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Reynolds Raymond F RF School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK - - 2014
Here we explain the neural and mechanical mechanisms responsible for synchronizing sway and improving postural control during physical contact with another standing person. Postural control processes were modelled using an inverted pendulum under continuous feedback control. Interpersonal interactions were simulated either by coupling the sensory feedback loops or by physically ...
Stone Maureen M Department of Neural and Pain Science, Department of Orthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD, USA. telephone: 410-706-1269, fax: 410-706-0865, - - 2014
The production of speech includes considerable variability in speech gestures despite our perception of very repeatable sounds. Variability is seen in vocal tract shapes and tongue contours when different speakers produce the same sound. This study asks whether internal tongue motion patterns for a specific sound are similar across subjects, ...
Immonen Esa-Ville EV Department of Physics, Biophysics and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, Oulun yliopisto 90014, - - 2014
The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor ...
Delhaye Benoit B Institute of Neuroscience (IoNS), Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, - - 2014
Through highly precise perceptual and sensorimotor activities, the human tactile system continuously acquires information about the environment. Mechanical interactions between the skin at the point of contact and a touched surface serve as the source of this tactile information. Using a dedicated custom robotic platform, we imaged skin deformation at ...
Truszczynski Olaf O Department of Flight Safety, the Aeromedical Training Division, the Department of Aviation Physiology, and the Department of Aviation Psychology, Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, - - 2014
Truszczynski O, Lewkowicz R, Wojtkowiak M, Biernacki MP. Reaction time in pilots during intervals of high sustained G. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:1114-20. An important problem for pilots is visual disturbances occurring under +Gz acceleration. Assessment of the degree of intensification of these disturbances is generally accepted as the ...
Higashiyama Atsuki A Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan, - - 2014
We determined orientation of a line that is seen to be vertical (i.e., apparent vertical) while the head is inclined with the trunk upright. In this condition, it has been documented that apparent vertical is independent of head orientation (i.e., orientation constancy) or is in a direction opposite to the ...
Ma Wang Kei WK Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Salford, M6 6PU, United - - 2014
Objectives: To determine if movement external to the patient occurring during mammography may be a source of image blur. Methods: Four mammography machines with seven flexible and nine fixed paddles were evaluated. In the first stage, movement at the paddle was measured mechanically using two calibrated linear potentiometers. A deformable ...
Faugloire Elise - - 2014
This study quantified the effectiveness of tactile guidance in indicating a direction to turn to and measured its benefits compared to spatial language. The device (CAYLAR), which was composed of 8 vibrators, specified the requested direction by a vibration at the corresponding location around the waist. Twelve participants were tested ...
Stamper Greta C GC Department of Hearing and Speech, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, - - 2014
To determine whether suprathreshold measures of auditory function, such as distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), are correlated with noise exposure history in normal-hearing human ears. Recent data from animal studies have revealed significant deafferentation of auditory nerve fibers after full recovery from temporary noise-induced hearing loss. ...
Badioli Michela - - 2014
The photoresponse of graphene at mid-infrared frequencies is of high technological interest and is governed by fundamentally different underlying physics than the photoresponse at visible frequencies, as the energy of the photons and substrate phonons involved have comparable energies. Here we perform a spectrally resolved study of the graphene photoresponse ...
Horr Ninja K NK Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Robotics, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, - - 2014
A commonly observed phenomenon to elucidate distortions of perceived duration is the filled-duration illusion: a temporal interval delimited by two marker signals is perceived to be shorter than the same interval with several identical filler signals. Previous investigations have focused on regularly spaced (isochronous) fillers and the influence of their ...
Ramírez Álvarez Elizeth - - 2014
A phenomenological study of the mercury beating heart system in a three electrode electrochemical cell configuration forced with a harmonic perturbation is presented. The system is controlled via a potentiostat, where the mercury drop is electrically connected to a platinum wire and acts as the working electrode. This configuration exhibits ...
Macias Marisa E ME Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, - - 2014
Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however other factors - e.g., allometry, evolutionary development - must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the ...
Hessler Eric E EE a Department of Psychology , University of Minnesota - - 2014
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to see how motor-respiratory coordination could improve with augmented visual feedback. Participants performed inphase and antiphase patterns between movement and breathing. When the target pattern was performed properly, balls in a feedback display either moved up and down together (inphase feedback) or opposite ...
Quick S S Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Technische Universitaet Dresden Heart Center University Hospital, Fetscherstr 76, 01307, Dresden, Germany, - - 2014
Right ventricular (RV) shape and function serves as an indicator in several types of heart disease such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). However, there is no in-depth knowledge of RV motion, even in healthy subjects. The aim of our study was to provide a quantitative analysis of normal variations ...
Rapp Katrin K a IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors , Dortmund , - - 2014
ABSTRACT. Anticipatory adjustments to abrupt load changes are based on task-specific predictive information. The authors asked whether anticipatory adjustments to abrupt offsets of horizontal forces are related to expectancy. In two experiments participants held a position against an opposing force or moved against it. At force offset they had to ...
Si Guangyuan G College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, People's Republic of - - 2014
We report on a broad color tuning effect covering the visible range from a single plasmonic chip. By simply tilting the orientation of the designed plasmonic chip within a certain range, the photon-plasmon coupling interactions between the incident light and the plasmonic nanostructures on the chip can be finely tuned, ...
Veilleux Louis-Nicolas LN a Département de kinésiologie , Université de Montréal , Québec , - - 2014
Abstract Prism exposure when aiming at a visual target in a virtual condition (e.g., when the hand is represented by a video representation) produces no or only small adaptations (aftereffects), whereas prism exposure in a natural condition produces large aftereffects. Some researchers suggested that this difference may arise from distinct ...
Negre Christian F A - - 2014
We find that crystallographically resolved Ti17O24(OPr(i))20 nanoparticles, functionalized by covalent attachment of 4-nitrophenyl-acetylacetonate or coumarin 343 adsorbates, exhibit hole injection into surface states when photoexcited with visible light (λ=400-680 nm). Our findings are supported by photoelectrochemical measurements, EPR spectroscopy and quantum dynamics simulations of interfacial charge transfer. The underlying mechanism ...
Pedrosa David J DJ http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5403-1959 Department of Neurology and - - 2014
Thalamomuscular coherence in essential tremor (ET) has consistently been detected in numerous neurophysiological studies. Thereby, spatial properties of coherence indicate a differentiated, somatotopic organization; so far, however, little attention has been paid to temporal aspects of this interdependency. Further insight into the relationship between tremor onset and the onset of ...
Voigts Jakob J MIT - - 2014
Rodents use rhythmic protractions of their whiskers to locate objects in space. The amplitude of these protractions is reduced when whiskers contact objects, leading to a tendency of whiskers to only lightly touch the environment. While the impact of this process on the sensory input has been studied, little is ...
Sun Hao H State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, - - 2014
Aligned carbon-nanotube (CNT) sheets are used as building blocks to prepare light-weight, frequency-tunable and high-performance microwave absorbers, and the absorption frequency can be accurately controlled by stacking them with different intersectional angles. A remarkable reflection loss of -47.66 dB is achieved by stacking four aligned CNT sheets with an intersectional ...
Meso Andrew Isaac AI CNRS & Aix-Marseille Université - - 2014
Motion sensitivity is a fundamental property of human vision. Although its neural correlates are normally only directly accessible with neurophysiological approaches, Neri (2014) proposed psychophysical reverse correlation to derive perceptual fields, revealing previously unseen dynamics of human motion detection. In this Neuro Forum, these key findings are discussed, putting them ...
Wie Jeong Jae JJ Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433, USA; Azimuth Corporation, 4134 Linden Avenue, Dayton, OH, 45432, - - 2014
Light is a readily available and sustainable energy source. Transduction of light into mechanical work or electricity in functional materials, composites, or systems has other potential advantages derived from the ability to remotely, spatially, and temporally control triggering by light. Toward this end, this work examines photoinduced piezoelectric (photopiezoelectric) effects ...
Robinson Tim - - 2014
Background: The woodworking industry represents an important cause of occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), a significant yet underappreciated problem in many developing countries. Objectives: To describe the prevalence of occupational NIHL among woodworkers in Nepal and measure noise levels at workplaces. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 124 woodworkers ...
Calcagno Vincent V INRA, Institut Sophia Agrobiotech (ISA), 400 route des Chappes, Sophia Antipolis, - - 2014
Understanding how often individuals should move when foraging over patchy habitats is a central question in ecology. By combining optimality and functional response theories, we show analytically how the optimal movement rate varies with the average resource level (enrichment) and resource distribution (patch heterogeneity). We find that the type of ...
Sinclair J J a Division of Sport, Exercise and Nutritional Sciences , University of Central Lancashire , - - 2014
Abstract The current investigation aimed to determine whether there are differences in ball velocity and 3D kinematics when performing maximal kicks with the dominant and non-dominant limbs. Seventeen male academy soccer players performed maximal speed place kicks with their dominant and the non-dominant limbs. The 3D kinematics of the lower ...
Havel Miriam M Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Section Phoniatrics, University of Munich , Munich , - - 2014
The significance of nasal resonance and anti-resonance to voice production is a classical issue in vocal pedagogy and voice research. The complex structure of the nasal tract produces a complex frequency response. This complexity must be heavily influenced by the morphology of the paranasal cavities, but their contributions are far ...
Middleton Erica L - - 2014
The study of homophones-words with different meanings that sound the same-has great potential to inform models of language production. Of particular relevance is a phenomenon termed frequency inheritance, where a low-frequency word (e.g., deer) is produced more fluently than would be expected based on its frequency characteristics, presumably because of ...
White Thomas E TE Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, 2113, Australia. - - 2014
Sensory drive theory contends that signalling systems should evolve to optimize transmission between senders and intended receivers, while minimising visibility to eavesdroppers where possible. In visual communication systems, the high directionality afforded by iridescent colouration presents underappreciated avenues for mediating this trade-off. This hypothesis predicts functional links between signal design ...
Tahamiler Rauf R Otolaryngology Department, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, - - 2014
The objective of this work was to determine the role of nasal sound analysis using a software called Odiosoft-Rhino (OR) in evaluation of nasal erectile elements as a cause of nasal obstruction. Comparisons of nasal resistance, amplitude of the nasal sound frequency spectra, and visual analogue score (VAS) were made. ...
Prosise Jodi F JF Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Lions Research Building, Room 421, 2001 Sixth St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, - - 2014
Hand shaping during prehension involves intricate coordination of a complex system of bones, joints, and muscles. It is widely hypothesized that the motor system uses strategies to reduce the degrees of independent control. Both biomechanical constraints that result in coupling of the fingers and joints and neural synergies act to ...
Cempini Marco - - 2014
Advances in technology are allowing for the production of several viable wearable robotic devices to assist with activities of daily living and with rehabilitation. One of the most pressing limitations to user satisfaction is the lack of consistency in motion between the user and the robotic device. The displacement between ...
Soroka A A University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Tourism and Recreation, Lublin, Poland - - - 2014
The aim of this study was to define the locomotor activity of footballer players during the 2010 World Cup and to assess what differences existed among different playing positions. Research was conducted using research material collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records player movements ...
Buss Emily E 1Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; and 2Division of Speech and Hearing, Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2014
Masked sentence recognition is typically evaluated by presenting a novel stimulus on each trial. As a consequence, experiments calling for replicate estimates in multiple conditions require large corpora of stimuli. The present study evaluated the consequences of repeating sentence-plus-masker pairs at ascending target-to-masker ratios (TMRs). The hypothesis was that performance ...
Raghu Prasad M S MS Haptics Lab, Biomedical Engineering Group, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, Tamil Nadu, - - 2014
In laparoscopic surgery, no external feedback on the magnitude of the force exerted is available. Hence, surgeons and residents tend to exert excessive force, which leads to tissue trauma. Ability of surgeons and residents to perceive their own force output without external feedback is a critical factor in laparoscopic force-skills ...
Kim Taeho T Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Florida, USA. Department of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Virginia, - - 2014
A dual quasi-breath-hold (DQBH) technique is proposed for respiratory motion management (a hybrid technique combining breathing-guidance with breath-hold task in the middle). The aim of this study is to test a hypothesis that the DQBH biofeedback system improves both the capability of motion management and delivery efficiency. Fifteen healthy human ...
Sunde Erlend E 1.Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Research Group for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Bergen, Årstadveien 21, 5009 Bergen, Norway - - 2014
Despite awareness of noise aboard vessels at sea, few studies have reported measured noise levels aboard ships. This study aimed to describe the noise levels aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN), and to assess the noise exposure of personnel aboard RNoN vessels. In 2012/2013 noise measurements were conducted ...
Summerfield Christopher C Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, - - 2014
Sensory signals are highly structured in both space and time. These structural regularities in visual information allow expectations to form about future stimulation, thereby facilitating decisions about visual features and objects. Here, we discuss how expectation modulates neural signals and behaviour in humans and other primates. We consider how expectations ...
Fontaine Bertrand B Dominick P. Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA, - - 2014
While the barn owl has been extensively used as a model for sound localization and temporal coding, less is known about the mechanisms at its sensory organ, the basilar papilla (homologous to the mammalian cochlea). In this paper, we characterize, for the first time in the avian system, the auditory ...
Azizi Emanuel E Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA - - 2014
A controlled landing, where an animal does not crash or topple, requires enough stability to allow muscles to effectively dissipate mechanical energy. Toads (Rhinella marina) are exemplary models for understanding the mechanics and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies ...
Mishra Srikanta K - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of a fine-resolution, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE)-based assay of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex in normal-hearing adults. Data were collected during 36 test sessions from four normal-hearing adults to assess short-term stability and five normal-hearing adults to assess long-term ...
Laughlin Walter A WA American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, USA - - 2014
Baseball pitchers who undergo superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair often have trouble returning to their previous level of performance. While the reason is often assumed to be diminished shoulder range of motion or other mechanical changes, differences in pitching biomechanics between baseball pitchers with a history of SLAP repair and ...
Shupak Avi A *Unit of Otoneurology, Lin Medical Center, Haifa, Israel; †Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel, ‡The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa, Israel; and §Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Haifa, Haifa, - - 2014
To evaluate the role of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in the prediction of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) outcome. Open-label prospective study. Tertiary referral medical center. Fifteen ISSNHL patients (age: 57.6 ± 16.2 years) were prospectively followed 7 days, 14 days, and 3 months post-presentation and the commencement of treatment. ...
Worssam Christopher J CJ Science Laboratories, Department of Psychology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, - - 2014
It has been demonstrated that both visual feedback and the presence of certain types of non-target objects in the workspace can affect kinematic measures and the trajectory path of the moving hand during reach-to-grasp movements. Yet no study to date has examined the possible effect of providing non-obstructing three-dimensional (3D) ...
Pieters B B Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, CatharinaHospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands - - - 2014
Videolaryngoscopy has proven advantageous over direct laryngoscopy for a variety of outcome variables, most importantly, making laryngoscopy more successful. We tested whether three videolaryngoscopes (VLS), McGrath® series 5 (Aircraft Medical Ltd, Edinburgh, UK), C--MAC® (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) and GlideScope® Cobalt (Verathon Medical, Bothell, WA, USA) exert reduced forces on ...
Masella Benjamin D BD The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 314, Rochester, New York, 14642, United States - - 2014
Purpose: Retinal densitometry provides objective information about retinal function. But, a number of factors, including retinal reflectance changes that are not directly related to photopigment depletion, complicate its interpretation. We explore these factors and suggest a method to minimize their impact. Methods: An adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was ...
Kohli Kirpal - - 2014
In radiotherapy, temporary translocations of the internal organs and tumor induced by respiratory and cardiac activities can undesirably lead to significantly lower radiation dose on the targeted tumor but more harmful radiation on surrounding healthy tissues. Respiratory and cardiac gated radiotherapy offers a potential solution for the treatment of tumors ...
Cross Matt R MR Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, - - 2014
This study compared mechanical properties of over-ground sprint running in elite rugby union and rugby league athletes. Thirty elite rugby code (15 rugby union and 15 rugby league) athletes participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Radar was used to measure maximal over-ground sprint performance over 20 or 30 metres (forwards and ...
Kiral-Kornek F Isabell FI NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia. NICTA, c/- Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, - - 2014
Objective. Stimulation strategies for retinal prostheses predominately seek to directly encode image brightness values rather than edge orientations. Recent work suggests that the generation of oriented elliptical phosphenes may be possible by controlling interactions between neighboring electrodes. Based on this, we propose a novel stimulation strategy for prosthetic vision that ...
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