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Results 201 - 250 of 1420
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Sun Chao C Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. - - 2012
This study characterized the acoustic properties of an International Electromechanical Commission (IEC) agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMM) at ultrasound frequencies in the range 10-47 MHz. A broadband reflection substitution technique was employed using two independent systems at 21°C ± 1°C. Using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner and a scanning ...
Akiyama Haruhisa - - 2012
Sugar alcohol derivatives with multi azobenzene arms are photochemically and isothermally liquefied from a powdered solid upon irradiation with ultraviolet light at room temperature, and then solidified on irradiation with visible light, where the transition between solid and liquid are reversible. These compounds possess similar chemical structures to comb-like liquid ...
Bin Saif G A GA Department of Dermatology Neurobiology & Anatomy, and Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, - - 2012
Scratching an itch is perceived as being pleasurable. However, an analysis of topographical variations in itch intensity, the effectiveness of scratching to provide itch relief and the associated pleasurability has not been performed at different body sites. To examine the role of scratching pleasurability in providing itch relief by investigating ...
Shinzawa Hideyuki - - 2012
Hydrolysis degradation of a set of drawn poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers was induced by an accelerated weathering test, radiating ultraviolet (UV) light under a certain temperature and humidity. The fine features of the transient behavior of the PLA fibers were captured by near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging. The PLA fibers showed ...
Hu Linfeng - - 2012
A novel 1D/1D nanocomposite-based photodetector is successfully fabricated from high-crystalline ZnS/ZnO biaxial nanobelts for the first time. Optimized performance of the ZnS/ZnO nanobelt photodetector is much better than that of pure ZnS or ZnO nanostructures, with a wide-range UV-A light photoresponse, high sensitivity, and very fast response speed.
Lu Jianing - - 2012
A photoelectric switch with fast response to visible light (<200μs), suitable photosensitivity and excellent repeatability is proposed based on the ultralong single crystalline V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> nanobelt, which are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and its photoconductive mechanism can well be explained by small polaron hopping theory. Our results reveal that the ...
Lee Kyung Min - - 2012
Bending the rules: The role of crystallinity in the generation of photomechanical effects is examined for a series of linear azobenzene-functionalized polyimides. The less pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) that is present in the polyimide the less crystalline it is, and therefore the more the cantilever bends when exposed to light.
He Ke Feng - - 2012
Nanostructured AgI/TiO2 visible light photocatalyst was prepared with AgNO3, KI, and Ti(OBu)4 as precursors. The photocatalyst was used repeatedly to degrade methylene blue and methyl orange in water with visible light irradiation. Though a high photocatalytic efficiency was observed for the photocatalyst in the first cycle, the photocatalytic efficiency was ...
Jiang Jing - - 2012
iOCl single-crystalline nanosheets with exposed {001} and {010} facets could be selectively synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. The resulting BiOCl single-crystalline nanosheets with exposed {001} facets exhibited higher activity on direct semiconductor photoexcitation pollutant degradation under UV light, but the counterpart with exposed {010} facets possessed superior activity on ...
Grose John H JH Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the electrophysiological binaural beat steady state response as a gauge of temporal fine structure coding, particularly as it relates to the aging auditory system. The hypothesis was that the response would be more robust in a lower, than in ...
Mizrahi Natalya - - 2012
Therapeutic ultrasound is widely employed in clinical applications but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we report prompt fluidization of a cell and dramatic acceleration of its remodeling dynamics when exposed to low intensity ultrasound. These physical changes are caused by very small strains (10(-5)) at ultrasonic frequencies (10(6) ...
Czajkowski Maciej - - 2012
In this manuscript we propose and explain the mechanism of dynamic molecular motions and isotropic domains formation during the diffraction grating recording in low molecular liquid crystalline azobenzene derivatives. The photochromic molecules of 4-heptyl-4'-methoxyazobenzene, showing nematic liquid crystalline properties close to the room temperature (from T = 34°C) are used. ...
Jiang Weitao - - 2012
We present a straightforward method to produce highly crystalline, vertically oriented TiOxNy nanopillars (up to 1 µm in length) with bandgap in the visible-light region. This process starts with reactive DC sputtering to produce a TiN porous film, followed by a simple oxidation process at elevated temperatures in oxygen or ...
Ito Kiminori - - 2012
Liquid crystalline molecules carrying photopolymerizable end groups absorb photon energy via a two-photon process, enabling the photofabrication of 3D structures. In this work, we prepared microgears with different heights and tooth lengths. These birefringent microgears can be induced to rotate by circularly polarized light. Here, we demonstrate that the use ...
Lombardo Marco - - 2012
To investigate the biomechanics of the anterior human corneal stroma using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM measurements were performed in liquid on the anterior stroma of human corneas, after gently removing the epithelium, using an atomic force microscope in the force spectroscopy mode. Rectangular silicon cantilevers with tip radius of ...
Kruijt Bastiaan - - 2012
Purpose: To investigate whether light scattering of posterior capsule opacifications (PCOs) changes after fixation with paraformaldehyde (PFA). Methods: The intraocular lens with the lens capsule were extracted from pseudophakic donor eyes. Images of the extracted sample were acquired pre and post PFA-fixation using a dark field microscope. Light scatter intensity ...
Leftwich Megan C - - 2012
A robotic lamprey, based on the silver lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, was used to investigate the influence of passive tail flexibility on the wake structure and thrust production during anguilliform swimming. A programmable microcomputer actuated 11 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The waveform ...
King David A - - 2012
ABSTRACT:: Gamma walkover surveys are often performed by swinging the radiation detector (e.g., a 2-inch by 2-inch sodium iodide) in a serpentine pattern at a near constant height above the ground surface. The objective is to survey an approximate 1-m swath with 100% coverage producing an equal probability of detecting ...
Keltgen Kelsey M KM School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, - - 2012
To characterize contrast sensitivity for sinusoidal stimuli across the central visual field and help bridge the gap between perimetry and visual psychophysics by developing a contrast-sensitivity template for spatial scale (experiment 1) and testing it on a new dataset (experiment 2). In experiment 1, 40 subjects free of eye disease, ...
Gal Assaf - - 2012
Cystoliths are amorphous calcium carbonate bodies that form in the leaves of some plant families. Cystoliths are regularly distributed in the epidermis and protrude into the photosynthetic tissue, the mesophyll. The photosynthetic pigments generate a steep light gradient in the leaf. Under most illumination regimes the outer mesophyll is light ...
Hu Junli - - 2012
In situ gelling constructs, which form a hydrogel at the site of injection, offer the advantage of delivering cells and growth factors to the complex structure of the defect area for tissue engineering. In the present study, visible light crosslinkable hydrogel systems were presented using methacrylated glycol chitosan (MeGC) and ...
van der Zwaag Wietske - - 2012
The amygdalae are involved in the perception of emotions such as happiness, anger and fear. Because of their proximity to the sinuses, the image signal intensity in T2* weighted fMRI data is often affected by signal loss due to through-slice dephasing, especially at high field strength. In this study, the ...
John Dinesh - - 2012
This paper determines if the leveling off ('plateau/inverted-U' phenomenon) of vertical ActiGraph activity counts during running at higher speeds is attributable to the monitor's signal filtering and acceleration detection characteristics. Ten endurance-trained male participants (mean (SD) age = 28.2 (4.7) years) walked at 3, 5 and 7 km h(-1), and ...
Lin Yi-Chia - - 2012
In this paper, the use of magnetic nanowires for the study of cellular response to force is demonstrated. High-aspect ratio Ni rods with diameter 300 nm and lengths up to 20 μm were bound to or internalized by pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured on arrays of flexible micropost force sensors. ...
van Kemenade Bianca Michelle - - 2012
Using MRI-guided off-line TMS, we targeted two areas implicated in biological motion processing: ventral premotor cortex (PMC) and posterior STS (pSTS), plus a control site (vertex). Participants performed a detection task on noise-masked point-light displays of human animations and scrambled versions of the same stimuli. Perceptual thresholds were determined individually. ...
Dobbelsteen John J van den - - 2012
The grasping instruments used in minimally invasive surgery reduce the ability of the surgeon to feel the forces applied on the tissue, thereby complicating the handling of the tissue and increasing the risk of tissue damage. Force sensors implemented in the forceps of the instruments enable accurate measurements of applied ...
Zhang Li - - 2012
In situ NMR studies of C(1)-C(5) light alkane activation and functionalisation in heterogeneous catalytic systems are overviewed. The results obtained from the NMR technique, particularly those quantitative ones, provide unique information on the activation of alkane molecules and the nature of relevant intermediates, leading to better understanding reaction mechanisms and ...
Hubel Tatjana Y - - 2012
To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually ...
Gatt Alfred - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Trials investigating ankle joint measurement normally apply a known moment. Maximum ankle angle is affected by foot posture and stretching characteristics of the calf muscles. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether consistent maximum ankle angles could be achieved without applying a constant moment to all subjects, and whether short, repetitive stretching ...
Mizner Ryan L - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of 2-dimensional (2D) video-based techniques and 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis to assess potential knee injury risk factors during jump landing. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six female athletes in cutting and pivoting sports. ASSESSMENT: Athletes performed a drop vertical jump during which movement ...
Hárosi Ferenc I - - 2012
Vertebrate photoreceptors are commonly distinguished based on the shape of their outer segments: those of cones taper, whereas the ones from rods do not. The functional advantages of cone taper, a common occurrence in vertebrate retinas, remain elusive. In this study, we investigate this topic using theoretical analyses aimed at ...
Sutherland Mary Elizabeth - - 2012
Adults show great variation in their auditory skills, such as being able to discriminate between foreign speech-sounds. Previous research has demonstrated that structural features of auditory cortex can predict auditory abilities; here we are interested in the maturation of 2-Hz frequency-modulation (FM) detection, a task thought to tap into mechanisms ...
Wylie M - - 2012
High frequency mechanical vibrations (20-50 kHz), delivered via small diameter flexible wire waveguides represent a minimally invasive technology for the treatment of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) and in other tissue ablation applications. Tissue disruption is reported to be caused by repetitive mechanical contact and cavitation. This work focuses on the ...
Neal Colin - - 2012
Eighteen months of 7-hourly analyses of rainfall and stream water chemistry are presented, spanning a wide range of chemical determinands and building on over 20years of weekly records for the moorland headwaters of the river Severn. The high-frequency time series data show that hydrochemical responses to major hydrological and biological ...
Barthélemy D D School of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, - - 2012
Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We measured ...
Viciana David - - 2012
Our aim is to compare short tone burst (STB)-and clicks-stimuli to evoke vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in healthy controls. A cross-sectional study in which VEMPs were measured in two sets of 185 and 55 normal volunteers by an air-conducted 500 Hz STBs and clicks, respectively. The test-retest reliability between different sessions ...
Jahn Georg - - 2012
Spatial reference in multiple object tracking is available from configurations of dynamic objects and static reference objects. In three experiments, we studied the use of spatial reference in tracking and in relocating targets after abrupt scene rotations. Observers tracked 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 targets in 3D scenes, in ...
Van Renterghem Timothy - - 2012
The evolution of daytime façade noise levels by road traffic at 250 dwellings in Flanders is assessed. Three identical man-operated measurement campaigns have been conducted in the years 1996, 2001 and 2009, during fall. A practical methodology has been developed, based on short time noise measurements and context observations at ...
Kerr A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Moving from sitting to walking (STW) is a functional movement that is sufficiently demanding to reveal early mobility problems that may be masked in other tests (Kerr et al., 2007). Research to date has confirmed the inherent difficulty of the STW movement (Magnan et al., 1996); however, the technology ...
Kristianslund Eirik - - 2012
Analyses of joint moments are important in the study of human motion, and are crucial for our understanding of e.g. how and why ACL injuries occur. Such analyses may be affected by artifacts due to inconsistencies in the equations of motion when force and movement data are filtered with different ...
Taniguchi Masashi - - 2012
The Masai Barefoot Technology (MBT) shoe was developed as a walking device to improve gait stability and reduce the joint load. Kinematic changes with MBT shoes have been reported; however, kinetic characteristics with MBT shoes have not been adequately assessed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate ...
Kremers Jan - - 2012
Flash electroretinogram responses were measured in normal subjects to different chromatic combinations of flashes and backgrounds. The amplitudes of the flash response components were measured at different flash strengths and could be described by a generalized Naka-Rushton function. The measurements were repeated at different background luminances to study adaptation effects. ...
Herfat Safa T - - 2012
Patients frequently experience anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries but current ACL reconstruction strategies do not restore the native biomechanics of the knee, which can contribute to the early onset of osteoarthritis in the long term. To design more effective treatments, investigators must first understand normal in vivo knee function for ...
Lee Ya-Fu - - 2012
We investigated the wing morphology and foraging distributions of sympatric Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species by acoustic sampling, measuring wing parameters, and observing bats in different settings of tropical East Asian forests, to evaluate their flexibility in habitat use and edge sensitivity. R. formosae and H. terasensis were more abundant at ...
Defreitas Jason M - - 2012
The purpose of this investigation was to compare three different methods of removing noise from monopolar electromyographic (EMG) signals: (a) electrical shielding with a Faraday cage, (b) denoising with a digital notch-filter and (c) applying a bipolar differentiation with another monopolar EMG signal. Ten men and ten women (mean age ...
Lee Hyun Ah - - 2012
Prolonged exposure to a single direction of motion alters perception of subsequent static or dynamic stimuli and induces substantial changes in behaviors of motion-sensitive neurons, but the origin of neural adaptation and neural correlates of perceptual consequences of motion adaptation in human brain remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, ...
Lewek Michael D - - 2012
Lewek MD, Osborn AJ, Wutzke CJ. The influence of mechanically and physiologically imposed stiff-knee gait patterns on the energy cost of walking. To investigate the relative roles of mechanically imposed and physiologically imposed stiff-knee gait (SKG) patterns on energy cost. Repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Research laboratory. Individuals (N=20) without musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, ...
Isenhower Robert W - - 2012
ABSTRACT Humans and other animals can measure distances nonvisually by legged locomotion. Experiments typically employ an outbound measure (M) and an inbound report (R) phase. Previous research has found distance reproduction to be maximally accurate, when gait symmetry and speed of M and R are of like kind: Successful human ...
Arosio Paolo - - 2012
Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL) and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD). In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from ...
Kakei Toshihito - - 2012
Chara myosin is plant myosin responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and moves actin filaments at 60 µm/s, which is the fastest of all myosins examined. The neck of the myosin molecule has usually mechanical and regulatory roles. The neck of Chara myosin is supposed to bind six light chains, but, at ...
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