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Valentine Gail - - 2012
Production of stained tissue sections for examination by light microscopy is a step-wise process which begins with preservation of tissue (fixation), then dehydration and clearing of the tissue, and finally impregnation with wax (processing). Mineralized tissues such as bone and teeth are subject to a further step (decalcification). Thin sections ...
Zhu Lan - - 2012
Wireless capsule endoscopes for diagnosis and treatment in the gastrointestinal tract face the common problem of active actuation. To tackle this difficulty, a non-invasive intestinal bio-robot system with active actuation based on nerve stimulation was developed. This intestinal inspection system utilized a natural organism--the mud eel--to serve as the locomotion ...
Huang Chien-Chih - - 2012
By making use of an e-beam deposition system, the [Co(2 Å)/Pd(10 Å)]15 multilayers were prepared on a Si(100) substrate and anodized aluminum oxide [AAO] templates with average pore diameters of around 185, 95, and 40 nm. The mechanism of magnetization reversal of the Co/Pd multilayers was investigated. Wall motion was ...
Pastukhov Alexander - - 2012
Planar motion flows can induce the illusory appearance of a volume rotating in depth ("depth from motion"; G. Sperling, & B. A. Dosher 1994). This appearance changes spontaneously from time to time, reversing simultaneously its depth and its direction of rotation. We investigated asymmetric illusory volumes, which reverse more frequently ...
Keceli Sumru - - 2012
Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses ...
Chaves Luis Fernando - - 2012
Large malaria epidemics in the East African highlands during the mid and late 1990s kindled a stream of research on the role that global warming might have on malaria transmission. Most of the inferences using temporal information have been derived from a malaria incidence time series from Kericho. Here, we ...
Sato Kimitake - - 2012
Sato, K, Fortenbaugh, D, and Hydock, DS. Kinematic changes using weightlifting shoes on barbell back squat. J Strength Cond Res 26(1): 28-33, 2012-The purpose of this study was to validate a higher degree of foot segment angle by wearing the weightlifting (WL) shoes and to determine the kinematic differences between ...
Chen Yongli - - 2012
A multilayered structure incorporating a metal-dielectric subwavelength grating, with the characteristic of polarization separation for visible light and the capability of creating reflection resonance and distinctive polarization-dependent color effects, is proposed. Its reflection resonance and color for TE and TM polarizations are discussed, as well as the influence of its ...
Nanduri Devyani - - 2012
In an effort to restore functional form vision, epiretinal prostheses that elicit percepts by directly stimulating remaining retinal circuitry were implanted in human subjects with advanced retinitis pigmentosa RP). In this study, manipulating pulse train frequency and amplitude had different effects on the size and brightness of phosphene appearance. Experiments ...
Kauweloa Kevin I - - 2012
Purpose: To assess the temporal and spatial accuracy of the GateCT™ system (VisionRT, London, UK), a recently released respiratory tracking system for 4DCT, under both ideal and nonideal respiratory conditions.Methods: Three experiments were performed by benchmarking and comparing its results with the ground-truth input data and those generated by the ...
Chardonnens Julien - - 2012
Abstract We propose a new method, based on inertial sensors, to automatically measure at high frequency the durations of the main phases of ski jumping (i.e. take-off release, take-off, and early flight). The kinematics of the ski jumping movement were recorded by four inertial sensors, attached to the thigh and ...
Porte Yves - - 2012
On earth, gravity vector conditions the development of all living beings by physically imposing an axis along which to build their organism. Thus, during their whole life, they have to fight against this force not only to maintain their architectural organization but also to coordinate the communication between organs and ...
Allen-Ankins S - - 2012
Juvenile Murray cod Maccullochella peelii exhibited a type II functional response while preying on blackworms Lumbriculus variegatus, and the parameters of the type II model did not differ significantly between clear (0 NTU) and turbid (150 NTU) treatments. Further experiments showed that vision may not be necessary for prey detection ...
Tani Toshiki - - 2012
In an early stage of the postnatal development of cats, orientation maps mature and spatial frequency selectivity is consolidated. To investigate the time course of orientation map maturation associated with the consolidation of spatial frequency selectivity, we performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals in areas 17 and 18 of cats ...
Machulla Tonja-Katrin TK Multisensory Perception and Action Group, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstr. 41, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. - - 2012
Recent studies show that repeated exposure to an asynchrony between auditory and visual stimuli shifts the point of subjective simultaneity. Usually, the measurement stimuli used to assess this aftereffect are interleaved with short re-exposures to the asynchrony. In a first experiment, we show that the aftereffect declines during measurement in ...
Baranski Andrzej S - - 2011
Ultrahigh frequency voltammetry involves low scan rate voltammetric measurements with microelectrodes polarized by high-frequency large-amplitude alternating potential. The method provides a simple means for studying electrothermal and dielectrophoretic effects, which are important in micro and nanofluidic systems. The method also allows for indirect measurements of electrode impedance at GHz frequencies. ...
Ren Shenqiang - - 2011
For the first time the observation of substantial visible light-, electrically and mechanically induced changes of the magnetization of an organic exciton multiferroic consisting of single crystal P3HT doped with C(60) is reported. The observations open new avenues for exciton based spintronic devices.
Salvi Nicola - - 2011
Understanding how proteins function at the atomic level relies in part on a detailed characterization of their dynamics. Ubiquitin, a small single-domain protein, displays rich dynamic properties over a wide range of timescales. In particular, several regions of ubiquitin show the signature of chemical exchange, including the hydrophobic patch and ...
O'Halloran R L RL Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. - - 2012
In diffusion-weighted imaging, multishot acquisitions are problematic due to intershot inconsistencies of the phase caused by motion during the diffusion-encoding gradients. A model for the motion-induced phase errors in diffusion-weighted-MRI of the brain is presented, in which rigid-body and nonrigid-body motion are separated. In the model, it is assumed that ...
Han Hyonyoung - - 2011
Signal distortion of photoplethysmographs (PPGs) due to motion artifacts has been a limitation for developing real-time, wearable health monitoring devices. The artifacts in PPG signals are analyzed by comparing the frequency of the PPG with a reference pulse and daily life motions, including typing, writing, tapping, gesturing, walking, and running. ...
Kuroda Tsuyoshi - - 2011
The gap transfer illusion is an auditory illusion where a temporal gap inserted in a longer glide tone is perceived as if it were in a crossing shorter glide tone. Psychophysical and phenomenological experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sound-pressure-level (SPL) differences between crossing glides on the occurrence ...
Chang H C - - 2011
This study proposes a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) - based brain computer interface (BCI) independent of amplitude-frequency and phase calibrations. Six stepping delay flickering sequences (SDFSs) at 32Hz flickering frequency were used to implement a six-command BCI system. EEG signals recorded from Oz position were first filtered within 29 ...
Germuska M M Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5PT, UK. - - 2012
Increased expression of choline kinase has frequently been shown in tumours and is thought to be associated with disease progression. Studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an increase in total choline-containing metabolites (tCho) in tumour compared with healthy tissue. Subsequent reductions in tCho following successful treatment support the use ...
Barr J Bradley - - 2011
Using gait analysis, we documented kinetic and temporospatial changes over a 7-year period in a single healthy individual with a transfemoral amputation walking with three different knees and matched foot components. The knee/foot pairs in chronological order were Four Bar Endolite knee/Endolite Dynamic Response foot; Ossur Total Knee 2000/Pathfinder I ...
Bohannon Richard W - - 2011
Although evidence suggests that tester strength limits the magnitude of isometric force that can be measured using a handheld dynamometer (HHD), previous studies have not investigated the actual limits of force magnitude that can be measured by trained testers when a belt is or is not used to stabilize the ...
Aaltonen T - - 2011
We present the first measurement of polarization and CP-violating asymmetries in a B_{s}^{0} decay into two light vector mesons, B_{s}^{0}→ϕϕ, and an improved determination of its branching ratio using 295 decays reconstructed in a data sample corresponding to 2.9  fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF experiment at the Fermilab ...
Buddhadev Harsh H - - 2011
Bench press throws are commonly used in the assessment of upper body power and are often performed on a Smith machine thatutilizes a counterbalance weight to reduce the net load on the barbell. The use of a counterbalanced Smith machinewas recently shown to reduceperformance measures, but the mechanisms for this ...
Ishii Kikujiro - - 2011
Change in the light interference in film samples of isopropylbenzene was studied in the supercooled liquid (SCL) state. Samples were originally formed as glass by vapor deposition on a cold substrate and the intensity of laser light reflection from them was monitored as the temperature was raised with a constant ...
Bahmer Andreas - - 2011
Triphasic electrical stimulation pulses with an adjustable phase amplitude ratio (PAR) can reduce stimulus artifacts in electrically evoked compound actions potentials (ECAPs) recording in the cochlea (see companion paper Bahmer and Baumann, submitted for publication). The present study describes the application of triphasic pulses in forward masking paradigms for recording ...
Webster Kathryn E - - 2011
Aim: Increased contrast-level dependent internal noise has been reported in migraine. This study aimed to investigate whether a general increase in internal noise impacted on other tasks thought to assess functioning in cortical area V1 and was evident in global contour coding (V4).Methods: Eleven migraineurs (six with aura) and 12 ...
Sinitski Emily H - - 2011
Unilateral lower limb prosthesis users display temporal, kinematic, and kinetic asymmetries between limbs while ascending and descending stairs. These asymmetries are due, in part, to the inability of current prosthetic devices to effectively mimic normal ankle function. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive set of biomechanical ...
Bartlett Adrian M - - 2011
Saccadic eye movements (SEMs) are the primary means of gating visual information in primates and strongly influence visual perception. The active exploration of the visual environment ("active vision") via SEMs produces suppression during saccades and enhancement afterward (i.e., during fixation) in occipital visual areas. In lateral temporal lobe visual areas, ...
Cadieu Charles F - - 2011
We present a model of intermediate-level visual representation that is based on learning invariances from movies of the natural environment. The model is composed of two stages of processing: an early feature representation layer and a second layer in which invariances are explicitly represented. Invariances are learned as the result ...
Labuda Aleksander - - 2012
In atomic force microscopy, cantilevers with a reflective coating are often used to reduce optical shot noise for deflection detection. However, static AFM experiments can be limited by classical noise and therefore may not benefit from a reduction in shot noise. Furthermore, the cantilever coating has the detrimental side-effect of ...
Bathellier Brice - - 2012
Using measurements based on particle image velocimetry in combination with a novel compact theoretical framework to describe hair mechanics, we found that spider and cricket air motion sensing hairs work close to the physical limit of sensitivity and energy transmission in a broad range of relatively high frequencies. In this ...
Alstadt Kristin N - - 2011
Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the ...
Chiang J - - 2011
Light scattering and color change are two major sources of distortion for underwater photography. Light scattering is caused by light incident on objects reflected and deflected multiple times by particles present in the water before reaching the camera. This in turn lowers the visibility and contrast of the image captured. ...
Balasubramanian S - - 2011
The need for movement smoothness quantification to assess motor learning and recovery, has resulted in various measures that look at different aspects of a movements profile. This paper first shows that most of the previously published smoothness measures lack validity, consistency, sensitivity or robustness. It then introduces and evaluates the ...
Clément Gilles - - 2011
This experiment investigated whether the perception of depth-reversible figures is altered when the observer is in microgravity or hypergravity. A set of five bi-stable ambiguous figures was presented to ten participants in 1g, 0g, and 1.8g during parabolic flight. The figures included static images such as the Necker cube; kinetic ...
Atallah Louis - - 2012
A force-plate instrumented treadmill (Hp Cosmos Gaitway) was used to validate the use of a miniaturised lightweight ear-worn sensor (7.4 g) for gait monitoring. Thirty-four healthy subjects were asked to progress up to their maximum walking speed on the treadmill (starting at 5 km/h, with 0.5 km increments). The sensor ...
Li Jun - - 2011
This study investigated photochemical behavior of ferroin-bromate-benzoquinone reaction in a batch system, in which the reduction of ferriin was dominated by bromide ions rather than by organic substrates as known in most of bromate oscillators. The chemical oscillations exhibited ultrasensitive response to illumination, where both the oscillation frequency and life ...
Amiri-Khorasani Mohammadtaghi - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on angular velocity of knee joint, deepest knee flexion and duration of eccentric and concentric contraction which are relative to stretch shortening cycle during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The ...
Lee Jungmee - - 2011
When hearing thresholds are measured with high-frequency resolution there is a pseudo-periodic variation in thresholds across frequency of up to 15-20dB. This variation is called threshold fine structure (previously referred to as threshold microstructure). Consequently, estimates of auditory status based on threshold measures can depend greatly on the specific frequency ...
Rogers Bill B Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, United States. - - 2012
This low cost visual stimulator was developed for use in small animal imaging. The stimulator uses a single tri-color LED for each eye and can output red, green, or blue light or any combination of the three. When all three LED colors are illuminated at the same time achromatic light ...
López-González Miguel A - - 2011
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Determinations of the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus (frequency and intensity) are valid for diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and research purposes. The aim of this work is to compare the frequency of the tinnitus measured with a standard audiometer and a high frequency audiometer. METHODS: We used a conventional ...
Sun Wei - - 2011
The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) technique was introduced recently to follow the rotational motion of plasmonic gold nanorod under a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. In biological studies, however, cellular activities usually involve a multiplicity of molecules; thus, tracking the motion of a single molecule/object is insufficient. ...
Klous Miriam M Department of Health and Human Performance, College of Charleston, 24 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. - - 2012
We studied postural adjustments associated with a quick voluntary postural sway under two conditions, self-paced and simple reaction-time. Standing subjects were required to produce quick discrete shifts of the center of pressure (COP) forward. About 400-500ms prior to the instructed COP shift, there were deviations of the COP in the ...
Fraser Matthew M School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, - - 2012
Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) were measured for six users of cochlear implants, using different carrier rates and levels. Unlike most previous studies investigating modulation detection, the experimental design limited potential effects of overall loudness cues. Psychometric functions (percent correct discrimination of modulated from unmodulated stimuli versus modulation depth) were ...
Persuh Marjan - - 2011
Our visual systems account for stimulus context in brightness perception, but whether such adjustments occur for stimuli that we are unaware of has not been established. We therefore assessed whether stimulus context influences brightness processing by measuring unconscious priming with metacontrast masking. When a middle-gray disk was presented on a ...
Szymik Brett G - - 2011
In pteropod mollusks, the gastropod foot has evolved into two broad, wing-like structures that are rhythmically waved through the water for propulsion. The flexibility of the wings lends a tremendous range of motion, an advantage that could be exploited when changing locomotory speed. Here, we investigated the kinematic changes that ...
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