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Levinson Stephen C SC Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Wundtlaan 1, 6525XD Nijmegen, The Netherlands Linguistics Department, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands - - 2014
One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective ...
Bessot Nicolas N Normandie University , Caen , France - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day on Preferred Transition Speed (PTS) and spatiotemporal organization of walking and running movements. Twelve active male subjects participated in the study (age: 27.2 ± 4.9 years; height: 177.9 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 75.9 ± 5.86 kg). First, PTS was determined at 08:00 h and 18:00 h. The ...
Lague Michael R MR School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, 101 Vera King Farris Drive, Galloway, NJ 08205, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previous research suggests that some hominin postcranial features do not follow a linear path of increasing modernization through geological time. With respect to the distal humerus, in particular, the earliest known hominin specimens are reportedly among the most modern in morphology, while some later humeri appear further removed from the ...
Zhang Xiangming X School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering Center, University of Oklahoma, 865 Asp Avenue, Room 200, Norman, OK, 73019, USA, - - 2014
Vibration of the tympanic membrane (TM) has been measured at the umbo using laser Doppler vibrometry and analyzed with finite element (FE) models of the human ear. Recently, full-field TM surface motion has been reported using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, holographic interferometry, and optical coherence tomography. Technologies for imaging human ...
Lee In-Seon IS 1 Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University , Seoul, Republic of - - 2014
Abstract Background: Stimulation degree, biomechanical force, and de qi sensation are the three major components of needle manipulation. To date, it has been difficult to measure all three components quantitatively. Objectives: To (1) measure and compare biomechanical forces of six human acupoints in vivo during haptic manipulation, (2) develop phantom ...
Soler Montserrat - - 2014
Although the study of signals has been part of human behavioral ecology since the field's inception,(1) only recently has signaling theory become important to the evolutionary study of human behavior and culture.(2) Signaling theory's rise to prominence has been propelled mainly by applications of costly signaling theory,(3) which has shed ...
Wu Xiu-Jie XJ Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, - - 2014
One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one ...
Rosas Antonio A Department of Paleobiology, Paleoanthropology Group MNCN-CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Calle José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid, - - 2014
Correspondence between temporal lobe sulcal pattern and bony impressions on the middle cranial fossae (MCF) was analyzed. MCF bone remains (SD-359, SD-315, and SD-1219) from the El Sidrón (Spain) neandertal site are analyzed in this context. Direct comparison of the soft and hard tissues from the same individual was studied ...
Wang Weijie W Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Institute of Motion Analysis and Research, The Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, The University of Dundee, Dundee, UK; The School of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, - - 2014
The feet of apes have a different morphology from those of humans. Until now, it has merely been assumed that the morphology seen in humans must be adaptive for habitual bipedal walking, as the habitual use of bipedal walking is generally regarded as one of the most clear-cut differences between ...
Yang Feng F Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, - - 2014
Dynamic gait stability can be quantified by the relationship of the motion state (i.e. the position and velocity) between the body center of mass (COM) and its base of support (BOS). Humans learn how to adaptively control stability by regulating the absolute COM motion state (i.e. its position and velocity) ...
Wang Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of - - 2014
The visual world is flooded with ambiguity. Generally, people can resolve the ambiguity almost instantaneously, as when they distinguish at a glance whether a maiden in a portrait by Picasso is in profile or facing front. However, perception of the same reality, though relatively stable at the individual level, can ...
Gaspar Ludmila L Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, 190 Winterthurerstrasse, Zurich, - - 2014
Various lines of evidence suggest a mechanistic role for altered cAMP-CREB (cAMP response element - binding protein) signaling in depressive and affective disorders. However, the establishment and validation of human inter-individual differences in this and other major signaling pathways has proven difficult. Here, we describe a novel lentiviral methodology to ...
Mao Ying - - 2014
Rehabilitation robots have been explored for training of patients with impaired neural functions or for assistance to those with weak limbs. In recent years, the authors have proposed light-weight exoskeleton designs for the upper arm, where rigid links of the exoskeleton are replaced by lightweight cuffs attached to the moving ...
Chen Mei-Yung MY National Taiwan Normal University, 162 Heping E. Road Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, - - 2014
Chest auscultation is a crucial and efficient method for diagnosing lung disease; however, it is a subjective process that relies on physician experience and the ability to differentiate between various sound patterns. Because the physiological signals composed of heart sounds and pulmonary sounds (PSs) are greater than 120 Hz and the ...
Milne Jennifer L JL a The Brain and Mind Institute , The University of Western Ontario , London , Ontario , - - 2014
Some blind humans make clicking noises with their mouth and use the reflected echoes to perceive objects and surfaces. This technique can operate as a crude substitute for vision, allowing human echolocators to perceive silent, distal objects. Here, we tested if echolocation would, like vision, show size constancy. To investigate ...
Read Jenny C A JC Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Human psychophysics is the quantitative measurement of our own perceptions. In essence, it is simply a more sophisticated version of what humans have done since time immemorial: noticed and reflected upon what we can see, hear, and feel. In the 21(st) century, when hugely powerful techniques are available that enable ...
Jiang Yi-Fan YF Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, Ministry of Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, - - 2014
To explore the characteristics of light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian and its surrounding areas at human wrist by using optical experiment and Monte Carlo method. An experiment was carried out to obtain the distribution of diffuse light on Pericardium Meridian line and its surrounding areas at the wrist, and ...
Quam Rolf M RM Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY, USA; Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA; Centro UCM-ISCIII de Investigación sobre la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, Madrid, - - 2014
The auditory ossicles in primates have proven to be a reliable source of phylogenetic information. Nevertheless, to date, very little data have been published on the metric dimensions of the ear ossicles in African apes and humans. The present study relies on the largest samples of African ape ear ossicles ...
Bueno-Orovio A A Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QD, United - - 2014
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". Background: Adaptation of the QT-interval to changes in heart rate reflects on the body-surface electrocardiogram the adaptation of action potential duration (APD) at the ...
Gwilliam James C JC Department of Biomedical - - 2014
Here we investigate the neural mechanisms of detecting lumps embedded in artificial compliant tissues. We performed a combined psychophysical study of humans performing a passive lump detection task with a neurophysiological study in non-human primates (macaca mulatta), where we recorded the responses of peripheral mechanoreceptive afferents to lumps embedded at ...
Engels Svenja S 1] Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften, Universität Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany [2] Research Centre for Neurosensory Sciences, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany - - 2014
Electromagnetic noise is emitted everywhere humans use electronic devices. For decades, it has been hotly debated whether man-made electric and magnetic fields affect biological processes, including human health. So far, no putative effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at intensities below the guidelines adopted by the World Health Organization has withstood ...
Paillard Aurore C - - 2014
Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is ...
Yang Weiqing - - 2014
We present a triboelectrification based, flexible, reusable and skin-friendly dry biopotential electrode arrays as motion sensors for tracking muscle motion and human-machine interfacing (HMI). The independently addressable, self-powered sensor arrays have been utilized to record the electric output signals as a mapping figure to accurately identify the degrees of freedom ...
Zhong Junwen - - 2014
Smart garments for monitoring physiological and biomechanical signals of human body are key sensors for personalized healthcare. However, they typically require bulky battery packs or have to be plugged into an electric plug in order to operate. Thus, smart shirt that can extract energy from human body motions to run ...
Lear Jonathan J University of Chicago, 1130 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. - - 2014
From its inception psychoanalysis claimed not merely to be an effective therapy for psychological suffering, but to shed light on the human condition. But what kind of insight does psychoanalysis offer? This paper locates psychoanalysis in the western philosophical tradition, arguing that psychoanalysis provides not only theoretical wisdom about the ...
Gonçalves Nuno R NR Trinity Centre for Bioengineering and School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Noninvasive investigation of human sensory processing with high temporal resolution typically involves repeatedly presenting discrete stimuli and extracting an average event-related response from scalp recorded neuroelectric or neuromagnetic signals. While this approach is and has been extremely useful, it suffers from two drawbacks: a lack of naturalness in terms of ...
Gopinath Subash C B SC Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan. - - 2014
Biomolecular discrimination is one of the most important ways to discriminate closely related species. In the past, several biomolecules have been observed with higher discrimination using different sensing systems. Herein, we have displayed discrimination of human and rabbit IgG and human clotting factors on Biacore-carboxymethylated dextran coated sensor chips.
Parise Cesare V CV Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, 72076 Tübingen, - - 2014
Human perception, cognition, and action are laced with seemingly arbitrary mappings. In particular, sound has a strong spatial connotation: Sounds are high and low, melodies rise and fall, and pitch systematically biases perceived sound elevation. The origins of such mappings are unknown. Are they the result of physiological constraints, do ...
Kwon Suncheol - - 2014
The use of power assistive devices that use surface electromyography (SEMG) signals may be limited by the noisy nature of SEMG signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in human movement stability while the amount of SEMG-based assistive power was changed. A robotic device provided a ...
Rossion Bruno B Psychological Sciences Research Institute and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Electrophysiological recordings on the human scalp provide a wealth of information about the temporal dynamics and nature of face perception at a global level of brain organization. The time window between 100 and 200ms witnesses the transition between low-level and high-level vision, an N170 component correlating with conscious interpretation of ...
Boos Margarete M Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2014
How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, ...
Fischer Jason J 1] Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. [2] Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. [3] McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable; objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical ...
Bushdid C C Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 63, New York, NY 10065, - - 2014
Humans can discriminate several million different colors and almost half a million different tones, but the number of discriminable olfactory stimuli remains unknown. The lay and scientific literature typically claims that humans can discriminate 10,000 odors, but this number has never been empirically validated. We determined the resolution of the ...
Su Yi-Huang YH Technical University of Munich, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study investigated audiovisual synchrony perception in a rhythmic context, where the sound was not consequent upon the observed movement. Participants judged synchrony between a bouncing point-light figure and an auditory rhythm in two experiments. Two questions were of interest: (1) whether the reference in the visual movement, with which ...
Chellappa Sarah Laxhmi SL Cyclotron Research Center, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, - - 2014
Light is a powerful stimulant for human alertness and cognition, presumably acting through a photoreception system that heavily relies on the photopigment melanopsin. In humans, evidence for melanopsin involvement in light-driven cognitive stimulation remains indirect, due to the difficulty to selectively isolate its contribution. Therefore, a role for melanopsin in ...
Tanaka Yuji Y Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, - - 2014
Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this ...
Taheri Behzad - - 2014
Tremor is a rhythmical and involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part and it is one of the most common movement disorders. Orthotic devices have been under investigation as a noninvasive tremor suppression alternative to medication or surgery. The challenge in musculoskeletal tremor suppression is estimating and attenuating the tremor ...
Matsui Kenya - - 2014
Humans perceive a force applied to their fingertips by integrating skin and proprioceptive sensations. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution ratios of these sensations using two approaches. Decoupled forces were applied to the finger pad and proximal interphalangeal joint of the index finger of the participants. First, we ...
Nankoo Jean-François JF Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, P217 Biological Sciences Bldg, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada, - - 2014
In the primate visual system, local motion signals are pooled to create a global motion percept. Like primates, many birds are highly dependent on vision for their survival, yet relatively little is known about motion perception in birds. We used random-dot stimuli to investigate pigeons' ability to detect complex motion ...
Park S S Dept. of Emotion Engineering, Graduate School, Sangmyung University, 7 Hongji-dong, Jongro-Ku, Seoul 110-743, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: - - 2014
Most investigations into the negative effects of viewing stereoscopic 3D content on human health have addressed 3D visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). Very few, however, have looked into changes in autonomic balance and heart rhythm, which are homeostatic factors that ought to be taken into consideration when ...
Brodsky Michael C MC Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2014
Lateral-eyed afoveate animals use the subcortical accessory optic system to generate accurate responses to full-field optokinetic input. When humans rotate their eyes to pursue a moving target, the visual world sweeps across their retinas, creating a contraversive optokinetic stimulus. Humans have developed a cortical foveal pursuit system that suppresses the ...
Vintch Brett B Laboratory for Human Systems Neuroscience, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York - - 2014
Human sensory perception is not a faithful reproduction of the sensory environment. For example, at low contrast, objects appear to move slower and flicker faster than veridical. Although these biases have been observed robustly, their neural underpinning is unknown, thus suggesting a possible disconnect of the well established link between ...
Young Elizabeth E The Binding Site Ltd, 8 Calthorpe Road, Birmingham, B15 1QT, - - 2014
The in vivo or in vitro formation of IgG4 hybrid molecules, wherein the immunoglobulins have exchanged half molecules, has previously been reported under experimental conditions. Here we estimate the incidence of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum and comment on the existence of IgG4 molecules with different immunoglobulin light ...
Gruben Kreg G KG Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
A principle objective of human walking is controlling angular motion of the body as a whole to remain upright. The force of the ground on each foot (F) reflects that control, and recent studies show that in the sagittal plane F exhibits a specific coordination between F direction and center-of-pressure ...
Walther Dirk B DB The Ohio State - - 2014
Humans can categorize complex natural scenes quickly and accurately. Which scene properties enable people to do this with such apparent ease? We extracted structural properties of contours (orientation, length, curvature) and contour junctions (types and angles) from line drawings of natural scenes. All of these properties contain information about scene ...
Pu Yang Y Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Departments of Electrical Engineering and Physics, the City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031, - - 2014
An optical quantitative histological method in human tissues using spatial frequencies is demonstrated. Optical spatial frequency spectra from different stages of human Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) tissue are evaluated as a potential quantitative pathological tool. The degree of randomness of tissue structures from normal to different stages of CIN tissue ...
Yin Biwei B University of Texas at Austin, Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1 University Station C0803, Austin, Texas - - 2014
ABSTRACT. Using a fiber-based swept-source (SS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system, we investigate the degree of polarization (DOP) of light backscattered from the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal human subjects. Algorithms for processing data were developed to analyze the deviation in phase retardation and intensity of backscattered ...
Granzier Jeroen J M JJ Justus Liebig University, Department of Psychology, Giessen, - - 2014
Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, ...
Kröger Anne A Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion-recently discussed as a marker of social cognition-was found to be disrupted ...
Gregg Robert D RD Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Human locomotion is a rhythmic task in which patterns of muscle activity are modulated by state-dependent feedback to accommodate perturbations. Two popular theories have been proposed for the underlying embodiment of phase in the human pattern generator: a time-dependent internal representation or a time-invariant feedback representation (i.e., reflex mechanisms). In ...
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