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Jo Kyoung-Nam KN Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, South - - 2014
An interhemispheric hydrologic seesaw-in which latitudinal migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) produce simultaneous wetting (increased precipitation) in one hemisphere and drying in the other-has been discovered in some tropical and subtropical regions. For instance, Chinese and Brazilian subtropical speleothem (cave formations such as stalactites and stalagmites) records show ...
Russell James M JM Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI - - 2014
The Indo-Pacific warm pool houses the largest zone of deep atmospheric convection on Earth and plays a critical role in global climate variations. Despite the region's importance, changes in Indo-Pacific hydroclimate on orbital timescales remain poorly constrained. Here we present high-resolution geochemical records of surface runoff and vegetation from sediment ...
Charvet Sophie S Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada; Québec-Océan and Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Québec, QC, Canada; Centre d'études nordiques (CEN), Québec, QC, - - 2014
Protists in high latitude lakes are constrained by cold temperatures, low inorganic nutrient supply, and low light availability for much of the year due to ice cover and polar darkness. The lengthening ice-free periods in these freshwater ecosystems due to a warming climate results in increased light availability, but the ...
Mollalo A A Department of Geo-spatial Information System (GIS), Center of Excellence in GIS, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, - - 2014
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a vector-borne disease, poses serious psychological as well as social and economic burden to many rural areas of Iran. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of the disease to better understand spatio-temporal epidemiological ...
Klapp Iftach - - 2014
A tunable extended depth of field (EDOF) imaging is presented using temporal multiplexing and a low-cost eight-ring, annular liquid crystal spatial light modulator. By changing between different phase profiles in the pupil plane of a lens we perform several levels of EDOF. Using these levels as a "database" it is ...
Gutstein Carolina Simon CS Departamento de Biología Red Paleontológica U Chile Laboratorio de Ontogenia y Filogenia Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile; Department of Paleobiology National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of - - 2014
"River dolphins" are a paraphyletic group of toothed whales (Odontoceti) that represent independent secondary invasions of freshwater habitats. Different "river dolphin" lineages display suites of convergent morphological specializations that commonly reflect adaptations to riverine and freshwater environments, such as longirostry, reduced orbits, and wide, paddle-like flippers. One lineage, the Iniidae, ...
Krist Amy C AC Department of Zoology and Physiology and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, United States of - - 2014
Local adaptation - typically recognized as higher values of fitness-related traits for native vs. non-native individuals when measured in the native environment - is common in natural populations because of pervasive spatial variation in the intensity and type of natural selection. Although local adaptation has been primarily studied in the ...
Budidha K K School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB, - - 2014
For the last two decades, pulse oximetry has been used as a standard procedure for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). However, SpO2 measurements made from extremities such as the finger, ear lobe and toes become susceptible to inaccuracies when peripheral perfusion is compromised. To overcome these limitations, the external auditory ...
Guadayol Oscar O Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Kāne'ohe, Hawai'i, United States of - - 2014
Spatial and temporal environmental variability are important drivers of ecological processes at all scales. As new tools allow the in situ exploration of individual responses to fluctuations, ecologically meaningful ways of characterizing environmental variability at organism scales are needed. We investigated the fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of high-frequency temporal variability in ...
Denommee K C KC 1] Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA [2] Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, - - 2014
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are powerful agents of destruction, and understanding climatic controls on TC patterns is of great importance. Over timescales of seasons to several decades, relationships among TC track, frequency, intensity and basin-scale climate changes are well documented by instrumental records. Over centuries to millennia, climate-shift influence on TC ...
Gambino Salvatore S Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania Osservatorio Etneo, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, - - 2014
We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages ...
Belikov Nikolai N Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, - - 2014
Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (λmax) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20-30 nm red-shifted in "lake" compared with "sea" populations. The ...
Hu Yi Y Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. - - 2014
We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted ...
Roy Charlotte L CL Wetland Wildlife Populations and Research Group, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Bemidji, Minnesota, United States of - - 2014
The post-fledging period is one of the least studied portions of the annual cycle in waterfowl. Yet, recruitment into the breeding population requires that young birds have sufficient resources to survive this period. We used radio-telemetry and generalized estimating equations to examine support for four hypotheses regarding the drivers of ...
Rohácek Karel K Biology Centre AS CR, p.r.i., IPMB, , Branisovska 31, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech - - 2014
Diatoms are especially important microorganisms because they constitute the larger group of microalgae. To survive the constant variations of the light environment, diatoms have developed mechanisms aiming at the dissipation of excess energy, such as the xanthophyll cycle and the non-photochemical chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching. This contribution is dedicated to ...
Knudsen Mads Faurschou MF Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldsbergs Gade 2, Aarhus C DK-8000, - - 2014
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) represents a significant driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, but the forcing mechanisms pacing the AMO remain poorly understood. Here we use the available proxy records to investigate the influence of solar and volcanic forcing on the AMO over the last ~450 years. The evidence suggests ...
Aravena Guillermo G Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, Facultad Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, - - 2014
We use time-series analyses to characterize the effects of recent climate variability upon the local physical conditions at 11 study sites along the northern-central coast of Chile (29-34°S). Environmental indices show that the 1° Bakun upwelling index in this coastal region has fluctuated in time, starting from a stable period ...
Li Zhao Z School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China. - - 2014
The site displacement due to ocean tidal loading is regarded as one of the largest uncertainties in precise geodetic positioning measurements, among which the effect of minor ocean tides (MOT), except for the 11 main tidal constituents, are sometimes neglected in routine precise global positioning system (GPS) data processing. We ...
Zinke J J 1] UWA Oceans Institute, 39 Fairway, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia [2] UWA School of Earth and Environment, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia [3] Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, Queensland 4810, - - 2014
Variability of the Leeuwin current (LC) off Western Australia is a footprint of interannual and decadal climate variations in the tropical Indo-Pacific. La Niña events often result in a strengthened LC, high coastal sea levels and unusually warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs), termed Ningaloo Niño. The rarity of such extreme ...
Larsen Chelsea C CC *Human Performance Research Laboratory, Department of Human Performance and Health Education, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan †Department of Human Performance and Recreation, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, - - 2013
Flexibility, which is the ability to move freely through a full range of motion (ROM), is desired to enhance performance and decrease the likelihood of muscle injury. There are different techniques used to increase ROM and cryotherapy techniques to facilitation flexibility gains. However, the combination of stretching and type of ...
Ausden Malcolm M RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, UK, - - 2013
Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), ...
Wu Shaohua - - 2013
Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) is an important measure of global change, and identifying the relative contributions of urbanisation and climate change to NPP is important for understanding the impact of human and natural influences on terrestrial systems and the carbon cycle. The objective of this study was to reveal ...
Pálffy Károly - - 2013
Winter phytoplankton communities in the shallow alkaline pans of Hungary are frequently dominated by picoeukaryotes, sometimes in particularly high abundance. In winter 2012, the ice-covered alkaline Zab-szék pan was found to be extraordinarily rich in picoeukaryotic green algae (42-82 × 10(6) cells ml(-1)) despite the simultaneous presence of multiple stressors (low temperature and light ...
Barra Daniel - - 2013
To evaluate light scattering and light transmittance of Ioflex hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted because of clinically significant opacification secondary to calcification. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Seven explanted and 8 control Ioflex IOLs were studied. Gross and light ...
Tedstone Andrew J - - 2013
Changes to the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet can be forced by various mechanisms including surface-melt-induced ice acceleration and oceanic forcing of marine-terminating glaciers. We use observations of ice motion to examine the surface melt-induced dynamic response of a land-terminating outlet glacier in southwest Greenland to the exceptional melting ...
Halfar Jochen - - 2013
Northern Hemisphere sea ice has been declining sharply over the past decades and 2012 exhibited the lowest Arctic summer sea-ice cover in historic times. Whereas ongoing changes are closely monitored through satellite observations, we have only limited data of past Arctic sea-ice cover derived from short historical records, indirect terrestrial ...
Díez-Vives Cristina - - 2013
The abundance and structure of Bacteroidetes populations at diverse temporal and spatial scales were investigated in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. At a temporal scale, their relative abundance exhibited a marked seasonality, since it was higher in spring and decreased in winter. Similarly, Bacteroidetes community structure encompassed three main groups (winter, ...
Kim Diane Y - - 2013
The monthly, seasonal and interannual variability of microbial eukaryote assemblages were examined at 5 m, the deep chlorophyll maximum, 150 m and 500 m at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series station (eastern North Pacific). The depths spanned transitions in temperature, light, nutrients and oxygen, and included a persistently hypoxic environment at 500 m. Terminal ...
Vick-Majors Trista J - - 2013
High-latitude environments, such as the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, are subject to seasonally segregated light-dark cycles, which have important consequences for microbial diversity and function on an annual basis. Owing largely to the logistical difficulties of sampling polar environments during the darkness of winter, little is known about planktonic ...
Benson Jennifer L - - 2013
The relationship of eelgrass survival and habitat quality to water column nitrogen level, phytoplankton biomass, particulate matter, bottom light intensity, and light attenuation was quantified at 70 sites within 19 Massachusetts estuaries through 4 growing seasons (2007-2009, 2011). Sites included a range of eelgrass habitat quality, from stable productive eelgrass ...
Kastelein Ronald A - - 2013
The high under-water sound pressure levels (SPLs) produced during pile driving to build offshore wind turbines may affect harbor porpoises. To estimate the discomfort threshold of pile driving sounds, a porpoise in a quiet pool was exposed to playbacks (46 strikes/min) at five SPLs (6 dB steps: 130-154 dB re 1 μPa). The spectrum ...
Smith Jeremy D - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of asymmetrical loading on the intersegmental dynamics of the swing phase. Participants were asked to walk on a treadmill for 20min under three loading conditions: (a) unloaded baseline, (b) 2kg attached to the dominant limb's ankle, and (c) post-load, following ...
French Scott - - 2013
Understanding the relationship between different scales of convection that drive plate motions and hotspot volcanism still eludes geophysicists. Using full-waveform seismic tomography, we imaged a pattern of horizontally elongated bands of low shear velocity, most prominent between 200 to 350 km depth, which extends below the well-developed low-velocity zone. These ...
Goldberg Jay M - - 2013
Intra-axonal recordings were made from bouton fibers near their termination in the turtle posterior crista. Spike discharge, miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) and afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) were monitored during resting activity in both regularly and irregularly discharging units. Quantal size (qsize) and quantal rate (qrate) were estimated by shot-noise theory. Theoretically, ...
Yamamoto Masahiro - - 2013
Deep-sea chemistry: The electrochemical analysis of hydrothermal fluids and the ambient seawater with fuel cells installed in deep-sea hydrothermal vents provided evidence for the possibility of generating electricity in the deep sea. The illumination of light-emitting diodes in the dark environment also confirmed this prospect.
Gavrilova Alexander N - - 2013
A 9-yr dataset of continuous sea noise recording made at the Cape Leeuwin station of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty hydroacoustic network in 2002-2010 was processed to detect calls from pygmy blue whales and to analyze diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations in their vocal activity. Because the conventional spectrogram correlation method ...
Kastelein Ronald A - - 2013
Pile driving, which creates high amplitude sounds with potentially negative impacts on the marine environment, is used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To quantify the distance at which pile driving sounds can be detected by harbor seals, unmasked hearing thresholds were obtained for series of five pile ...
Kennedy R J - - 2013
The upstream migratory behaviour of wild and ranched Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a small Irish coastal spate river was investigated using acoustic telemetry. Prespawning migratory behaviour was investigated including movement patterns at a large natural waterfall in the lower reaches of the river. A strong diurnal pattern was observed ...
Dasari Thabitha P TP Environmental Science Ph.D. Program, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA. - - 2013
The effect of a terrestrial humic acid (HA) and Suwannee River HA on the cytotoxicity of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) to natural aquatic bacterial assemblages was measured with spread plate counting. The effect of HA (10 and 40 ppm) on the cytotoxicity of ZnONPs ...
Miles B W J - - 2013
Observations of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland and West Antarctica indicate that their contribution to sea level is accelerating as a result of increased velocity, thinning and retreat. Thinning has also been reported along the margin of the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet, but whether glaciers are advancing or ...
González Taboada Fernando - - 2013
Seasonal pulses of phytoplankton drive seasonal cycles of carbon fixation and particle sedimentation, and might condition recruitment success in many exploited species. Taking advantage of long term series of remotely sensed chlorophyll a (1998-2012), we analyzed changes in phytoplankton seasonality in the North Atlantic Ocean. Phytoplankton phenology was analyzed based ...
Clark Graeme F - - 2013
Some ecosystems can undergo abrupt transformation in response to relatively small environmental change. Identifying imminent "tipping points" is crucial for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the face of climate change. Here we describe a tipping point mechanism likely to induce widespread regime shifts in polar ecosystems. Seasonal snow and ice cover ...
Wang John J Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. - - 2013
Fisheries bycatch of marine animals has been linked to population declines of multiple species, including many sea turtles. Altering the visual cues associated with fishing gear may reduce sea turtle bycatch. We examined the effectiveness of illuminating gillnets with ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes for reducing green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) ...
Wilcock William S D - - 2013
Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound ...
Cruz Sónia - - 2013
Some species of sacoglossan sea slugs can maintain functional chloroplasts from specific algal food sources in the cells of their digestive diverticula. These 'stolen' chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) can survive in the absence of the plant cell and continue to photosynthesize, in some cases for as long as one year. Within the ...
Jambrošić Kristian - - 2013
Urban soundscapes at five locations in the city of Zadar were perceptually assessed by on-site surveys and objectively evaluated based on monaural and binaural recordings. All locations were chosen so that they would display auditory and visual diversity as much as possible. The unique sound installation known as the Sea ...
Bazile Kinda G - - 2013
This paper analyzes an 8-month time series (November 2005 to June 2006) of underwater noise recorded at the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf in the marginal ice zone of the western Canadian Arctic when the area was >90% ice covered. The time-series of the ambient noise component was computed using ...
Ahrenstorff Tyler D - - 2013
The movement patterns and body size of fishes are influenced by a host of physical and biological conditions, including temperature and oxygen, prey densities and foraging potential, growth optimization, and predation risk. Our objectives were to (1) investigate variability in vertical movement patterns of cisco (Coregonus artedi) in a variety ...
Domínguez-Villar D - - 2013
Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust (10)Be chronology for the glacier maximum areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3 ka BP. These glaciers reached their maximum extent several thousand ...
Lachniet Matthew S MS Department of Geoscience, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. - - 2013
The dominant controls on global paleomonsoon strength include summer insolation driven by precession cycles, ocean circulation through its influence on atmospheric circulation, and sea-surface temperatures. However, few records from the summer North American Monsoon system are available to test for a synchronous response with other global monsoons to shared forcings. ...
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