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Djaoui Léo L Centre de Recherche et d'Innovation sur le Sport (CRIS), Université de Lyon 1, - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to examine the variation in physical activity of elite soccer players within successive prolonged periods of fixture congestion over 5 months of competition during the competitive season 2011-2012. Sixteen international players, classified into 6 positions (central defenders: CD; full-backs: FB; central defensive midfielders: ...
Herman Jacob J - - 2013
Although there is keen interest in the potential adaptive value of epigenetic variation, it is unclear what conditions favor the stability of these variants either within or across generations. Since epigenetic modifications can be environmentally sensitive, existing theory on adaptive phenotypic plasticity provides relevant insights. Our consideration of this theory ...
Schwartz Cédric - - 2013
The contralateral shoulder is often used as a reference when evaluating a pathologic shoulder. However, the literature provides contradictory results regarding the symmetry of the scapular pattern in a healthy population. We assume that several factors including gender and type of motion may influence the bilateral symmetry of the scapulae. ...
Feng Ni Y - - 2013
Melatonin is a well-documented time-keeping hormone that can entrain an individual's physiology and behavior to the day-night cycle, though surprisingly little is known about its influence on the neural basis of social behavior, including vocalization. Male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) produce several call types distinguishable by duration and by daily ...
Deere Jacques A - - 2013
Alternative reproductive phenotypes (ARPs) represent discrete morphological variation within a single sex; as such ARPs are an excellent study system to investigate the maintenance of phenotypic variation. ARPs are traditionally modelled as a mixture of pure strategies or as a conditional strategy. Most male dimorphisms are controlled by a conditional ...
Hoffman Matthew R - - 2013
To evaluate type IIIB thyroplasty using the excised larynx bench apparatus and determine how altering vocal fold contour by performing bilateral medialization of the inferior vocal fold affects phonation. This procedure could be performed in patients for whom pitch lowering is desirable, such as female-to-male transsexuals or male patients with ...
Gabbett Tim J - - 2013
A limitation of most rugby league time-motion studies is that researchers have examined the demands of single teams, with no investigations of all teams in an entire competition. This study investigated the activity profiles and technical and tactical performances of successful and less successful teams throughout an entire rugby league ...
Moradi Negin - - 2013
Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) allows quantifying the voice quality and provides an overview of the mean spectral characteristics of a voice. The aims of this study were to survey normal spectral characteristics of Persian and investigate sex-related changes in the source characteristics of dynamic speech using LTAS. Speech samples obtained ...
Lackner Christine L - - 2013
Increasing evidence supports the notion that both internalizing (e.g., anxiety) and externalizing (e.g., aggression) behavioral dysregulation are associated with abnormal communication between brain regions. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals across two electrode sites are said to be coherent with one another when they show consistent phase relations. However, periods of desynchrony with ...
Reingruber Jürgen J Institut de Biologie de l'École Normale Supérieure, Group of Computational Biology and Applied Mathematics, École Normale Supérieure, 75005 Paris, - - 2013
Amphibian and mammalian rods can both detect single photons of light even though they differ greatly in physical dimensions, mammalian rods being much smaller in diameter than amphibian rods. To understand the changes in physiology and biochemistry required by such large differences in outer segment geometry, we developed a computational ...
Barreda Santiago - - 2013
Several previous experiments have investigated the perception of speaker size by presenting listeners with acoustic stimuli that differ in average f0 and/or apparent vocal tract length (i.e., higher formant frequencies overall), and asking listeners to make judgments of relative or absolute speaker size. Typically, these experiments use stimuli with a ...
Grawunder Sven - - 2013
A novel cross-linguistically robust measure is introduced for the linguistically relevant distinction of pulmonic vs glottalic (ejective) stops. We propose to parametrize the abruptness of the following vowel onset by using intensity slope (RMS-trajectory) at the voicing onset. This measure was previously discussed only for voicing distinction of pulmonic stops ...
Liu Hanjun - - 2013
Considerable evidence suggests that auditory function can be influenced by gonadal steroids (estradiol and progesterone), but whether there is a sex hormonal modulation of auditory-vocal integration in vocal production remains unknown. The present event-related potential (ERP) study sought to examine the behavioral and neurophysiological processing of auditory feedback during self-produced ...
Farrokhrooz Mehdi - - 2013
One characteristic of deep ocean noise is the decrease in ambient levels below the conjugate depth (Urick, 1975). Measurements made by Gaul et al. (JOE, 2007) and Morris (JASA, 1978) in the North Pacific indicate that the slope of the noise below the conjugate depth varies with location. Gaul et ...
Klinck Holger - - 2013
Between July 2009 and December 2010, two identical calibrated hydrophone packages were deployed and continuously operated (2,000 Hz sampling rate) in the Fram Strait (79°N, 5.5°E) and the Bransfield Strait (62°S, 55.5°W). Analysis of these recordings were combined with a data set collected during the same time period by the ...
Isedeh Prescilia - - 2013
Polymorphic light eruption (PMLE) is the most common of the immunologically mediated photodermatoses.<sup>1</sup> Onset is typically within the first three decades of life and affects females two to three times more than males.<sup>2,3</sup> It occurs 30 minutes to 1-3 days after sun exposure and usually resolves in 7 to 10 ...
Nissen Carl W CW Elite Sports Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, - - 2013
Baseball professionals believe that pitching from a mound can increase the stresses placed on the body. There is no difference in kinematics or kinetics in pitching from a mound versus flat-ground conditions in adolescent baseball pitchers. Laboratory investigation. The fastball pitching motions of 15 adolescent baseball pitchers, including upper extremity ...
Mooney T Aran - - 2013
Cape Wind, situated in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts, is poised to become America's first offshore windfarm. Our objective is to establish baseline (pre-construction) sound levels of human and biological activity, including diel and seasonal variability of various sound types, at the construction site and three nearby comparison sites. Acoustic recorders have ...
McKenna Megan F - - 2013
The Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division of the U.S. National Park Service has collected month-long acoustic recordings at more than 300 sites in 73 park units located throughout the United States, dating back to 2000. Each monitoring session lasted 25 days or more; some sites were monitored more than ...
Koot Barbara - - 2013
Geographic differences in fin whale song that may be related to population structure have been documented in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. However, information on the songs and population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific is limited. We analyzed fin whale songs recorded over 9 months by an ...
Ahadi Mohsen - - 2013
To investigate the influence of gender on subcortical representation of speech acoustic parameters where simultaneously presented to both ears. Two-channel speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses were obtained in 25 female and 23 male normal hearing young adults by using binaural presentation of the 40ms synthetic consonant-vowel/da/, and the encoding of the ...
Cassone Vincent M - - 2013
In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms ...
Mensinger Allen F - - 2013
Male oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, produce long duration (250 to 650 msec duration) sexual advertisement calls or "boatwhistles" during the breeding season. When males are in close proximity, the fishes alternate the production of boatwhistles with other males to avoid call overlap. However, males can also produce a number of ...
Yagi Naoto - - 2013
Intact eyes of frog and mouse were studied by X-ray diffraction. Light-induced changes in the reflections from the rod outer segments (ROS) were recorded at a time resolution of 0.1 and 1 sec in frog and mouse, respectively. Lamellar diffraction from disk membranes was observed to the 10th order. In ...
Yang Qin Q National Maize Improvement Center of China, Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, - - 2013
The postdomestication adaptation of maize to longer days required reduced photoperiod sensitivity to optimize flowering time. We performed a genome-wide association study and confirmed that ZmCCT, encoding a CCT domain-containing protein, is associated with the photoperiod response. In early-flowering maize we detected a CACTA-like transposable element (TE) within the ZmCCT ...
Weirich Melanie - - 2013
The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between speaking fundamental frequency and acoustic vowel space size, thus testing a possible perceptual source of sex-specific differences in acoustic vowel space size based on the greater inter-harmonic spacing and a poorer definition of the spectral envelope of higher ...
Willis Mark A - - 2013
Males of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, track wind-borne plumes of female sex pheromone by flying upwind, while continuously turning from side-to-side and changing altitude. Their characteristic "zigzagging" trajectory has long been thought to result from the interaction of two mechanisms, an odor-modulated orientation to wind and a built-in central nervous ...
Huang Juan - - 2013
The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > ...
Bigelow E M R - - 2013
To determine whether peak vertical and horizontal impact accelerations were different while running on a track or on a treadmill, 12 healthy subjects (average age 32.8 ± 9.8 y), were fitted with a novel, wireless accelerometer capable of recording triaxial acceleration over time. The accelerometer was attached to a custom-made ...
Hao Ya-Nan - - 2013
The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a chronic wheat pest worldwide. Adult S. mosellana engage in short-distance flight, but also exploit weather patterns for long-distance dispersal. However, little is known about the flight performance of S. mosellana, and the effects of the biotic and abiotic ...
Simões Amanda Daniela AD 1 Entomology Department, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Cep 36571-000, - - 2013
Abstract The effects of varying photophase conditions on biological parameters of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), nymphs and adults were evaluated. Eggs of a late developmental stage were placed near sugarcane roots (cultivar RB739735) maintained in a greenhouse (21 ± 7° C, 90 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults were ...
Girling Robbie D - - 2013
The trajectories of pheromone plumes in canopied habitats, such as orchards, have been little studied. We documented the capture of male navel orangeworm moths, Amyelois transitella, in female-baited traps positioned at 5 levels, from ground level to the canopy top, at approximately 6 m above ground, in almond orchards. Males were ...
Deroche Mickael L D - - 2013
Harmonic complexes that generate highly modulated temporal envelopes on the basilar membrane (BM) mask a tone less effectively than complexes that generate relatively flat temporal envelopes, because the non-linear active gain of the BM selectively amplifies a low-level tone in the dips of a modulated masker envelope. The present study ...
Waldron Mark - - 2013
Abstract This study investigated the relationship between the physical abilities of adolescent rugby league players and tackling and ball-carrying skills performed during matches, across three seasons (under-15 to under-17). The players were measured each season for acceleration (10-30 m), peak and mean speed (10-30 m), sprinting force (10-30 m), aerobic ...
Kanlayanaphotporn Rotsalai R Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 154Soi Chula 12, Rama I Road, Phayathai, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address: - - 2014
To assess the effect of slouched sitting on shoulder range of motion (ROM). 30 asymptomatic males aged between 18 and 35 years with no history of shoulder problems within the last 6 months. Shoulder ROMs in flexion and abduction as well as external rotation and internal rotation in 90° of ...
Little Anthony C - - 2013
Exposure, or adaptation, to faces or voices biases perceptions of subsequent stimuli, for example, causing faces to appear more normal than they would be otherwise if they are similar to the previously presented stimuli. Studies also suggest that there may be cross-modal adaptation between sound and vision, although the evidence ...
Nousek-McGregor Anna E AE Nicholas School for the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516; 2Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543; 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - - 2014
Abstract Buoyancy is an important consideration for diving marine animals, resulting in specific ecologically relevant adaptations. Marine mammals use blubber as an energy reserve, but because this tissue is also positively buoyant, nutritional demands have the potential to cause considerable variation in buoyancy. North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis are ...
Dominoni D M - - 2013
The growing interest in the effects of light pollution on daily and seasonal cycles of animals has led to a boost of research in recent years. In birds it has been hypothesized that artificial light at night can affect daily aspects of behaviour, but one caveat is the lack of ...
Ward Jessica L - - 2013
Frogs form large choruses during the mating season in which males produce loud advertisement calls to attract females and repel rival males. High background noise levels in these social aggregations can impair vocal perception. In humans, spatial release from masking contributes to our ability to understand speech in noisy social ...
Hofstetter Richard W - - 2013
Acoustic signals play a critical role in mate choice, species recognition, communication, territoriality, predator escape, and prey selection. Bark beetles, which are significant disturbance agents of forests, produce a variety of acoustic signals. We explored a bioacoustic approach to reduce bark beetle reproduction within wood tissues. Playback of modified biological ...
Hsu Zoe Y - - 2013
Bright light is used to treat winter depression and may also have positive effects on mood in some healthy individuals. However, there is little information on how bright light treatment influences social behavior. We performed a cross-over study in winter comparing the effects of morning bright light administration with placebo ...
Kelley Jennifer L - - 2013
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are ...
Ferrera Isabel - - 2013
The abundance and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) were studied for a year cycle at the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (NW Mediterranean) and their potential links to an array of environmental variables were explored. Cell numbers were low in winter and peaked in summer, showing a marked seasonality that ...
Varley Matthew C - - 2013
Abstract We compared the match activity profiles of elite footballers from Australian football (AF), rugby league (RL) and soccer (SOC), using identical movement definitions. Ninety-four elite footballers from AF, RL or SOC clubs in Australia participated in this study. Movement data were collected using a 5-Hz global positioning system from ...
Jenkins Brittany R - - 2013
Sexually selected traits confer greater reproductive benefits to individuals with more elaborate forms of the signal. However, whether these signals convey reliable information about the physiology underlying trait development remains unknown in many species. The steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) mediates important physiological and behavioral processes during the vertebrate stress response, ...
Lammers Marc O - - 2013
The endangered beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population in Cook Inlet, AK faces threats from a variety of anthropogenic factors, including coastal development, oil and gas exploration, vessel traffic, and military activities. To address existing gaps in understanding about the occurrence of belugas in Cook Inlet, a project was developed to ...
Hatosy Stephen M - - 2013
Factors controlling the spatial distribution of bacterial diversity have been intensely studied, whereas less is known about temporal changes. To address this, we tested whether the mechanisms that underlie bacterial temporal beta-diversity vary across different scales in three marine microbial communities. While seasonal turnover was detected, at least 73% of ...
Xia Canwei - - 2013
The repertoires of most songbirds consist of two or more different song types. Studies on a growing number of species have indicated that song types are used selectively in different contexts. For example, two bush warblers (Cettia diphone and C. cettia) use song types selectively in spontaneous singing and playback-evoked ...
Willson John D - - 2013
Minimalistic footwear has garnered widespread interest in the running community based largely on the premise that the footwear may reduce certain running-related injury risk factors through adaptations in running mechanics and foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study is to examine short term adaptations in running mechanics among runners ...
Paternotte Cédric - - 2013
Climate stresses and monetary resources seem to lead to different collective adaptations. However, the reference to adaptation and to ambiguous collective dimensions appears premature; populations may entertain nothing more than shared adaptiveness. At this point, the intricacy of the underlying evolutionary processes (cultural selection, fitness-utility decoupling) very much obscures any ...
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