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Stucken Emily Z EZ aMichigan Ear Institute, Farmington Hills bDepartment of Otolaryngology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, - - 2014
Up to 30 million workers in the United States are exposed to potentially detrimental levels of noise. Although reliable medications for minimizing or reversing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are not currently available, NIHL is entirely preventable. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of occupational ...
Hughes Anna E - - 2014
BackgroundStripes and other high contrast patterns found on animals have been hypothesised to cause ¿motion dazzle¿, a type of defensive coloration that operates when in motion, causing predators to misjudge the speed and direction of object movement. Several recent studies have found some support for this idea, but little is ...
Mazich Molly M MM Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, - - 2014
In visual-motor tracking, information about past, current, and future properties of a target path can be available but, because they are typically manipulated independently, the relative contribution of these information categories to tracking performance is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of ...
Dayan Eran E Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel Present Address: Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 - - 2014
The default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in an array of social-cognitive functions, including self-referential processing, theory of mind, and mentalizing. Yet, the properties of the external stimuli that elicit DMN activity in relation to these domains remain unknown. Previous studies suggested that motion kinematics is utilized by the ...
DuPuis David D Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, - - 2014
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been proposed as biomarkers capable of reflecting individual differences in neural processing not necessarily detectable at the behavioral level. However, the role of ERPs in developmental research could be hampered by current methodological approaches to quantification. ERPs are extracted as an average waveform over many trials; ...
Tuft Bradley W - - 2014
Directing neurite growth into close proximity of stimulating elements of a neural prosthesis, such as a retinal or cochlear implant (CI), may enhance device performance and overcome current spatial signal resolution barriers. In this work, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), which are the target neurons to be stimulated by CIs, were ...
Heida Tjitske - - 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show a higher ability to perform repetitive movements when they are cued by external stimuli, suggesting that rhythmic synchronization with an auditory timekeeper can be achieved in the absence of intact basal ganglia function. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is another therapeutic method that improves movement performance ...
Elliott Digby D a Faculty of Science , Liverpool John Moores University , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to examine time and energy optimization strategies for movements made with and against gravity. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated concurrent visual feedback, and knowledge about feedback. When vision was eliminated upon movement initiation, participants exhibited greater undershooting, both with their primary submovement and their ...
Fishman Yonatan I YI Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, - - 2014
The ability to attend to a particular sound in a noisy environment is an essential aspect of hearing. To accomplish this feat, the auditory system must segregate sounds that overlap in frequency and time. Many natural sounds, such as human voices, consist of harmonics of a common fundamental frequency (F0). ...
Wang Helena X HX http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9180-2516 Center for Neural Science and Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, - - 2014
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have relied on multivariate analysis methods to decode visual motion direction from measurements of cortical activity. Above-chance decoding has been commonly used to infer the motion-selective response properties of the underlying neural populations. Moreover, patterns of reliable response biases across voxels that underlie decoding ...
Berniker Max M University of Illinois at Chicago - - 2014
To generate new movements, we have to generalize what we have learned from previously practiced movements. An important question, therefore, is how the breadth of training affects generalization: does practicing a broad or narrow range of movements lead to better generalization? We address this question with a force field learning ...
Pulliam Christopher L CL Great Lakes NeuroTechnologies, Cleveland, OH, - - 2014
Background: Dyskinesia throughout the levodopa dose cycle has been previously measured in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using a wrist-worn motion sensor during the stationary tasks of arms resting and extended. Quantifying dyskinesia during unconstrained activities poses a unique challenge since these involuntary movements are kinematically similar to voluntary movement. ...
Pauw Ellen De ED Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5, BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The present study evaluates the speed effects of fixed speed cameras on motorways. Two locations with speed cameras were extensively examined in a quasi-experiment: (1) a two-lane motorway and (2) a three-lane motorway, each with a posted speed limit of 120km/h and sited in Flanders, Belgium. The effect is analysed ...
Bonardi Charlotte C a School of Psychology , University of - - 2014
Abstract Two experiments investigated the effect of the temporal distribution form of a stimulus on its ability to produce an overshadowing effect. The overshadowing stimuli were either of the same duration on every trial, or of a variable duration drawn from an exponential distribution with the same mean duration as ...
Solomito Matthew J MJ a Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center , Farmington, CT , - - 2014
Current pitching literature focuses primarily on the elbow and glenohumeral joints. This has led to a paucity of information regarding the forearm and wrist, and the limited data available are inconsistent. Therefore, this article seeks to provide a comprehensive description of the kinematics and kinetics of the wrist and forearm ...
Daliri Ayoub - - 2014
Stuttering individuals show speech and nonspeech sensorimotor deficiencies. To perform accurate movements, the sensorimotor system needs to generate appropriate control signals and correctly predict their sensory consequences. Using a reaching task, we examined the integrity of these control and prediction components, separately, for movements unrelated to the speech motor system. ...
Stöggl Thomas T 1Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria; 2Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; 3Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, - - 2014
To describe the detailed kinetics and kinematics associated with use of the V1 skating technique at high skiing speeds, and to identify factors that predict performance. 15 elite male cross-country skiers performed an incremental roller-skiing speed test (Vpeak) on a treadmill using the V1 skating technique. Pole and plantar forces ...
Granatosky Michael C MC Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lumbar vertebral morphology has been used as an indicator of locomotor behavior in living and fossil mammals. Rigidity within the lumbar region is thought to be important for increasing overall axial rigidity during various forms of locomotion, including bridging between supports, inverted quadrupedalism, gliding, and flying. However, distinguishing between those ...
Nathan Vannatta C C University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse Institute for Movement Science, Department of Health Professions, Physical Therapy Program, La Crosse, - - 2014
This study aimed to quantify differences in patellofemoral joint stress which may occur when healthy runners alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rearfoot strike to a forefoot strike in order to gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of patellofemoral pain. Sixteen healthy female runners completed ...
Steeves Jeremy A JA 1Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program NCI/DCP, Rockville, MD; 2Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch NCI/ DCCPS, Rockville, MD; 3Biometry Research Group NCI/DCP, Rockville, MD; 4Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, NIDDK, Bethesda, - - 2014
This study compared sitting, standing, and stepping classifications from thigh-worn Actigraph and activPAL monitors under laboratory and free-living conditions. Adults wore both monitors on the right thigh while performing six sitting, two standing, nine stepping, one cycling activity, and writing on a whiteboard with intermittent stepping under laboratory observation(n=21), and ...
Brady James Michael - - 2014
Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modelling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission ...
Wundersitz Daniel W T DW a Centre for Exercise and Sport Sciences, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences , Deakin University , Burwood , VIC , - - 2014
Abstract The purpose of this study was to validate peak acceleration data from an accelerometer contained within a wearable tracking device while walking, jogging and running. Thirty-nine participants walked, jogged and ran on a treadmill while 10 peak accelerations per movement were obtained (n = 390). A single triaxial accelerometer ...
Finkbeiner Susan D SD Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, 0843-03092, Panama. - - 2014
Visual signaling in animals can serve many uses, including predator deterrence and mate attraction. In many cases signals used to advertise unprofitability to predators are also used for intraspecific communication. Although aposematism and mate choice are significant forces driving the evolution of many animal phenotypes, the interplay between relevant visual ...
Dawydow Alexej A Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Physiology, Julius-Maximilians-University of Würzburg, D-97070 Würzburg, - - 2014
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has provided a breakthrough for the optogenetic control of neuronal activity. In adult Drosophila melanogaster, however, its applications are severely constrained. This limitation in a powerful model system has curtailed unfolding the full potential of ChR2 for behavioral neuroscience. Here, we describe the D156C mutant, termed ChR2-XXL (extra ...
Biagetti Giorgio - - 2014
Sport, fitness, as well as rehabilitation activities, often require the accomplishment of repetitive movements. The correctness of the exercises is often related to the capability of maintaining the required cadence and muscular force. Failure to maintain the required force, also known as muscle fatigue, is accompanied by a shift in ...
Wang Wenjin - - 2014
Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) techniques can measure cardiac activity by detecting pulse-induced colour variations on human skin using an RGB camera. State-of-theart rPPG methods are sensitive to subject body motions (e.g., motion-induced colour distortions). This study proposes a novel framework to improve the motion robustness of rPPG. The basic idea of ...
van den Noort Josien C JC Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, 1007 MB, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, - - 2014
To direct interventions aimed at improving scapular position and motion in shoulder pathologies, a clinically feasible, objective, sensitive and reliable assessment of scapular dyskinesis is needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer reliability and the precision of 3D scapula kinematics measurement using wireless sensors ...
Bradley Paul S PS Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Metropolitan University, United - - 2014
There is no methodological standardization of velocity thresholds for the quantification of distances covered in various locomotor activities for women's soccer matches; especially for high-speed running and sprinting. Applying velocity thresholds used for motion analysis of men's soccer has likely created skewed observations about high-intensity movement demands for the women's ...
Winterfeld T T Department of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry, Dental Clinic, Justus-Liebig-University, 35392, Giessen, - - 2014
Video observation studies of habitual oral hygiene from the 1970s revealed a striking neglect of brushing oral surfaces and unsystematic brushing patterns with frequent movements between areas. These findings were not systematically followed up; furthermore, nothing is known about whether subjects are able to floss sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of ...
Baliga Vikram V University of California Santa Cruz, United States - - 2014
In fishes, cleaning is a mutualistic behavior wherein a species will remove and consume ectoparasites from other organisms. More than two thirds of cleaner fishes display this behavior predominately as juveniles and discontinue cleaning as adults; such species are here referred to as "facultative cleaners". Whether allometric changes in morphological ...
Robovska-Havelkova Pavla P University of South Bohemia, Czech - - 2014
Frog locomotion has attracted wide scientific interest due to the unusual and derived morphology of the frog pelvic girdle and hind limb. Previous authors have suggested that the design of the frog locomotor system evolved towards a specialized jumping morphology early-on in the radiation of the group. However, data on ...
Rasetshwane Daniel M DM 1Center for Hearing Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; and 2Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, - - 2014
Cochlear reflectance (CR) is the cochlear contribution to ear-canal reflectance. CR is equivalent to an otoacoustic emission (OAE) deconvolved by forward pressure in the ear canal. Similar to other OAE measures, CR level is related to cochlear status. When measured using wideband noise stimuli, potential advantages of CR over other ...
Arnold John J Biomechanics and Neuromotor Laboratory, Exercise for Health and Human Performance Research Group, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Footwear and insoles are used to reduce knee load in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), despite a limited understanding of foot function in this group. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between adults with and without medial knee OA during barefoot walking. ...
Pennig Sibylle S a German Aerospace Center (DLR) , Institute of Aerospace Medicine , Cologne , - - 2014
Acoustic modifications of loudspeaker announcements were investigated in a simulated aircraft cabin to improve passengers' speech intelligibility and quality of communication in this specific setting. Four experiments with 278 participants in total were conducted in an acoustic laboratory using a standardised speech test and subjective rating scales. In experiments 1 ...
Mou Yi Y Key Lab of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, - - 2014
This study investigated 5- to 13-year-old children's performance in solving horizontal projectile motion problems, in which they predicted the trajectory of a carried object released from a carrier in three different contexts. The results revealed that 5- and 8-year-olds' trajectory predictions were easily distracted by salient contextual features (e.g. the ...
Ropars Mickaël M Orthopedics Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France; M2S (Mouvement Sport Santé) Laboratory, University Rennes 2, ENS Bretagne, UEB, Campus de Ker Lann, Bruz, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Shoulder hyperlaxity (SHL) is assessed with clinical signs. Quantification of SHL remains difficult, however, because no quantitative definition has yet been described. With use of a motion capture system (MCS), the aim of this study was to categorize SHL through a volumetric MCS-based definition and to compare this volume with ...
Carter Lyndal L 1National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2The Hearing Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; and 3The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2014
The authors undertook a review of the literature, focussing on publications describing the following: (1) Pure tone threshold data for adolescents/young adults; (2) Measurements/estimates of noise exposure from leisure activities; and (3) The relationship between hearing threshold levels (HTLs) and leisure-noise exposure. There is a large volume of published materials ...
Chang Nai-Yuan Nicholas NY 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; and 2Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, - - 2014
Quantification of the perceptual thresholds to vestibular stimuli may offer valuable complementary information to that provided by measures of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Perceptual thresholds could be particularly important in evaluating some subjects, such as the elderly, who might have a greater potential of central as well as peripheral vestibular ...
Brown Christopher A CA Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Bilateral cochlear implant (BCI) users receive limited binaural cues and, thus, show little improvement to speech intelligibility from spatial cues. The feasibility of a method for enhancing the binaural cues available to BCI users is investigated. This involved extending interaural differences of levels, which typically are restricted to high frequencies, ...
Brimijoin W Owen WO MRC Institute of Hearing Research (Scottish Section), Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, United - - 2014
Although directional microphones on a hearing aid provide a signal-to-noise ratio benefit in a noisy background, the amount of benefit is dependent on how close the signal of interest is to the front of the user. It is assumed that when the signal of interest is off-axis, users can reorient ...
Haselbacher Matthias M Department of Experimental Orthopedics, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ...
Demoli Nazif - - 2014
Recording of digital holograms of a weak signal [0.44 counts per second (cps)] hidden below the detector's noise (21 cps) is investigated by employing the high dynamic range of a photon-counting detector. Recording conditions are discussed in terms of the most important holographic measures, namely, the fringe visibility (or contrast) and ...
Lu Meiliang M State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, P. R. China. - - 2014
Ultrathin two dimensional (2D) materials have triggered extensive interest for their exceptional properties and potential applications. Herein, atomic layer graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was obtained by a simple ultrasonic exfoliation approach, and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were successfully grown on these ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets (UCNNS) via a facile solvothermal method. ...
Zhang Junjun - - 2014
Studies of the perception of motion in three-dimensional scenes have provided extensive information about the effects of changes in the size, speed, and disparity of an object's image on the perception of the object's trajectory. The present study demonstrates that this perception is not determined primarily by the object's motion ...
Yu Kristine M KM Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts - - 2014
There are few studies on the role of phonation cues in the perception of lexical tones in tonal languages where pitch is the primary dimension of contrast. This study shows that listeners are sensitive to creaky phonation in native tonal perception in Cantonese, a language in which the low falling ...
Kaplan Maxwell B MB Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS#50, 266 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, Massachusetts - - 2014
Melon-headed whales are pantropical odontocetes that are often found near oceanic islands. While considered sound-sensitive, their bioacoustic characteristics are relatively poorly studied. The goal of this study was to characterize the vocal repertoire of melon-headed whales to determine whether they produce repeated calls that could assist in recognition of conspecifics. ...
Kastelein Ronald A RA Sea Mammal Research Company, Julianalaan 46, 3843 CC Harderwijk, The - - 2014
Harbor porpoises may suffer hearing loss when they are exposed to high level sounds. After exposure for 60 min to a 6.5 kHz continuous tone at average received sound pressure levels (SPLav.re.) ranging from 118 to 154 dB re 1μPa, the temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTSs) of a harbor porpoise were quantified at ...
Jackson Iain R IR Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford, M5 4WT, United - - 2014
Wind can induce noise on microphones, causing problems for users of hearing aids and for those making recordings outdoors. Perceptual tests in the laboratory and via the Internet were carried out to understand what features of wind noise are important to the perceived audio quality of speech recordings. The average ...
Plant Kerrie L KL The HEARing CRC, Level 1, 174 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, - - 2014
Factors that might affect perceptual pitch match between acoustic and electric stimulation were examined in 25 bimodal listeners using magnitude estimation. Pre-operative acoustic thresholds in both ears, and duration of severe-profound loss, were first examined as correlates with degree of match between the measured pitch and that predicted by the ...
Fidell Sanford S Fidell Associates, Inc., 23139 Erwin Street, Woodland Hills, California - - 2014
Regulatory agencies often define strict, decibel-denominated thresholds of significance of noise impacts to protect some fraction of the residential population from exposure to highly annoying noise. Definitions of the "significance" of aircraft noise impacts and recommendations of land use "compatibility," however, typically lack detailed, systematic rationales. Instead, the definitions are ...
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