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Results 201 - 250 of 815
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Matthews William J - - 2011
This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a ...
Kim Kyoung-Youm - - 2011
We show that in plasmonic or metamaterial slab waveguides, it is possible to generate slow non-dispersing wavepackets which undergo neither spatial diffraction nor temporal spreading with no nonlinear effects by forming a type of hybrid wavepacket between slow-light waveguide modes and diffraction-free Airy wavepackets. Three mechanisms are involved in their ...
Yang Ying-Ying - - 2011
We designed, fabricated and characterized a nano-periodical highly-efficient blazed grating for extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation. The grating was optimized by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method (RCWA) and milled into the top layer of a highly-reflective mirror for IR light. The XUV diffraction efficiency was determined to be around 20% in the ...
Nedvěd Oldřich - - 2011
The biological control agent and alien invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) was recorded for the first time in Kenya, and in equatorial Africa, in 2010.
Olkkonen Maria - - 2011
Surface properties provide useful information for identifying objects and interacting with them. Effective utilization of this information, however, requires that the perception of object surface properties be relatively constant across changes in illumination and changes in object shape. Such constancy has been studied separately for changes in these factors. Here ...
Porté Annabel J - - 2011
To identify the determinants of invasiveness, comparisons of traits of invasive and native species are commonly performed. Invasiveness is generally linked to higher values of reproductive, physiological and growth-related traits of the invasives relative to the natives in the introduced range. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits has also been cited ...
Soeta Yoshiharu - - 2010
The aim of this paper was to clarify the effects of temporal integration on the auditory evoked response elicited by sounds of varying intensity. We measured auditory evoked fields in response to tones with different intervals of intensity change. The amplitude of the N1m', occurring approximately 100 ms after the ...
Elhai Jon D - - 2010
We examined possible differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the basis of whether frequency or intensity symptom response formats were used to assess PTSD. Participants included 669 veterans recruited from an epidemiological study of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers' primary care clinics in the southeastern ...
Cappe Céline - - 2010
Multisensory stimuli can improve performance, facilitating RTs on sensorimotor tasks. This benefit is referred to as the redundant signals effect (RSE) and can exceed predictions on the basis of probability summation, indicative of integrative processes. Although an RSE exceeding probability summation has been repeatedly observed in humans and nonprimate animals, ...
Shin Jae Kyun - - 2011
Abstract A new firing scheme for cellular automata in which only one rule is fired at a time produces myriad patterns. In addition to geometric patterns, natural patterns such as flowers and snow crystals were also generated. This study proposes an efficient method identifying the patterns using a minimal number ...
Cohen Yuval - - 2011
The emmetropization process involves fine-tuning the refractive state by altering the refractive components toward zero refraction. In this study, we provided light-dark cycle conditions at several intensities and examined the effect of light intensity on the progression of chicks' emmetropization. Chicks under high-, medium-, and low-light intensities (10,000, 500, and ...
van Loef Edgar V - - 2010
In this paper we report on the fabrication and characterization of SrHfO(3):Ce ceramics. Powders were prepared by solid-state synthesis using metal oxides and carbonates. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that phase-pure SrHfO(3) is formed at 1200°C. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy confirmed the purity and composition of each batch. SrHfO(3) exhibits several ...
Martinez-Gomez David - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific physical activity (PA) intensity thresholds that best discriminate between unhealthy/healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Participants included 1,808 adolescents (964 girls), aged 12.5-17.5 years, from the HELENA study. We measured PA by accelerometer and calculated the time spent at light, moderate, vigorous, ...
Deep A - - 2010
Manipulation of light intensity is an important management tool affecting broiler production and well being. Despite considerable research on light intensity, there is still a debate on the optimum level to be used for intensively housed broilers. Two trials were conducted with the objective of investigating the effect of light ...
Kromdijk Johannes - - 2010
The ability to concentrate CO₂ around Rubisco allows C₄ crops to suppress photorespiration. However, as phosphoenolpyruvate regeneration requires ATP, the energetic efficiency of the C₄ pathway at low photosynthetic flux densities (PFD) becomes a balancing act between primary fixation and concentration of CO₂ in mesophyll (M) cells, and CO₂ reduction ...
Sevdalis Vassilis - - 2011
This study investigated agent and expression intensity recognition in point-light displays depicting dancing performances. In a first session, participants danced with two different expression intensities to music, solo or in dyads. In a subsequent session, they watched point-light displays of 1-5-s duration, depicting their own, their partner's or another participant's ...
Carreiro Luiz Renato Rodrigues - - 2011
The influence of visual stimuli intensity on manual reaction time (RT) was investigated under two different attentional settings: high (Experiment 1) and low (Experiment 2) stimulus location predictability. These two experiments were also run under both binocular and monocular viewing conditions. We observed that RT decreased as stimulus intensity increased. ...
Telman G - - 2011
The significance of low-intensity microembolic signals (MES), as well as their relationship with high-intensity MES, has not yet been studied. We monitored MES by TCD in 256 arteries of 229 patients with carotid stenosis. All microemboli were detected automatically without a preliminary set threshold. For those 110 patients who evidenced ...
Mahmud Mohammad Sultan - - 2010
For optical data storage applications, it is essential to determine the lowest intensity (also known as threshold intensity) below or at which no data page or grating can be recorded in the photosensitive material, as this in turn determines the data capacity of the material. Here, experiments were carried out ...
Luce R Duncan - - 2010
Most studies concerning psychological measurement scales of intensive attributes have concluded that these scales are of ratio type and that the psychophysical function is closely approximated by a power function. Experiments show, for such cases, that a commutativity property must hold under either successive increases or successive decreases provided, e.g., ...
Tudor-Locke Catrine - - 2010
Knowing the most-frequently reported physical activities can inform intervention strategies, enhance questionnaire design, and inform objective monitor calibration studies. To determine the 10 most-frequently reported nonwork and nonsleep activities by intensity (sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous) in American Time Use Survey (ATUS) adult respondents. The ATUS is a nationally representative telephone-based ...
Aughey Robert J - - 2010
Previous research has suggested elite Australian footballers undertake pacing strategies to preserve high intensity activity later in matches. However, this research used GPS with slow sample rates, did not express performance relative to minutes played during games and used lowly ranked players. Therefore in this study movement was recorded by ...
Bradley Paul S - - 2010
The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. ...
Green Barry G - - 2010
Most of what is known about taste interactions has come from studies of binary mixtures. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether asymmetries in suppression between stimuli in binary mixtures predict the perception of tastes in more complex mixtures (e.g., ternary and quaternary mixtures). Also of interest ...
Laskar Junaid M - - 2010
We investigate the influence of field ramp rate on the kinetics of magnetic dipole-dipole induced chainlike structure formation in a nonaqueous nanoparticle dispersion using light scattering studies. With increase in magnetic field, at a constant ramp rate, the transmitted light intensity diminishes and the transmitted light spot is transformed to ...
Gee Kent L - - 2010
Near-field vector intensity measurements have been made of a 12.7-cm diameter nozzle solid rocket motor. The measurements utilized a test rig comprised of four probes each with four low-sensitivity 6.35-mm pressure microphones in a tetrahedral arrangement. Measurements were made with the rig at nine positions (36 probe locations) within six ...
Klingner Carsten M - - 2010
The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) has been shown to encode the intensity of a stimulus applied to the contralateral side of the body. Recent studies have demonstrated that ipsilateral SI is also involved in the processing of somatosensory information. In this study, we investigated the dependence of the negative BOLD ...
Odabas Mehmet Serhat - - 2010
The quantitative effects of temperature and light intensity on accumulation of phenolics were examined on greenhouse-grown plants of Hypericum perforatum L. Plants were grown in a greenhouse separated into two parts: shaded by 50% transparent polyethylene cover and un-shaded. Temperature values and light intensities were measured daily during the experiment, ...
Gallun Frederick J - - 2010
The ability to make intensity judgments for sequential stimuli was examined with an intensity-discrimination task involving three 50-ms noise bursts with non-overlapping frequency ranges. Targets (single bursts) presented in three-burst sequences were required to be as much as 5 dB more intense than targets presented as single bursts in isolation, ...
Vigne G - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to analyse the activity profile of players in a top-class team in the Italian national football league over the course of a season (n=388). The effect of playing position and the two halves on the number and duration of short, intense bursts of effort ...
Narendra Ajay - - 2010
Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues ...
Sheard Peter W - - 2010
An informal review of literature on the use of postisometric relaxation (PIR) type proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) indicates that the force of contraction requested from the athlete ranges from 10 to 100% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The purpose of this study was therefore to determine if an optimal ...
Clark W Crawford - - 2010
The multidimensional-psychophysical scaling procedure was employed to construct verbal rating scales at the ratio scale level of measurement precision. The multidimensional individual differences scaling model (INDSCAL) demonstrated a one-dimensional solution in the group stimulus space, with the eight verbal descriptors and the eight electrical stimulus intensities interdigitated with respect to ...
Tafur Joseph - - 2010
Low-intensity light therapy (LILT) is showing promise in the treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions. Concurrently, our knowledge of LILT mechanisms continues to expand. We are now aware of LILT's potential to induce cellular effects through, for example, accelerated ATP production and the mitigation of oxidative stress. In ...
Garcia Monique M - - 2010
Objective-To develop a quantifiable behavioral test for identification of achromatopsic dogs based on visual performance. Animals-14 dogs. Procedures-A 3.6-m-long obstacle-avoidance course with 6 obstacle panels was developed from a preliminary 2.4-m course. Achromatopsic and visually normal control dogs were run through the course at 4 ambient light intensities (from dim ...
Olsen Kirk N - - 2010
A "perceptual bias for rising intensity" (Neuhoff 1998, Nature 395 123-124) is not dependent on the continuous change of a dynamic, looming sound source. Thirty participants were presented with pairs of 500 ms steady-state sounds corresponding to onset and offset levels of previously used dynamic increasing- and decreasing-intensity stimuli. Independent ...
Li Z G - - 2010
This paper reports a tunable visual color filter based on a microfluidic transmission grating. The grating lines are formed by the microflows in an array of evenly spaced straight microchannels. In experimental study, the transmission of white light measures a shift of visual color from red to blue in the ...
Tudor-Locke Catrine - - 2010
The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to describe an accelerometer-derived physical activity/inactivity profile in normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 </= BMI < 30 kg/m2), and obese (BMI >/= 30 kg/m2) U.S. adults. We computed physical activity volume indicators (activity counts/day, uncensored and ...
Schuchmann Maike - - 2010
Only recently data on bat echolocation call intensities is starting to accumulate. Yet, intensity is an ecologically crucial parameter, as it determines the extent of the bats' perceptual space and, specifically, prey detection distance. Interspecifically, we thus asked whether sympatric, congeneric bat species differ in call intensities and whether differences ...
Garcia Monique M - - 2010
To develop a quantifiable behavioral test for identification of achromatopsic dogs based on visual performance. 14 dogs. A 3.6-m-long obstacle-avoidance course with 6 obstacle panels was developed from a preliminary 2.4-m-long course. Achromatopsic and visually normal control dogs were run through the course at 4 ambient light intensities (from dim ...
Akkin Taner - - 2010
We review the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detection of neural activity, and present a new approach for depth-localization of neural action potentials (APs) using voltage-sensitive dyes as contrast agents in OCT. A stained squid giant axon is imaged by spectral-domain OCT. Changes in the intensity and phase ...
Eyherabide Hugo Gabriel - - 2010
Sensory stimuli are usually composed of different features (the what) appearing at irregular times (the when). Neural responses often use spike patterns to represent sensory information. The what is hypothesized to be encoded in the identity of the elicited patterns (the pattern categories), and the when, in the time positions ...
Wada Kaede C - - 2010
An obligatory short-day plant, Perilla frutescens var. crispa was induced to flower under long-day conditions when grown under low-intensity light (30 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Plant size was smaller under lower light intensity, indicating that the low-intensity light acted as a stress factor. The phenomenon is categorized as stress-induced flowering. Low-intensity ...
Yilmaz Mete - - 2010
Cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptomonad algae utilize phycobilin chromophores that are attached to phycobiliproteins to harvest solar energy. Heme oxygenase (HO) in these organisms catalyzes the first step in phycobilin formation through the conversion of heme to biliverdin IXalpha, CO, and iron. The Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 genome contains two ...
Dai Wei - - 2009
Room temperature operating thermal detection for mid-infrared light based on ZnO subwavelength wires has been demonstrated. Electric resistance in ZnO wires increases linearly with the intensity of incident light. Noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5.8 microW/Hz(1/2) (at 1 kHz) with typical response times as fast as 1.3 ms is obtained ...
Gu Bin - - 2009
In digital speckle interferometry, subtracted fringe patterns are always influenced by inhomogeneous light that is reflected from the tested object and received by the CCD. In this paper, by analyzing speckle's statistic property, we propose a numerical processing method to correct this nonuniform light intensity distribution within adaptive windows. This ...
Luo L B - - 2009
Selenium nanowires with a diameter of about 70 nm and a growth direction along [001] were fabricated via a facile solution method. Photoconductive properties of Se wires were systematically characterized via photodetectors made of single Se nanowire. The photodetectors exhibited a high light on-off current ratio (Ilight/ Idark) of 450, ...
Simons Monique - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB) as a novel tool for meeting the physical activity guidelines in terms of intensity. METHODS: Twelve habitually active adult subjects were requested to cycle a track of 4.3 km at an intensity they ...
Chen Jiangtao - - 2010
PURPOSE: To psychophysically investigate adaptation in human corneas using the Belmonte pneumatic esthesiometer. METHODS: Twenty, 8, and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the mechanical, cool, and chemical experiments, respectively. Thresholds were estimated using an ascending method of limits and three intensities (subthreshold, threshold, and suprathreshold, in random order) were ...
Zhang Kaixuan - - 2010
Based on meteorological data from 1978 to 2007, we investigated the annual, seasonal, and fixed hourly variations of Shanghai urban heat island (UHI) in urban and suburban areas and spatial distribution of UHI. The results demonstrated a remarkable interannual increase of UHI intensity in Shanghai. The UHI was the strongest ...
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