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Hidayat Egi E Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, - - 2015
The classical Hassenstein-Reichardt mathematical elementary motion detector (EMD) model is treated analytically. The EMD is stimulated with drifting sinusoidal gratings, which are often used in motion vision research, thus enabling direct comparison with neural responses from motion-sensitive neurones in the fly brain. When sinusoidal gratings are displayed on a cathode ...
Andrada Emanuel E Science of Motion, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Seidelstraße 20, 07749 Jena, Germany - - 2014
In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on ...
Arrighi Roberto R Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, via San Salvi 12, Florence 50135, - - 2014
Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding ...
McAuley J Devin JD Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA - - 2014
This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test ...
Kotz Sonja A SA School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL, UK Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany - - 2014
We live in a dynamic and changing environment, which necessitates that we adapt to and efficiently respond to changes of stimulus form ('what') and stimulus occurrence ('when'). Consequently, behaviour is optimal when we can anticipate both the 'what' and 'when' dimensions of a stimulus. For example, to perceive a temporally ...
Reynolds Raymond F RF School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK - - 2014
Here we explain the neural and mechanical mechanisms responsible for synchronizing sway and improving postural control during physical contact with another standing person. Postural control processes were modelled using an inverted pendulum under continuous feedback control. Interpersonal interactions were simulated either by coupling the sensory feedback loops or by physically ...
Stone Maureen M Department of Neural and Pain Science, Department of Orthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD, USA. telephone: 410-706-1269, fax: 410-706-0865, - - 2014
The production of speech includes considerable variability in speech gestures despite our perception of very repeatable sounds. Variability is seen in vocal tract shapes and tongue contours when different speakers produce the same sound. This study asks whether internal tongue motion patterns for a specific sound are similar across subjects, ...
Tremblay Marilyn M *Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; †2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza Suite 302, Durham, NC - - 2014
The Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada) has looked at parameters (lung volume, lung deposition pattern, etc.) that can affect the counting efficiency of its lung counting system. The calibration of the system is performed using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) torso phantom; however, the effect of respiratory motion cannot be ...
Ishihara D - - 2014
The relative importance of the wing’s inertial and aerodynamic forces is the key to revealing how the kinematical characteristics of the passive pitching motion of insect flapping wings are generated, which is still unclear irrespective of its importance in the design of insect-like micro air vehicles. Therefore, we investigate three ...
Friedman C - - 2014
To determine the two-dimensional kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during thrust generation, a digital, high-definition video is obtained using a non-research female sea lion at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. The observational videos are used to extract maneuvers of interest--forward acceleration from rest using the ...
Immonen Esa-Ville EV Department of Physics, Biophysics and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, Oulun yliopisto 90014, - - 2014
The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor ...
Sovrano Valeria Anna VA Center for Mind/Brain Sciences (CIMeC), University of Trento, C.so Bettini 31, 38068, Rovereto, Trento, Italy, - - 2014
The tendency of fish to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion was investigated. Redtail splitfins (Xenotoca eiseni, family Goodeidae) were trained to discriminate between two disks of different sizes. Then, fish were presented with two disks of the same size surrounded by disks of large or small size (inducers) arranged to produce ...
Camorani Paolo P Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Science 7/A, I-43124, Parma, - - 2014
Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro-Raman declination, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices being faster, non-destructive, and avoiding the sample extraction, but no data are present in literature about its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal ...
Stefanovic Filip - - 2014
Spinal-like regulators have recently been shown to support complex behavioral patterns during volitional goal-oriented reaching paradigms. We use an interpretation of the adaptive spinal-like controller as inspiration for the development of a controller for a robotic limb. It will be demonstrated that a simulated robot arm with linear actuators can ...
Brouillard Charly C CR-ICM, - - 2014
Recording of breathing frequency is a basic requirement for respiratory physiology. Usual techniques are invasive and constraining. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has recently been demonstrated to be a simple way to obtain respiration frequency at rest. In this study, we investigated whether this correlation is also observed during activity. We ...
Bobbitt Jonathan Michael - - 2014
Fourier transform (FT)-plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy measures light reflectivity at a waveguide interface as the incident frequency and angle are scanned. Under conditions of total internal reflection, the reflected light intensity is attenuated when the incident frequency and angle satisfy conditions for exciting surface plasmon modes in the metal ...
Schmidt Sebastian W SW Munich University of Applied Sciences, Department of Applied Natural Sciences and Mechatronics, Lothstr. 34, 80335 Munich, Germany. clausen-schaumann@hm.edu - - 2014
AFM-based dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to stretch carboxymethylated amylose (CMA) polymers, which have been covalently tethered between a silanized glass substrate and a silanized AFM tip via acid-catalyzed ester condensation at pH 2.0. Rupture forces were measured as a function of temperature and force loading rate in the ...
Demes Brigitte B Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, - - 2014
Center of mass (CoM) oscillations were documented for 81 bipedal walking strides of three chimpanzees. Full-stride ground reaction forces were recorded as well as kinematic data to synchronize force to gait events and to determine speed. Despite being a bent-hip, bent-knee (BHBK) gait, chimpanzee walking uses pendulum-like motion with vertical ...
Czuba Thaddeus B TB Dominick Purpura Department of Neuroscience, and - - 2014
We use visual information to determine our dynamic relationship with other objects in a three-dimensional (3D) world. Despite decades of work on visual motion processing, it remains unclear how 3D directions-trajectories that include motion toward or away from the observer-are represented and processed in visual cortex. Area MT is heavily ...
Hoffman Susanne S Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany - - 2014
Locomotion and foraging on the wing require precise navigation not only in the horizontal plane. Navigation in three dimensions and specifically, precise adjustment of flight height is essential for flying animals. Echolocating bats drink from water surfaces in flight, which requires an exceptionally precise vertical navigation. Here we exploit this ...
Serra-Añó P P Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
Study design:Cross-sectional study.Objectives:The main goal of our study was to explore the differences in heart rate variability (HRV) while sitting between able-bodied (AB) participants and paraplegic (P) individuals.Setting:The study was conducted in the Physical Therapy department and the Physical Education and Sports department of the University of Valencia and Vall ...
Cömert Alper - - 2014
The motion artifact is an ever-present challenge in the mobile monitoring of surface potentials. Skin-electrode impedance is investigated as an input parameter to detect the motion artifact and to reduce it using various methods. However, the impact of the used impedance measurement frequency on the relationship between measured impedance and ...
Ahmed Daniel D Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, ‡Biomedical Engineering, §Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University , University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United - - 2014
Eliciting a cellular response to a changing chemical microenvironment is central to many biological processes including gene expression, cell migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and intercellular signaling. The nature and scope of the response is highly dependent upon the spatiotemporal characteristics of the stimulus. To date, studies that investigate this phenomenon have ...
Jelínková Ivana I Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Charles University, Prague, Czech - - 2014
Actual studies show increasing poor posture especially in the cervical-thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to develop a model-based evaluation of posture and the amount of segmental spinal movement using a simple movement test. Twenty-five subjects with forward head posture were recruited. We were interested in the external ...
Mertens Griet G *University Department Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem; and †Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University, Antwerp, - - 2014
Single-sided deaf (SSD) patients report multiple benefits after cochlear implantation (CI), such as tinnitus suppression, speech perception, and sound localization. The first single-unit speech processor, the RONDO, was launched recently. Both the RONDO and the well-known behind-the-ear (BTE) speech processor work on the same audio processor platform. However, in contrast ...
Lei Liwen L School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 188 Luoshi Road, Hubei, P. R. China. - - 2014
Nanosized C3N4/BiOCl composites were synthesized via a facile method in the presence of arabic gum. Arabic gum acts as the structure-directing agent and helps the formation of BiOCl nanoparticles. A significant enhanced photodegradation is observed and a possible mechanism is proposed by combining photosensitization and photocatalysis.
Niwase Hiroaki - - 2014
We propose a real-time spatiotemporal division multiplexing electroholography utilizing the features of movies. The proposed method spatially divides a 3-D object into plural parts and periodically selects a divided part in each frame, thereby reconstructing a three-dimensional (3-D) movie of the original object. Computer-generated holograms of the selected part are ...
Cao Pu - - 2014
In this paper, a temporal shift unwrapping technique is presented for solving the problem of shift wrapping associated with spatial shift estimation (SSE)-based fringe pattern profilometry (FPP). Based on this technique, a novel 3D shape measurement method is proposed, where triangular patterns of two different spatial frequencies are projected. The ...
Conte S S Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine R&D Centre, Sherbrooke, - - 2014
The objective was to assess sows' lameness by measuring weight distribution on limbs using a force plate made up of 4 individual platforms each resting on 4 single-ended beam load cells. The weight was recorded at an average rate of 14 readings per s over a 15 min period. Ten ...
Lee Dong Yeon DY Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA - - 2014
Radiographic examination is a widely used evaluation method in the orthopedic clinic. However, conventional radiography alone does not reflect the dynamic changes between foot and ankle segments during gait. Multiple 3-dimensional multisegment foot models (3D MFMs) have been introduced to evaluate intersegmental motion of the foot. In this study, we ...
Keshmiri Armin A Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Regensburg, Kaiser-Karl-V Allee 3, 93077, Bad Abbach, Germany, - - 2014
Component malrotation has a major impact on patellar kinematics in total knee arthroplasty. The influence of natural rotational limb alignment on patellar kinematics is unclear so far. Based on recent clinical investigations, we hypothesized that rotational limb alignment significantly influences patellar kinematics. Patellar kinematics of ten cadaveric knees was measured ...
Hammarberg M M Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, - - 2014
Lungeing is an important part of lameness examinations since the circular path may accentuate low-grade lameness. Movement asymmetries related to the circular path, to compensatory movements, and to pain, make the lameness evaluation complex. Scientific studies have shown high inter-rater variation when assessing lameness during straight line movement. The aim ...
Borcia Rodica - - 2014
We discuss a mechanism for controlled motion of drops with applications for micro-fluidics and micro-gravity. The mechanism is the following: a solid plate supporting a liquid droplet is simultaneously subject to lateral and vertical harmonic oscillations. In this way the symmetry of the back-and-forth droplet movement along the substrate under ...
Ekdale Eric G EG Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; Department of Paleontology, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego, CA, - - 2014
The evolution of hearing in cetaceans is a matter of current interest given that odontocetes (toothed whales) are sensitive to high frequency sounds and mysticetes (baleen whales) are sensitive to low and potentially infrasonic noises. Earlier diverging stem cetaceans (archaeocetes) were hypothesized to have had either low or high frequency ...
Wu Amy P AP New York Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, New York, New York, - - 2014
No accepted standard exists for the diagnosis of vocal fold paresis (VFP). Laryngeal specialists are surveyed to establish expert opinion on diagnostic methodology and criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were distributed at laryngology conferences in fall 2013. Responses were collated anonymously and subjected to cross-tabulated data analysis. Fifty-eight responses ...
Jacobs David S DS Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South - - 2014
The skulls of animals have to perform many functions. Optimization for one function may mean another function is less optimized resulting in evolutionary trade-offs. Here we investigate whether a trade-off exists between the masticatory and sensory functions of animal skulls using echolocating bats as model species. Several species of rhinolophid ...
Thomas Christopher C Directorate of Sport, Exercise and Physiotherapy. University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, - - 2014
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the reliability of the Dynamic Strength Index (DSI) in collegiate athletes. Nineteen male collegiate athletes performed the squat jump (SJ) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), to determine peak force, on 2 separate days. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), typical ...
Dybzinski Ray R Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, - - 2014
Changes in resource availability often cause competitively-driven changes in tree allocation to foliage, wood, and fine roots, either via plastic changes within individuals or through turnover of individuals with differing strategies. Here, we investigate how optimally competitive tree allocation should change in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 along a gradient ...
Han J Y JY Applied Skin Research Institute, AMOREPACIFIC Corporation, R&D Center, Yongin-si, - - 2014
This study was conducted to define yellowish skin color, which is a major concern of Asian women, and to develop a 3D skin-pigment color model. A total of 22 Korean females were enrolled in this study. These women were asked to use a functional cosmetic product with whitening agents for ...
Attarha Mouna M Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, E11 Seashore Hall, Iowa City, IA, 52242-1407, USA, - - 2014
This project examined whether previous visual history can bias perceptual dominance during onset rivalry. A predictive sequence of non-rivalrous stimuli preceded dichoptically presented rivalrous displays. One of the dichoptic images was the implied next step of the preceding sequence while the other was not. Observers reported their initial dominant percept. ...
Helmy Sameh S Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and ‡Materials Department, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California , Santa Barbara, California 93106, United - - 2014
The development of an easily synthesized, modular, and tunable organic photoswitch that responds to visible light has been a long-standing pursuit. Herein we provide a detailed account of the design and synthesis of a new class of photochromes based on furfural, termed donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs). A wide variety of ...
Rehbaum Hubertus H Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2014
The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage ...
Nelken Israel I http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6645-107X Department of Neurobiology, the Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, and the Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel, - - 2014
The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of ...
Chen Xiaowu - - 2014
Lighting is a key factor in creating impressive artistic portraits. In this paper, we propose to analyse portrait lighting by learning templates of lighting styles. Inspired by the experience of artists, we first define several novel features which describe the local contrasts in various face regions. The most informative features ...
Rodrigues Pedro P Sports Research Laboratory, New Balance, Boston, - - 2014
Excessive pronation, because of its coupling with tibial internal rotation (TIR), has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of anterior knee pain (AKP). Traditionally this coupling has been expressed as a ratio between the eversion range of motion and the TIR range of motion (Ev/TIR) that occurs ...
Ahmadi Bani M M Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, - - 2014
Study design:A feasibility study on the effect of a new reciprocating orthosis on specific gait parameters for use by people with spinal cord injury.Objectives:The aim of this study was to design and develop a new medial linkage orthosis (MLO) mechanism incorporating a reciprocating motion and to determine its efficacy in ...
Hoffmayer Kurt S KS aDivision of Cardiology, Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin bDivision of Cardiology, Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, California, - - 2014
The purpose of this review is to highlight recent research findings in contact force-sensing radiofrequency ablation catheters. Contact force parameters evaluated during pulmonary vein isolation for treating atrial fibrillation correlated well with the presence of gaps in the wide area circumferential ablation lines at 3 months, decreased procedural times, and ...
Hong Qingshui - - 2014
A new self-powered broadband photodetector was fabricated by coating an n-silicon nanowire (n-Si NW) array with a layer of p-cupric oxide (CuO) nanoflakes through a new simple solution synthesis method. The p-n heterojunction shows excellent rectification characteristics in the dark and distinctive photovoltaic behavior under broadband light illumination. The photoresponse ...
Wu Jun - - 2014
The natural ground surface carries texture information that extends continuously from one's feet to the horizon, providing a rich depth resource for accurately locating an object resting on it. Here, we showed that the ground surface's role as a reference frame also aids in locating a target suspended in midair ...
Caroux Loïc L Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage (CeRCA), UMR 7295 - University of Poitiers, University of Tours, CNRS, France INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Talence, - - 2014
In many visual displays such as virtual environments, human tasks involve objects superimposed on both complex and moving backgrounds. However, most studies investigated the influence of background complexity or background motion in isolation. Two experiments were designed to investigate the joint influences of background complexity and lateral motion on a ...
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