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Results 401 - 450 of 3186
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Giles Joshua W - - 2014
Background: In-vitro active shoulder motion simulation can provide improved understanding of shoulder biomechanics; however, accurate simulators using advanced control theory have not been developed. Therefore, our objective was to develop and evaluate a simulator which uses real-time kinematic feedback and closed-loop Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control to produce motion. The simulator's ability ...
Fowler Cynthia G CG Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, - - 2014
Background: Motion sickness is a common debilitating condition associated with both actual and perceived motion. Despite the commonality, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms. One theory proposes that motion sickness arises from a mismatch between reality and past experience in vertical motions. Physiological tests of the vestibular system, ...
Loukzadeh Ziba Z Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, - - 2014
Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic ...
Silva Ana C AC University of - - 2014
An increasing number of studies show how stimulus complexity affects the responses of looming sensitive neurons across multiple animal taxa. Locusts contain a well described, descending motion sensitive pathway that is preferentially looming sensitive. However, the lobula giant movement detector/descending contralateral movement detector (LGMD/DCMD) pathway responds to more than simple ...
Pittman Andrea L AL Arizona State University, Tempe, - - 2014
Background: Fast- and slow-acting amplitude compression parameters have complementary strengths and weaknesses that limit the full benefit of this feature to hearing aid users. Adaptive time constants have been suggested in the literature as a means of optimizing the benefits of amplitude compression. Purpose: The purpose of this study was ...
R V Hemamalini H Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Srm MCH & RC , Chennai, India - - 2014
Background: The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential. Aim: To compare the ...
Lyons Susan M SM Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA - - 2014
Animals do not make decisions in a bubble but often refer to previous experience when discriminating between options. Contrast effects occur when the value of a stimulus affects the response to another value of the stimulus, and the changes in value and response are in the same direction. Although contrast ...
Schiefer Christoph - - 2014
Background: Inertial measurement units (IMU) are gaining increasing importance for human motion tracking in a large variety of applications. IMUs consist of gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers which provide angular rate, acceleration and magnetic field information respectively. In scenarios with a permanently distorted magnetic field, orientation estimation algorithms revert to using ...
Hermannsen Line L Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, C. F. Moellers Allé 3, 8000 Aarhus C, - - 2014
Growing ship traffic worldwide has led to increased vessel noise with possible negative impacts on marine life. Most research has focused on low frequency components of ship noise, but for high-frequency specialists, such as the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), medium-to-high frequency noise components are likely more of a concern. To ...
Pedler R D RD Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, 75 Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216, Australia - - 2014
In contrast to well-studied Northern Hemisphere birds with spatially and temporally predictable seasonal migrations, waterbirds in desert biomes face major challenges in exploiting stochastic, rich, yet short-lived resource pulses in vast arid landscapes, leading to the evolution of nomadic behaviour. An extreme example is the banded stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), an ...
- - 2014
An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, published in 1817, describes a condition in which there is 'involuntary tremulous motion, with lessened muscular power, in parts not in action and even when supported; with a propensity to bend the trunk forwards, and to pass from a walking to a running pace: ...
Kloepper Laura N LN Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, 185 Meeting Street, Providence, Rhode Island - - 2014
Bats perform high-resolution echolocation by comparing temporal and spectral features of their transmitted pulses to the received echoes. In complex environments with moving prey, dynamically adapting the transmitted pulses can increase the probability of successful target representation and interception. This study further investigates the adaptive vocal-motor strategies of big brown ...
Scibek Jason S JS Department of Athletic Training, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2014
Electromagnetic tracking systems have enabled some investigators and clinicians to measure tri-planar scapular motion; yet, they are not practical and affordable options for all clinicians. Currently, the ability to affordably quantify scapular motion is limited to monitoring only the motion of scapular upward rotation, with use of a digital inclinometer. ...
Makarava Natallia N Interdisciplinary Center for Dynamics of Complex Systems, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam, - - 2014
Amoebae explore their environment in a random way, unless external cues like, e.g., nutrients, bias their motion. Even in the absence of cues, however, experimental cell tracks show some degree of persistence. In this paper, we analyzed individual cell tracks in the framework of a linear mixed effects model, where ...
Cavedon V - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of the classification system used in Open-class wheelchair tennis by investigating the relationship between post-impact ball velocity in the serve (measured using a sports radar gun) and the severity of impairment. Shoulder and wrist angles at the instant of ...
Shen Yi Y Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, California - - 2014
A Bayesian adaptive procedure, the quick-auditory-filter (qAF) procedure, was used to estimate auditory-filter shapes that were asymmetric about their peaks. In three experiments, listeners who were naive to psychoacoustic experiments detected a fixed-level, pure-tone target presented with a spectrally notched noise masker. The qAF procedure adaptively manipulated the masker spectrum ...
Tringali Stéphane S *Department of Otology and Otoneurotology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon, Pierre-Bénite, France; and †Departments of Physiology and Biophysics, and ‡Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, - - 2014
Bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHSs) provide sound location-dependent input to the normal ear for reducing the head shadow effect in the case of single-sided deafness (SSD). Patients with SSD can be fit with a BAHS positioned on the impaired side. Despite successful outcomes and some reports of spatial hearing capabilities, little ...
Jilek Milan M Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech - - 2014
The ISO 7029 (2000) standard defines normative hearing thresholds H (dB hearing level) as a function of age Y (years), given by H = α(Y - 18)(2), up to 8 kHz. The purpose of this study was to determine reference thresholds above 8 kHz. Hearing thresholds were examined using pure-tone audiometry over the extended frequency range ...
Bilousov Oleksandr V - - 2014
Porous GaN based LEDs produced by corrosion etching techniques demonstrated enhanced light extraction efficiency in the pass. However, these fabrication techniques require further post-grown processing steps, which increases the price of the final system. Also, the penetration depth of these etching techniques is limited, and affects not only the semiconductor ...
Stucken Emily Z EZ aMichigan Ear Institute, Farmington Hills bDepartment of Otolaryngology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, - - 2014
Up to 30 million workers in the United States are exposed to potentially detrimental levels of noise. Although reliable medications for minimizing or reversing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are not currently available, NIHL is entirely preventable. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of occupational ...
Cronin John B JB 1AUT University, Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand; 2School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia; and 3National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, - - 2014
Cronin, JB and Rumpf, MC. Effect of four different step detection thresholds on nonmotorized treadmill sprint measurement. J Strength Cond Res 28(10): 2996-3000, 2014-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 4 different step detection thresholds (10, 15, 20, and 30% body mass [BM]) on the kinetics ...
Krafft F C FC BioMotion Center, Institute of Sports and Sports Science (IfSS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 15, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study aims to assess the test-retest reproducibility of specific spatio-temporal (foot placement, foot contact time) and dynamic (resultant horizontal and vertical ground reaction force) gait parameters of three different, everyday occurring, turning conditions. The subjects were tested at two subsequent days. Out of this setting the purpose of this ...
Buscarino Arturo A Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e Informatica, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, - - 2014
We study disease spreading in a system of agents moving in a space where the force of infection is not homogeneous. Agents are random walkers that additionally execute long-distance jumps, and the plane in which they move is divided into two regions where the force of infection takes different values. ...
Boyer Katherine A KA Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, - - 2014
Injury rates among runners are high, with the knee injured most frequently. The interaction of running experience and running mechanics is not well understood but may be important for understanding relative injury risk in low vs higher mileage runners. The study aim was to apply a principal component analysis (PCA) ...
Moreno Ivan - - 2014
Determining the invisibility of an optical cloak intended to hide something has become a complex problem in recent years. There are many invisibility mechanisms, the performance is quite different from technique to technique, and it is desirable to have a precise metric for their comparison. Here, we propose a simple ...
An F P FP Institute of Modern Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, - - 2014
A search for light sterile neutrino mixing was performed with the first 217 days of data from the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9 GW_{th} nuclear reactors to six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 m and 561 m) and ...
Loh Iong Ying - - 2014
Track-walking nanomotors and larger systems integrating these motors are important for wide real-world applications of nanotechnology. However, inventing these nanomotors remains difficult, a sharp contrast to the wide-spread success of simpler switch-like nanodevices - even though the latter already encompasses basic elements of the former such as engine-like bi-state contraction/extension ...
Jennings Skyler G SG Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The University of Utah, 390 South, 1530 East, BEHS 1201, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA, - - 2014
Temporal masking curves (TMCs) are often used to estimate cochlear compression in individuals with normal and impaired hearing. These estimates may yield a wide range of individual differences, even among subjects with similar quiet thresholds. This study used an auditory model to assess potential sources of variance in TMCs from ...
Pierrette M M a Laboratoire Vibrations Acoustique, INSA , Lyon , - - 2014
It is currently accepted that noise is one of the most important annoyance factors in open-space offices. However, noise levels measured in open spaces of the tertiary sector rarely exceed 65 dB(A). It, therefore, appears necessary to develop a tool that can be used to assess the noise environment of these ...
Hansen Adam G AG Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, Washington, 98195-5020, - - 2014
1. Clark & Levy (1988) described an antipredation window for smaller planktivorous fish during crepuscular periods when light permits feeding on zooplankton, but limits visual detection by piscivores. Yet, how the window is influenced by the interaction between light regime, turbidity and cloud cover over a broad latitudinal gradient remains ...
Struzik Artur A Department of Biomechanics, University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, - - 2014
Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the ...
Prince Jon B - - 2014
The identity of a melody resides in its sequence of pitches and durations, both of which exhibit surface details as well as structural properties. In this study, pitch contour (pattern of ups and downs) served as pitch surface information, and tonality (musical key) as pitch structure; in the temporal dimension, ...
Henry Molly J MJ Max Planck Research Group "Auditory Cognition," Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany henry@cbs.mpg.de - - 2014
Our sensory environment is teeming with complex rhythmic structure, to which neural oscillations can become synchronized. Neural synchronization to environmental rhythms (entrainment) is hypothesized to shape human perception, as rhythmic structure acts to temporally organize cortical excitability. In the current human electroencephalography study, we investigated how behavior is influenced by ...
Garon Nancy N a Department of Psychology , Mount Allison University , Sackville , New Brunswick , - - 2014
The current study explored the effect of loss frequency and long-term expected outcome on decision making in 86 preschoolers. Children were randomly assigned to 2 versions of a child-friendly Iowa Gambling Task. In the high-conflict condition, the deck with the highest long-term outcome also had the highest frequency of loss, ...
Kapidžić Alen A Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University in Tuzla, Bosnia and - - 2014
We attempted to establish which applied kinematic variables significantly contributed to the efficiency of the instep kick motion in soccer. The study sample comprised 13 boys (age: 13 ± 0.5 yrs; body mass: 41.50 ± 8.40 kg; body height: 151.46 ± 5.93 cm) from the FC Sloboda school of soccer. ...
Augustyniak Anna - - 2014
Abstract Hyperpigmentation disorders are a serious aesthetic problem. Various therapies are applied to remove these lesions. The Variable Pulsed Light (VPL) is similar to the Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) but instead of one flash of light, energy is provided in a few small and rapid micro-flashes. The aim of the ...
Feng Fu-Zhou FZ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072, People's Republic of - - 2014
Engagement force between ultrasonic horn and target is one of the primary factors which influence defect detection in sonic infrared imaging method. In this paper, an experimental setup which can quantify the engagement force has been designed. A series of experiments under different engagement forces have been performed, and an ...
Calabró M - - 2014
BackgroundAccelerometers can provide accurate estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, one of the limitations of these instruments is the inability to capture light activity within an acceptable range of error. The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity of different activity monitors for estimating energy expenditure ...
Anisimov Victor N VN Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian - - 2014
The main obstacle for investigating vocal interactions in vertebrates is the difficulty of discriminating individual vocalizations of rapidly moving, sometimes simultaneously vocalizing individuals. We developed a method of recording and analyzing individual vocalizations in free-ranging animals using ultraminiature back-attached sound and acceleration recorders. Our method allows the separation of zebra ...
Nakano Ryo R Breeding and Pest Management Division, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, 2-1 Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8605, - - 2014
Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity ...
Stone Michael A MA Audiology and Deafness Group, School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK; Auditory Perception Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Noise exposure can affect the functioning of cochlear inner and outer hair cells (IHC/OHC), leading to multiple perceptual changes. This work explored possible changes in detection of amplitude modulation (AM) at three Sensation Levels (SL) for carrier frequencies of 3, 4 and 6 kHz. There were two groups of participants, aged ...
Grohmann Carsten C Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this publication, a three-dimensionally movable motion phantom is described and its performance characteristics are evaluated. The intended primary fields of application for the phantom are the quality assurance (QA) of respiratory motion management devices in radiation therapy (RT) like gating or tumour tracking systems, training for clinical use of ...
Lahav Amir A Department of Pediatrics-Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Recent research raises concerns about the adverse effects of noise exposure on the developing preterm infant. However, current guidelines for NICU noise remain focused on loudness levels, leaving the problem of exposure to potentially harmful sound frequencies largely overlooked. This study examined the frequency spectra present in a level-II NICU. ...
Giroux C C French National Institute of Sport (INSEP), Research Department, Laboratory Sport, Expertise and - - 2014
This study determined the concurrent validity and reliability of force, velocity and power measurements provided by accelerometry, linear position transducer and Samozino's methods, during loaded squat jumps. 17 subjects performed squat jumps on 2 separate occasions in 7 loading conditions (0-60% of the maximal concentric load). Force, velocity and power ...
Deveneau Nicolette E NE Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, - - 2014
Standard external landmarks have been suggested as a guide for in-office percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE), but validity of these landmarks has not been assessed. Our objective was to determine whether the standard 9 cm from the tip of the coccyx indicates the position of the S3 sacral foramen and whether other ...
Becchio Cristina C Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy; Centre for Cognitive Science, Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, - - 2014
Research in the field of psychology and cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore the functional underpinnings of voluntary actions and how they differ from stimulus-driven actions. From these studies one can conclude that the two action modes differ with respect to their neural and behavioural correlates. So far, however, no ...
Gallo Paul M PM Teacher's College, Columbia University, NY, USA Norwalk Community College, Norwalk, - - 2014
Background: Gait impairments related to Parkinson's disease (PD) include variable step length and decreased walking velocity, which may result in poorer walking economy. Auditory cueing is a common method used to improve gait mechanics in PD that has been shown to worsen walking economy at set treadmill walking speeds. It ...
Loffing Florian F a Institute of Sports and Sports Science , University of Kassel , Kassel , - - 2014
The fighting hypothesis proposes that left-oriented athletes enjoy a negative frequency-dependent advantage in combat sports such as boxing. Supporting evidence, however, is restricted to cross-sectional frequency data from small samples. Here, we examined the incidence and fight records of 2,403 left- and right-oriented fighters who were listed in the annual ...
Gobbo Massimiliano M Dept. Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, - - 2014
Background: The relationship between output force and motor command depends on the intrinsic dynamic responses of motor units (MUs), which can be characterized by evoking accurate sinusoidal force responses at different frequencies. This study aimed at verifying if sinusoidal modulation of the stimulation rate of single MUs results in reliable ...
Pauw Ellen De ED Transportation Research Institute Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5, BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Automated section speed control is a fairly new traffic safety measure that is increasingly applied to enforce speed limits. The advantage of this enforcement system is the registration of the average speed at an entire section, which would lead to high speed limit compliances and subsequently to a reduction in ...
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