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Noever Simon J - - 2012
Thickness resolved measurements of ambipolar thin-film transistor characteristics track the charging of an organic-organic heterojunction. Combined with structural investigation methods such as AFM and GIXS, this leads to a better understanding of the physics in state of the art devices such as organic solar cells, organic light emitting diodes and ...
Kotecha Abhay - - 2012
Purple bacteria have peripheral light-harvesting (PLH) complexes adapted to high-light (LH2) and low-light (LH3, LH4) growth conditions. The latter two have only been fully characterised in Rhodopseudomonas acidophila 7050 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009, respectively. It is known that LH4 complexes are expressed under the control of two light sensing bacteriophytochromes ...
Liberton Michelle M Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, - - 2013
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes that can use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into cellular fuel. Knowledge of the organization of the membrane systems in cyanobacteria is critical to understanding the metabolic processes in these organisms. We examined the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and a series of mutants with altered ...
Lee Chil Won - - 2012
A twist in the tail: The effect of varying the substitution position of dibenzofuran on its photophysical properties and organic light-emitting diode device performance was systematically investigated by synthesizing three compounds with 2-, 3- and 4-substitution patterns. The proper selection of substitution position can control the photophysical properties and performance ...
Almeida Fernando P - - 2012
Magnetotactic bacteria move by rotating their flagella and concomitantly are aligned to magnetic fields because they present magnetosomes, which are intracellular organelles composed by membrane-bound magnetic crystals. This results in magnetotaxis, which is swimming along magnetic field lines. Magnetotactic bacteria are morphologically diverse, including cocci, rods, spirilla and multicellular forms ...
Kim You-Hyun - - 2012
High contrast blue organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated using an inorganic multilayer of NPB (700 Å)/MADN (200 Å)/Alq<sub>3</sub> (300 Å)/LiF (10 Å)/Al (70 Å)/ZnSe (300 Å)/Al (1000 Å). The optical and electrical characteristics were measured and compared to conventional organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLEDs with polarizers. OLEDs with the metal multilayer cathodes had an improved contrast ...
Sokolov Andrey - - 2012
A suspension of microswimmers, the simplest realization of active matter, exhibits novel material properties: the emergence of collective motion, reduction in viscosity, increase in diffusivity, and extraction of useful energy. Bacterial dynamics in dilute suspensions suggest that hydrodynamic interactions and collisions between the swimmers lead to collective motion at higher ...
Petrun Branden - - 2013
Vibrio fischeri are bioluminescent marine bacteria that can be isolated from their symbiotic animal partners or from ocean water. A V. fischeri population increases exponentially inside the light organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) while the host is quiescent during the day. This bacterial light organ population reaches ...
Chang Chia Min - - 2012
Using the curved arrangement of Au nanobumps, the scattering of surface plasmon waves are transformed into spots at desired locations and altitudes in three-dimensional space. The light can be modulated into desired light patterns. This work is very promising for compact plasmonic circuitry, projection, live-cell imaging, optical sensing, and holography.
Suetsugu Noriyuki - - 2012
Many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, animal, plants and algae, utilize blue light to adapt to a fluctuating light environment. Plants and algae such as photosynthetic stramenopiles in particular require light energy for photosynthesis and have thus evolved a range of sophisticated light-sensing systems to efficiently utilize light information for growth, ...
Thor Maria - - 2012
Background and purpose. Internal organ motion over a course of radiotherapy (RT) leads to uncertainties in the actual delivered dose distributions. In studies predicting RT morbidity, the single estimate of the delivered dose provided by the treatment planning computed tomography (pCT) is typically assumed to be representative of the dose ...
Nishio Koichi - - 2012
Biological energy-conversion systems are attractive in terms of their self-organizing and self-sustaining properties and are expected to be applied towards environmentally friendly bioenergy processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustainable light/electricity-conversion systems, termed microbial solar cells (MSCs), can be constructed using naturally occurring microbial communities. To better understand the energy-conversion ...
Di Salvo Mario E - - 2012
A surprising feature of many bacterial motors is the apparently conserved form of their torque-frequency relation. Experiments indicate that the torque provided by the bacterial rotary motor is approximately constant over a large range of angular speeds. This is observed in both monotrichous and peritrichous bacteria, independently of whether they ...
Miyashita Shuhei - - 2012
Abstract Self-organization is a phenomenon found in biomolecular self-assembly by which proteins are spontaneously driven to assemble and attain various functionalities. This study reports on self-organized behavior in which distributed centimeter-sized modules stochastically aggregate and exhibit a translational wheeling motion. The system consists of two types of centimeter-sized water-floating modules: ...
Cangiano Lorenzo - - 2012
Rod photoreceptors detect single photons through a tradeoff of light collecting ability, amplification and speed. Key roles are played by rhodopsin (Rh) and transducin (G(t)), whose complex supramolecular organization in outer segment disks begs for a functional interpretation. Here we review past and recent evidence of a temperature-dependence of photon ...
Montealegre-Z Fernando - - 2012
In mammals, hearing is dependent on three canonical processing stages: (i) an eardrum collecting sound, (ii) a middle ear impedance converter, and (iii) a cochlear frequency analyzer. Here, we show that some insects, such as rainforest katydids, possess equivalent biophysical mechanisms for auditory processing. Although katydid ears are among the ...
Mikami Yu - - 2012
Fibrosis is an abnormal response to organ injury, characterized by accumulation of activated fibroblasts at the sites of injury. Fibroblasts arise from several sources, including resident fibroblasts and circulating fibrocytes that infiltrate organ tissue. Recently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized as a source of mesenchymal cells. EMT is induced ...
Rozanowska Malgorzata B - - 2012
Light-induced injury to the retina resembles many features of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly age-related macular degeneration. This Symposium-in-Print on Retinal Photodamage discusses the mechanisms involved and protective strategies to increase the retinal resistance to damage and/or to counteract its deleterious effects. Recent results help explaining the wavelength dependence of ...
Jeon Bo Young - - 2012
Carotenoids produced by non-photosynthetic bacteria protect organisms against lethal photodynamic reactions and scavenge oxygenic radicals. However, the carotenoid produced by Gordonia alkanivorans SKF120101 is coupled to reducing power generation. SKF120101 selectively produces carotenoid under light conditions. The growth yield of SKF120101 cultivated under light conditions was higher than that under ...
Badalamenti Jonathan P - - 2012
The objective of this study was to employ microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) to selectively enrich and examine anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria for potential anaerobic respiration capabilities using electrodes. In the process, we designed a novel enrichment strategy that manipulated the poised anode potential, light, nitrogen availability, and media supply to promote ...
Wei Feifei - - 2012
We propose and demonstrate a compact, alignment-free dark-field microscopy technique, termed as organic light-emitting-diode-based plasmonic dark-field microscopy. Experimental results show that it is capable of forming dark-field images of the specimens utilizing a highly integrated chip-scale plasmonic condenser. This technique has high z resolution and high imaging contrast and is ...
Gómez-Pereira Paola R PR National Oceanography Centre, Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems Research Group, European Way, Southampton, - - 2013
Subtropical oceanic gyres are the most extensive biomes on Earth where SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacterioplankton numerically dominate the surface waters depleted in inorganic macronutrients as well as in dissolved organic matter. In such nutrient poor conditions bacterioplankton could become photoheterotrophic, that is, potentially enhance uptake of scarce organic molecules using ...
Zhou Shifeng - - 2012
This paper reports an asymmetry structure-mediated route for highly localized control of light-matter interactions by using tapered TiO(2). We demonstrate for the first time that the growth habit of Ag nanostructures on tapered TiO(2) can be tuned by controllable photolysis. Site-selective anchoring of Ag nanoparticles or nanowires on tapered TiO(2) ...
Lawson Michael - - 2012
Switches are frequently used to provide external control over the conformation and function of organic and bio-organic molecules. While the use of bistable switches is widespread, multi-stable examples are observed relatively rarely. Reported here is a new class of molecular switch that is capable of forming three stable states of ...
Tavares L - - 2012
Here, we report localized, polarized and waveguided electroluminescence (EL) from well aligned organic nanofibres integrated via roll printing on transistor platforms. The localized emission is due to the application of an alternating current voltage to the transistor gate electrodes, which causes sequential injection of holes and electrons into the organic ...
Ong Marcia D - - 2012
To study the etiology of surface light scattering on hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Alcon Research Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from clinical explantations (n = 5), from human cadavers (n = 8), and from finished-goods inventory (controls). Surface light scattering was measured and ...
Oxenham Andrew J - - 2012
Pitch is one of the primary auditory sensations and plays a defining role in music, speech, and auditory scene analysis. Although the main physical correlate of pitch is acoustic periodicity, or repetition rate, there are many interactions that complicate the relationship between the physical stimulus and the perception of pitch. ...
Huang Hong - - 2012
A new bromination method, where butterfly-shaped tetrasubstituted carbazole derivatives TSPFCz and TTPhCz have been designed and synthesized, which possess the twist butterfly skeletons and exhibit excellent thermal and morphological stabilities, has been adopted. By utilizing these novel compounds as host materials, high efficiency solution-processed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) ...
Sawabe Kosuke - - 2012
Extremely high current densities are realized in single-crystal ambipolar light-emitting transistors using an electron-injection buffer layer and a current-confinement structure via laser etching. Moreover, a linear increase in the luminance was observed at current densities of up to 1 kA cm(-2) , which is an efficiency-preservation improvement of three orders ...
Song L - - 2012
We have designed a high efficiency organic solar cell with light trapping structure on transference cylindrical substrate. An electrical and optical simulation of the light trapping structure has been performed on the basis of finite element and transfer matrix formalism methods. Absorption spectrum, internal quantum efficiency, external quantum efficiency, maximum ...
Zhang Haijuan - - 2012
Significantly enhanced vapor condensation and formation of microdroplets occur on porous silicon (pSi) infiltrated with a high amount of ionic liquid. The resonant light reflected from the pSi rugate filter is scattered by the condensed microdroplets. Real-time vapor sensing is achieved by monitoring the decrease in the reflectance peak intensity ...
Iredale Robert S - - 2012
For over 25 years it has been known that rotting barley straw can be used to prevent the development of blooms of cyanobacteria and algae in freshwater bodies, although its effectiveness can be variable. The mode of action is still not understood, although a number of hypotheses have been suggested, ...
Chu Xinbo - - 2012
An organic/inorganic hybrid up-conversion device was demonstrated in this work, which can convert near-infrared light (NIR) to visible green at high conversion efficiency. The upconverter was fabricated by integrating an In(0.12)Ga(0.88)As/GaAs multiquantum wells (MQWs) photodetector (PD) with an organic light emitting diode (OLED). The up-conversion efficiency of 4.0 W/W % ...
Raymond Jason L - - 2012
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), though not an organist himself, included descriptions of organ stops, registration, pitch range, and use in orchestral compositions in his Grand TraiteĢ d'Instrumentation et d'Orchestration modernes (1855). When discussing the unsuitability of combining the organ with the orchestra, he stated, "[ellipsis (horizontal)]the even and uniform tones of ...
Braasch Jonas - - 2012
Organ pipes with free reeds became very popular in parts of Europe at the end of the 18th century, but vanished about 100 years later following a critical discussion about their characteristic sound qualities. The research reported here is based on the measurement and analysis of 11 free-reed organ stops ...
Kraybill Jan - - 2012
An organist's perspective on pipe organ acoustics. The range of frequencies produced by a large pipe organ covers 10 Hz to over 10,000 Hz. Three significant pipe organs in the Kansas City metro area will be discussed: the Julia Kauffman Casavant at the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts in ...
Gupta Asheesh - - 2012
Phototherapy can be used in two completely different but complementary therapeutic applications. While low level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) uses red or near-infrared light alone to reduce inflammation, pain and stimulate tissue repair and regeneration, photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of light plus non-toxic dyes (called photosensitizers) to ...
Chebath-Taub Daniella - - 2012
Our aim was to examine the viability and structure of new biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans that was previously exposed to blue light. S. mutans bacteria were grown to form a mature biofilm, that was exposed to blue light (wavelengths, 400-500nm) for 1-10min (equivalent to 68-680J/cm(2)). Biofilm was dispersed by ...
Teller Sean S - - 2012
The biomechanical function of the vocal folds (VFs) depends on their viscoelastic properties. Many conditions can lead to VF scarring that compromises voice function and quality. To identify candidate replacement materials, the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of native tissues need to be understood at phonation frequencies. Previously, the authors ...
Chen Jianjun - - 2012
Highly efficient plasmonic nanofocusing is proposed and demonstrated in a T-shape micro-slit surrounded by multi-slits. The nanofocusing phenomenon is achieved based on the multimode interference in the micro-slit, the constructive interference in the T-shape slit, and also the multiple-beam interference of the light radiated from the multi-slits and the transmitted ...
Juang D F - - 2012
Electricity generation capabilities of microbial fuel cell with different light power on algae grown cathode were compared. Results showed that microbial fuel cell with 6 and 12W power of light always produced higher voltage and power density than with 18 and 26W. Similarly, microbial fuel cell with 6 and 12W ...
Narayanan Remya P - - 2012
Biocompatible photoresponsive materials are of interest for targeted drug delivery, tissue engineering, 2D and 3D protein patterning, and other biomedical applications. We prepared light degradable hydrogels using a natural alginate polysaccharide cross-linked with iron (III) cations. The "hard" iron (III) cations used to crosslink the alginate hydrogel were found to ...
Dimond James L - - 2012
The susceptibility of algal-cnidarian holobionts to environmental stress is dependent on attributes of both host and symbiont, but the role of the host is often unclear. We examined the influence of the host on symbiont light stress, comparing the photophysiology of the chlorophyte symbiont Elliptochloris marina in two species of ...
Zhang Bin - - 2012
Motional dynamics and its correlation to the crystallinity of a series of biphenol based poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) copolymer analogues obtained by incorporating flexible aliphatic blocks were studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Introduction of conformationally flexible aliphatic blocks into rigid aromatic PAES blocks in the copolymer sequence, which provided a ...
Anhalt Katharina - - 2012
PURPOSE: Nanocrystals exhibit enhanced dissolution rates and can effectively increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug substances. However, methods for in vitro characterization of dissolution are unavailable. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ noninvasive analytical method to measure dissolution of crystalline nanosuspensions based on ...
Kibler W Ben - - 2012
Glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR) and total arc of motion (TAM) decrease, whereas external rotation (GER) may increase in throwing. Although decreased GIR has been documented after throwing, its time course for recovery and the effect of pitching role have not. We therefore asked (1) how much rotational change occurs after ...
Li Saiqun - - 2012
Image degradation by loss of higher spatial frequencies causes form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in humans and animals, and cyclical illumination (flicker) at certain frequencies may prevent FDM. The molecular mechanisms underlying FDM and its prevention by flicker are poorly known. To understand them better, we have identified proteins that differ in ...
Nagano Shusaku - - 2012
Light, (CCD) camera, action! Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements revealed that linear polarized light (LPL) caused reorientation of phase-separated mesoscopic amorphous cylinders within a light-responsive liquid crystalline (LC) matrix domain of a diblock copolymer. Cooperative and synchronized motions occur at two hierarchical structures of the LC layer (molecular level) and ...
Monterroso Begoña - - 2012
The assembly of the bacterial cell division FtsZ protein in the presence of constantly replenished GTP was studied as a function of Mg(2+) concentration (at neutral pH and 0.5 M potassium) under steady-state conditions by sedimentation velocity, concentration-gradient light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Sedimentation velocity measurements ...
Mavrokefalos Anastassios - - 2012
Thin-film c-Si solar cells with light-trapping structures can enhance light absorption within the semiconductor absorber layer and reduce material usage. Here we demonstrate that an inverted nano-pyramid light-trapping scheme for c-Si thin films, fabricated at wafer-scale via a low-cost wet etching process, significantly enhances absorption within the c-Si layer. A ...
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