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Lear Jonathan J University of Chicago, 1130 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. - - 2014
From its inception psychoanalysis claimed not merely to be an effective therapy for psychological suffering, but to shed light on the human condition. But what kind of insight does psychoanalysis offer? This paper locates psychoanalysis in the western philosophical tradition, arguing that psychoanalysis provides not only theoretical wisdom about the ...
Gonçalves Nuno R NR Trinity Centre for Bioengineering and School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Noninvasive investigation of human sensory processing with high temporal resolution typically involves repeatedly presenting discrete stimuli and extracting an average event-related response from scalp recorded neuroelectric or neuromagnetic signals. While this approach is and has been extremely useful, it suffers from two drawbacks: a lack of naturalness in terms of ...
Gopinath Subash C B SC Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan. - - 2014
Biomolecular discrimination is one of the most important ways to discriminate closely related species. In the past, several biomolecules have been observed with higher discrimination using different sensing systems. Herein, we have displayed discrimination of human and rabbit IgG and human clotting factors on Biacore-carboxymethylated dextran coated sensor chips.
Parise Cesare V CV Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, 72076 Tübingen, - - 2014
Human perception, cognition, and action are laced with seemingly arbitrary mappings. In particular, sound has a strong spatial connotation: Sounds are high and low, melodies rise and fall, and pitch systematically biases perceived sound elevation. The origins of such mappings are unknown. Are they the result of physiological constraints, do ...
Kwon Suncheol - - 2014
The use of power assistive devices that use surface electromyography (SEMG) signals may be limited by the noisy nature of SEMG signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in human movement stability while the amount of SEMG-based assistive power was changed. A robotic device provided a ...
Rossion Bruno B Psychological Sciences Research Institute and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Electrophysiological recordings on the human scalp provide a wealth of information about the temporal dynamics and nature of face perception at a global level of brain organization. The time window between 100 and 200ms witnesses the transition between low-level and high-level vision, an N170 component correlating with conscious interpretation of ...
Boos Margarete M Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2014
How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, ...
Fischer Jason J 1] Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. [2] Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. [3] McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable; objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical ...
Bushdid C C Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 63, New York, NY 10065, - - 2014
Humans can discriminate several million different colors and almost half a million different tones, but the number of discriminable olfactory stimuli remains unknown. The lay and scientific literature typically claims that humans can discriminate 10,000 odors, but this number has never been empirically validated. We determined the resolution of the ...
Su Yi-Huang YH Technical University of Munich, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study investigated audiovisual synchrony perception in a rhythmic context, where the sound was not consequent upon the observed movement. Participants judged synchrony between a bouncing point-light figure and an auditory rhythm in two experiments. Two questions were of interest: (1) whether the reference in the visual movement, with which ...
Chellappa Sarah Laxhmi SL Cyclotron Research Center, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, - - 2014
Light is a powerful stimulant for human alertness and cognition, presumably acting through a photoreception system that heavily relies on the photopigment melanopsin. In humans, evidence for melanopsin involvement in light-driven cognitive stimulation remains indirect, due to the difficulty to selectively isolate its contribution. Therefore, a role for melanopsin in ...
Taheri Behzad - - 2014
Tremor is a rhythmical and involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part and it is one of the most common movement disorders. Orthotic devices have been under investigation as a noninvasive tremor suppression alternative to medication or surgery. The challenge in musculoskeletal tremor suppression is estimating and attenuating the tremor ...
Nankoo Jean-François JF Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, P217 Biological Sciences Bldg, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada, - - 2014
In the primate visual system, local motion signals are pooled to create a global motion percept. Like primates, many birds are highly dependent on vision for their survival, yet relatively little is known about motion perception in birds. We used random-dot stimuli to investigate pigeons' ability to detect complex motion ...
Park S S Dept. of Emotion Engineering, Graduate School, Sangmyung University, 7 Hongji-dong, Jongro-Ku, Seoul 110-743, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: - - 2014
Most investigations into the negative effects of viewing stereoscopic 3D content on human health have addressed 3D visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). Very few, however, have looked into changes in autonomic balance and heart rhythm, which are homeostatic factors that ought to be taken into consideration when ...
Brodsky Michael C MC Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2014
Lateral-eyed afoveate animals use the subcortical accessory optic system to generate accurate responses to full-field optokinetic input. When humans rotate their eyes to pursue a moving target, the visual world sweeps across their retinas, creating a contraversive optokinetic stimulus. Humans have developed a cortical foveal pursuit system that suppresses the ...
Vintch Brett B Laboratory for Human Systems Neuroscience, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York - - 2014
Human sensory perception is not a faithful reproduction of the sensory environment. For example, at low contrast, objects appear to move slower and flicker faster than veridical. Although these biases have been observed robustly, their neural underpinning is unknown, thus suggesting a possible disconnect of the well established link between ...
Young Elizabeth E The Binding Site Ltd, 8 Calthorpe Road, Birmingham, B15 1QT, - - 2014
The in vivo or in vitro formation of IgG4 hybrid molecules, wherein the immunoglobulins have exchanged half molecules, has previously been reported under experimental conditions. Here we estimate the incidence of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum and comment on the existence of IgG4 molecules with different immunoglobulin light ...
Gruben Kreg G KG Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
A principle objective of human walking is controlling angular motion of the body as a whole to remain upright. The force of the ground on each foot (F) reflects that control, and recent studies show that in the sagittal plane F exhibits a specific coordination between F direction and center-of-pressure ...
Walther Dirk B DB The Ohio State - - 2014
Humans can categorize complex natural scenes quickly and accurately. Which scene properties enable people to do this with such apparent ease? We extracted structural properties of contours (orientation, length, curvature) and contour junctions (types and angles) from line drawings of natural scenes. All of these properties contain information about scene ...
Pu Yang Y Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Departments of Electrical Engineering and Physics, the City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031, - - 2014
An optical quantitative histological method in human tissues using spatial frequencies is demonstrated. Optical spatial frequency spectra from different stages of human Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) tissue are evaluated as a potential quantitative pathological tool. The degree of randomness of tissue structures from normal to different stages of CIN tissue ...
Yin Biwei B University of Texas at Austin, Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1 University Station C0803, Austin, Texas - - 2014
ABSTRACT. Using a fiber-based swept-source (SS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system, we investigate the degree of polarization (DOP) of light backscattered from the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal human subjects. Algorithms for processing data were developed to analyze the deviation in phase retardation and intensity of backscattered ...
Granzier Jeroen J M JJ Justus Liebig University, Department of Psychology, Giessen, - - 2014
Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, ...
Lacquaniti Francesco F Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata Rome, Italy ; Centre of Space BioMedicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata Rome, Italy ; Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology, Santa Lucia Foundation Rome, - - 2014
In the future, human-like robots will live among people to provide company and help carrying out tasks in cooperation with humans. These interactions require that robots understand not only human actions, but also the way in which we perceive the world. Human perception heavily relies on the time dimension, especially ...
Kröger Anne A Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion-recently discussed as a marker of social cognition-was found to be disrupted ...
Gregg Robert D RD Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Human locomotion is a rhythmic task in which patterns of muscle activity are modulated by state-dependent feedback to accommodate perturbations. Two popular theories have been proposed for the underlying embodiment of phase in the human pattern generator: a time-dependent internal representation or a time-invariant feedback representation (i.e., reflex mechanisms). In ...
Mott Michael S MS The University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS USA ; Advanced Education Center, The University of Mississippi, 1918 Briar Ridge Road, 38804 Oxford, MS - - 2014
The universality of the impact of daylight is a common thread that defines humanity. Day light affects us in a variety of ways -visually, psychologically and biologically. Artificial lighting research has explored ways in which artificial lighting may substitute for daylight and enhance human health and wellbeing. Recently, a study ...
Hashimoto Kenji K 0000-0003-2300-6766 Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, No. 41-304, 17 Kikui-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0044, - - 2014
This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot's feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization ...
Campbell Matthew W MW Living Links Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, , 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA 30043, - - 2014
Human empathy can extend to strangers and even other species, but it is unknown whether non-humans are similarly broad in their empathic responses. We explored the breadth and flexibility of empathy in chimpanzees, a close relative of humans. We used contagious yawning to measure involuntary empathy and showed chimpanzees videos ...
Geiser Eveline E Service de neuropsychologie et de neuroréhabilitation, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois Lausanne, - - 2014
Timing cues are an essential feature of music. To understand how the brain gives rise to our experience of music we must appreciate how acoustical temporal patterns are integrated over the range of several seconds in order to extract global timing. In music perception, global timing comprises three distinct but ...
Bharadwaj Hari M HM Center for Computational Neuroscience and Neural Technology, Boston University Boston, MA, USA ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University Boston, MA, - - 2014
Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the ...
Guna Jože J Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška 25, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia. - - 2014
We present the results of an evaluation of the performance of the Leap Motion Controller with the aid of a professional, high-precision, fast motion tracking system. A set of static and dynamic measurements was performed with different numbers of tracking objects and configurations. For the static measurements, a plastic arm ...
Baddoura Ritta R Inserm U846, Cortical Networks for Cognitive Interaction, Stem-Cell and Brain Research Institute Bron, - - 2014
During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement ...
Yang Peng-Fei PF Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China; Division of Space Physiology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany; Institute of Biomechanics and Orthopaedics, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, - - 2014
Bending, in addition to compression, is recognized to be a common loading pattern in long bones in animals. However, due to the technical difficulty of measuring bone deformation in humans, our current understanding of bone loading patterns in humans is very limited. In the present study, we hypothesized that bending ...
Rios Luis L Department of Physical Anthropology, Society of Sciences Aranzadi, Donostia 20014, Basque Country, Spain; Comisión Docente de Antropología Física, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2013
From a comparative study of 222 human and 261 nonhuman primates complete cervical spines, two bony variants associated to the course of the vertebral artery are proposed as unique to genus Homo within primates. First, the opening of the foramen transversarium at C2, a trait present at low frequency in ...
Emami Seyede Faranak SF Department of Audiology, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hamadan, - - 2013
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the possibility that the saccule may contribute to human hearing. The forty participants included twenty healthy people and twenty other subjects selected from patients who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo to Audiology Department of Hazrat Rasoul Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran). ...
Ward Carol V CV Integrative Anatomy Program, Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO - - 2013
Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record ...
Kim Donghyun D School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, - - 2013
We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226-35) for explaining human ...
van de Werken Maan M Department of Chronobiology, Centre for Life Sciences, University of Groningen , Groningen , the - - 2013
Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol response is modulated by circadian phase. Exposure ...
Gong Dian D University of Southern California, Los - - 2013
We address the problem of structure learning of human motion to recognize actions from a continuous monocular motion sequence of an arbitrary person from an arbitrary viewpoint. Human motion sequences are represented by multivariate time series in the joint trajectories space. Under this structured time series framework, we first propose ...
Ritter Erich K - - 2013
The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns ...
Strazzeri Jennifer M - - 2013
Insertion of light-gated channels into inner retina neurons restores neural light responses, light evoked potentials, visual optomotor responses and visually-guided maze behavior in mice blinded by retinal degeneration. This method of vision restoration bypasses damaged outer retina, providing stimulation directly to retinal ganglion cells in inner retina. The approach is ...
Bernard Jürgen - - 2013
We present MotionExplorer, an exploratory search and analysis system for sequences of human motion in large motion capture data collections. This special type of multivariate time series data is relevant in many research fields including medicine, sports and animation. Key tasks in working with motion data include analysis of motion ...
O'Hara Keith E - - 2013
ABSTRACT. We use phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography to measure relative motions within the human eye. From a sequence of tomograms, the phase difference between successive tomograms reveals the local axial motion of the tissue at every location within the image. The pulsation of the retina and of the lamina cribrosa ...
Wolpert Stephan - - 2013
It has been demonstrated in different mammals that the medial olivocochlear efferents (MOC) exert a noise-protective effect on the cochlea. In humans such an effect has not unambiguously been shown as of yet. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between MOC activity and susceptibility of the ...
Crane Benjamin T - - 2013
Heading estimation has not previously been reported in the vertical planes. This is a potentially interesting issue because although distribution of neuronal direction sensitivities is near uniform for vertical headings, there is an overrepresentation of otolith organs sensitive to motion in the horizontal relative to the vertical plane. Furthermore, thresholds ...
Turati Chiara - - 2013
In primates and adult humans direct understanding of others' action is provided by mirror mechanisms matching action observation and action execution (e.g. Casile, Caggiano & Ferrari, 2011). Despite the growing body of evidence detailing the existence of these mechanisms in the adult human brain, their origins and early development are ...
Keating Peter - - 2013
For over a century, the duplex theory has guided our understanding of human sound localization in the horizontal plane. According to this theory, the auditory system uses interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) to localize low-frequency and high-frequency sounds, respectively. Whilst this theory successfully accounts for the ...
Nesti Alessandro - - 2013
Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for ...
Fry Robert W - - 2013
Study Design. Biomechanical human cadaveric study.Objective. We hypothesized that increasing compressive preload will reduce the segmental instability after nucleotomy, posterior ligament resection and decompressive surgery.Summary of Background Data. The human spine experiences significant compressive preloads in vivo due to spinal musculature and gravity. While the effect of destabilization procedures on ...
Guignard Jérémie - - 2013
Sound can reach the inner ear via at least two different pathways: air conduction and bone conduction (BC). BC hearing is used clinically for diagnostic purposes and for BC hearing aids. Research on the motion of the human middle ear in response to BC stimulation is typically conducted using cadaver ...
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