - 2013
Social cues contribute to the circadian entrainment of physiological and behavioral rhythms. These cues supplement the influence of daily and seasonal cycles in light and temperature. In Drosophila, the social environment modulates circadian mechanisms that regulate sex pheromone production and mating behavior. Here we demonstrate that a neuroendocrine pathway, defined ...
Dixit Anand S - - 2013
Photoperiod has been shown to be a major source of temporal information regulating reproduction and associated functions in a number of avian species. We studied seasonal cycles of testicular volume, molt and body weight in natural and temperature-controlled conditions and under different artificial photoperiods in the yellow-breasted buntings. Buntings posses ...
Zhang Wenjuan - - 2013
The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study set out to investigate the effect of neuroticism on emotion evaluation during the menstrual cycle, with high and low neuroticism females viewing and evaluating valence and arousal of emotional pictures in the menstruation, late follicular and luteal phases. Behavioral results revealed no group or ...
Patterson Matthew R - - 2013
The purpose of this study is to investigate how data from a foot mounted accelerometer can be used to detect motor pattern healthy subjects performed walking trails under two different conditions; normal and stiff ankle walking. Lower body kinematic data were collected as well as accelerometer data from both feet. ...
Blahó Miklós - - 2013
As with mosquitoes, female tabanid flies search for mammalian hosts by visual and olfactory cues, because they require a blood meal before being able to produce and lay eggs. Polarotactic tabanid flies find striped or spotted patterns with intensity and/or polarization modulation visually less attractive than homogeneous white, brown or ...
Roecklein Kathryn - - 2013
Individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may have a decreased retinal sensitivity in the non-image forming light-input pathway. We examined the post illumination pupil response (PIPR) among individuals with SAD and healthy controls to identify possible differences in the melanopsin signaling pathway. We also investigated whether melanopsin gene (OPN4) variations ...
Charlwood J Derek - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Understanding the survival strategies of malaria vectors at the edges of their distribution, where they are under stress from environmental conditions, may lead to the development of novel control techniques and may help predict the effects of climate change on these mosquitoes. METHODS: The population dynamics of an isolated ...
Barbieri Guillaume - - 2013
The representation of the vertical direction is a compromise between the directions given by the egocentric and allocentric references. Dissociations between these two referentials in the discrimination of a biological walker which typically refers to a model of verticality questions the coordinate system (allocentric and/or egocentric) used to perceive it. ...
Dawson Alistair - - 2013
Photoperiod is the major cue used by birds to time breeding seasons and molt. However, the annual cycle in photoperiod changes with latitude. Within species, for temperate and high latitude species, gonadal maturation and breeding start earlier at lower latitudes but regression and molt both occur at similar times at ...
Smith Katie L - - 2013
Spatio-temporal studies of hybrid zones provide an opportunity to test evolutionary hypotheses of hybrid zone maintenance and movement. We conducted a landscape genetics study on a classic hybrid zone of the south-eastern Australian frogs, Litoria ewingii and Litoria paraewingi. This hybrid zone has been comprehensively studied since the 1960s, providing ...
Taylor R C - - 2013
Sexual signals are often complex and perceived by multiple senses. How animals integrate signal components across sensory modalities can influence signal evolution. Here, we show that two relatively unattractive signals that are perceived acoustically and visually can be combined in a pattern to form a signal that is attractive to ...
Pagon Nives - - 2013
We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and ...
Cala Yuself R - - 2013
The queen conch Eustrombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region. In Cuba Island the studies about this resource are very scarce and particularly in the Southeastern regions of the country. With the aim to get important fishery information about this gastropod, adult Queen Conch density and ...
Wdowski Maximilian M - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the technique adaptations made when performing sprint-based tasks without (free condition) and with (constrained condition) the constraints of carrying a field hockey stick. Three free and three constrained maximal sprint accelerations were performed by 18 experienced university male field hockey players (age ...
Sahayadhas Arun - - 2013
Driver drowsiness has been one of the major causes of road accidents that lead to severe trauma, such as physical injury, death, and economic loss, which highlights the need to develop a system that can alert drivers of their drowsy state prior to accidents. Researchers have therefore attempted to develop ...
Wincenciak Joanna - - 2013
Face adaptation paradigms have been used extensively to investigate the mechanisms underlying the processing of several different facial characteristics including face shape, identity, view and emotional expression. Judgements of facial trustworthiness can also be influenced by visual adaptation; to date these (un)trustworthy face aftereffects have only been shown following adaptation ...
Afshari Davood - - 2013
Awkward back and shoulder postures have been suggested to be a cause of back and shoulder discomfort in carpet weavers. This study aimed at continuous assessment of the upper arm and back postures and estimation of biomechanical load subtasks using inclinometers during 4 h. Median of trunk flexion angle in weavers ...
Paxton Heather - - 2013
One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics ...
Kauranen Hannele - - 2013
An ability to predict forthcoming changes in environmental conditions and get prepared for them in advance is crucial for the survival and reproduction of organisms living in a seasonally changing environment. We have studied the possible involvement of circadian oscillator(s) in the photoperiodic timer controlling seasonal responses by tracing Drosophila ...
Rani Sangeeta - - 2013
Birds show adaptation in their physiology and behavior to daily and seasonal periodicities in the environment. A circannual clock system gates seasonal events in birds to happen at the most appropriate time of the year, since a mistiming will delay the event until the arrival of the favorable time next ...
Street Brian D - - 2013
The external knee adduction moment is an accurate estimation of the load distribution of the knee and is a valid predictor for the presence, severity and progression rate of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Gait modification strategies have been shown to be an effective means of reducing the external adduction moment. ...
Balamurugan R J - - 2013
Anemonefish are found commonly in reef habitats and they select only limited anemone species to exist their life. This study describes the movement of anemone, Stichodactyla haddoni and its impact on the reproduction of anemonefishes in captivity. The anemone movement was found to be creeping and in straight-line between successive ...
Mendes Ana P - - 2013
Fado is a Portuguese musical genre, instrumentally accompanied by a Portuguese and an acoustic guitar. Fado singers' voice is perceptually characterized by a low pitch, hoarse, and strained voice. The present research study sketches the acoustic and phonatory profile of the Fado singers' voice. Fifteen Fado singers produced spoken and ...
Ridley Jeff - - 2013
The globally averaged mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is negative, but an anomalous gain of mass has been suggested for the Karakoram glaciers of the western Himalaya. Changes in the winter synoptic patterns can influence the amount and seasonality of Himalayan snowfall and consequently influence the mass balance ...
Gallagher Kaitlin M - - 2013
Gait characteristics during stair descent have been characterized for a straight descent path; however, pedestrians are likely to encounter a variety of staircase designs that allow one to descend at an angle (i.e. an oblique or monumental staircase). The purpose of this study was to determine the temporospatial lower limb ...
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