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Hylander Samuel S Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems-EEMiS, Linnaeus University, 39182 Kalmar, Sweden - - 2014
Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All individuals ...
Corbett Jennifer E - - 2014
Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a ...
Hager Felix A FA Ruhr University Bochum, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, D-44780 Bochum, Germany - - 2014
Although several behavioural studies demonstrate the ability of insects to localise the source of vibrations, it is still unclear how insects are able to perceive directional information from vibratory signals on solid substrates, because time-of-arrival and amplitude difference between receptory structures are thought to be too small to be processed ...
Kress Daniel D Bielefeld University, Germany - - 2014
In contrast to flying flies, walking flies experience relatively strong rotational gaze shifts, even during overall straight phases of locomotion. These gaze shifts are caused by the walking apparatus and modulated by the stride frequency. Accordingly, even during straight walking phases, the retinal image flow is composed of both translational ...
Kirby Christopher E - - 2014
This study examined pilots' visual scan patterns during a simulated high-speed, low-level flight and how their scan rates related to flight performance. As helicopters become faster and more agile, pilots are expected to navigate at low altitudes while traveling at high speeds. A pilot's ability to interpret information from a ...
Hui Ashley A Environmental Systems Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, - - 2014
Collective behaviours are influenced by the behavioural composition of the group. For example, a collective behaviour may emerge from the average behaviour of the group's constituents, or be driven by a few key individuals that catalyse the behaviour of others in the group. When ant colonies collectively relocate to a ...
Labroille Guillaume - - 2014
We designed and built a new type of spatial mode multiplexer, based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion (MPLC), with very low intrinsic loss and high mode selectivity. In this first demonstration we show that a typical 3-mode multiplexer achieves a mode selectivity better than -23 dB and a total insertion efficiency ...
Hove Michael J MJ Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1;Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA - - 2014
The auditory environment typically contains several sound sources that overlap in time, and the auditory system parses the complex sound wave into streams or voices that represent the various sound sources. Music is also often polyphonic. Interestingly, the main melody (spectral/pitch information) is most often carried by the highest-pitched voice, ...
Jarvis Danielle N DN Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Variability, or how a task changes across trials, may reveal differences between athletes of differing skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine trunk and lower extremity (LE) single joint kinematic variability and inter-segmental coordination variability in dancers and non-dancers during bipedal vertical dance jumps (sautés). Twenty healthy ...
Hackett Talya D TD University of Bristol, United - - 2014
Echolocating bats have historically been classified as either loud aerial-hawkers or whispering gleaners. Some bat species can forage in multiple ways and others have demonstrated limited flexibility in the amplitude of their echolocation calls. The desert long-eared bat, Otonycteris hemprichii, has been said to be a passive gleaning whispering bat ...
Freeberg Todd M TM Department of Psychology, Austin Peay Building 301B, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA, - - 2014
Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus ...
Noguchi Tomohiro T Department of Sensory Physiology, Asahikawa Medical University, Midorigaokahigashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recently, evidence has accumulated that the vomeronasal system cooperates with the main olfactory system to process volatile cues that regulate the animal's behavior. This is contradictory to the traditional view that the vomeronasal system is quite different from the main olfactory system in the time scale of information processing. Particularly, ...
Kosovicheva Anna A AA Department of Psychology, University of California, 3210 Tolman Hall #1650, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA, - - 2014
Saccades are made thousands of times a day and are the principal means of localizing objects in our environment. However, the saccade system faces the challenge of accurately localizing objects as they are constantly moving relative to the eye and head. Any delays in processing could cause errors in saccadic ...
Vasudevan Erin V L EV Motor Learning Lab, Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Albert Einstein Healthcare Network, Elkins Park, - - 2014
Locomotor adaptation is a form of short-term learning that enables gait modifications and reduces movement errors when the environment changes. This adaptation is critical for community ambulation for example, when walking on different surfaces. While many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) recover basic ambulation, less is known about recovery ...
Wood Joanne M JM School of Optometry and Vision Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, - - 2014
To quantify the effects of driver age on night-time pedestrian conspicuity, and to determine whether individual differences in visual performance can predict drivers' ability to recognise pedestrians at night. Participants were 32 visually normal drivers (20 younger: M = 24.4 years ± 6.4 years; 12 older: M = 72.0 years ± 5.0 years). Visual performance was measured in a laboratory-based testing session ...
Scholl Christina C Behavioral Physiology & Sociobiology (Zoology II), Biozentrum, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074, Wuerzburg, - - 2014
Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain ...
Sofianidis George G Laboratory of Motor Control and Learning, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, - - 2014
Interpersonal entrainment emerges spontaneously when partners performing rhythmic movements together exchange sensory feedback about the other's movements. In this study, we asked whether couples of expert dancers, non-dancers and mixed couples can suppress the spontaneous haptically mediated inter-personal entrainment when their rhythmic sway is paced by differing metronome tempos. Fifty-four ...
Elzinga Michael J MJ University of Washington, Box 351800, 24 Kincaid Hall, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2014
The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished ...
Shelton Ryan M RM University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, - - 2014
Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. ...
Cronin Adam L AL United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, 020-8550, Japan, - - 2014
To optimise behaviour, organisms require information on the quantity of various components of their environment, and the ability of animals to discriminate quantity has been a subject of considerable recent interest. This body of research hints at generalised mechanisms of quantity discrimination in vertebrates, but data on invertebrates are still ...
Riboli Francesco F 1] European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy [2] Department of Physics, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy - - 2014
Disordered photonic materials can diffuse and localize light through random multiple scattering, offering opportunities to study mesoscopic phenomena, control light-matter interactions, and provide new strategies for photonic applications. Light transport in such media is governed by photonic modes characterized by resonances with finite spectral width and spatial extent. Considerable steps ...
Shirota Camila C Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, United States; Center for Bionic Medicine, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Appropriately responding to mechanical perturbations during gait is critical to maintain balance and avoid falls. Tripping perturbation onset during swing phase is strongly related to the use of different recovery strategies; however, it is insufficient to fully explain how strategies are chosen. The dynamic interactions between the foot and the ...
Pansopha Poonsup P Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654, - - 2014
Several insects require both olfactory and visual cues during odour-source localisation to successfully locate an odour source. In the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori, detection of the female sex pheromone triggers a programmed walking pattern, starting from a surge (straight-line walking) followed by zigzag walking. Although pheromone-triggered behaviour in silkmoths is ...
Maglio Sam J SJ 1Department of Marketing, University of Toronto - - 2014
Being objectively close to or far from a place changes how people perceive the location of that place in a subjective, psychological sense. In the six studies reported here, we investigated whether people's spatial orientation (defined as moving toward or away from a place) will produce similar effects-by specifically influencing ...
Schiffner Ingo I Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Germany; University of Queensland, - - 2014
We analyse the tracks of clock-shifted pigeons from six releases to determine how pigeons cope with the conflict between their sun compass and the other navigational cues. Time-lag embedding is used to calculate the short-term correlation dimension, a parameter that reflects the complexity of the navigational system and with it, ...
Pirotta Enrico E Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK - - 2014
Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of ...
Warnecke Michaela - - 2014
Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) use biosonar to navigate and locate objects in their surroundings. During natural foraging, they often encounter echoes returned by a target of interest located to the front while other, often stronger, clutter echoes are returned from objects, such as vegetation, located to the sides or ...
Vance Jason T JT School of Life Sciences, University of Las Vegas, Nevada, Las Vegas, NV USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The wings of bees and other insects accumulate permanent wear, which increases the rate of mortality and impacts foraging behavior, presumably due to effects on flight performance. In this study, we investigated how experimental wing wear affects flight performance in honey bees. Variable density gases and high-speed videography were used ...
Rogers Stephen M SM School of Biological Sciences, A08 - Heydon-Laurence Building, and the Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Desert locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion ...
Reinhardt Lars L Friedrich-Schiller-University, - - 2014
In order to better understand the strategies of locomotion in small insects, we have studied continuous level locomotion of the wood ant species Formica polyctena. We determined the three-dimensional centre of mass kinematics during the gait cycle and recorded the ground reaction forces of single legs utilizing a self-developed test ...
Vinu R V - - 2014
A new technique to generate a spatially varying coherence field, such as a coherence comb using a Dammann grating, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The principle of the technique lies with the vectorial van Cittert-Zernike theorem, which connects vectorial source structure with the coherence-polarization of the light. The Dammann grating ...
Abramson Nils H - - 2014
In holographic interferometry, there is usually a static distance separating the point of illumination and the point of observation. In Special Relativity, this separation is dynamic and is caused by the velocity of the observer. The corrections needed to compensate for these separations are similar in the two fields. We ...
Zamparo Paola P Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, - - 2014
Shuttle runs can be utilized to study the physiological responses in sports (such as basketball) characterized by sprints (accelerations/decelerations) and changes of direction. The aim of this study was to determine the energy cost (C) of shuttle runs with different turning angles and over different distances (with different acceleration/deceleration patterns). ...
Kelly Jonathan W JW Iowa State - - 2014
Distance in immersive virtual reality is commonly underperceived relative to intended distance, causing virtual environments to appear smaller than they actually are. However, a brief period of interaction by walking through the virtual environment with visual feedback can cause dramatic improvement in perceived distance. The goal of the current project ...
Bierman Hilary S HS Center for Comparative and Evolutionary Biology of Hearing, Department of Biology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, - - 2014
Physiological and anatomical studies have suggested that alligators have unique adaptations for spatial hearing. Sound localization cues are primarily generated by the filtering of sound waves by the head. Different vertebrate lineages have evolved external and/or internal anatomical adaptations to enhance these cues, such as pinnae and interaural canals. It ...
Maoret Francesco F Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biotecnologie, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, - - 2014
The present investigation was aimed at testing whether the lizard sky polarization compass is time compensated. For this purpose, ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, were both trained and tested for orientation inside a Morris water maze under clear skies with the sun not in view. During training, lizards showed a striking ...
Arnold Derek H DH School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia 4072. Electronic address: - - 2014
Retinal motion can modulate visual sensitivity. For instance, low contrast drifting waveforms (targets) can be easier to detect when abutting the leading edges of movement in adjacent high contrast waveforms (inducers), rather than the trailing edges. This target-inducer interaction is contingent on the adjacent waveforms being consistent with one another ...
Schnell Bettina B Departments of Biology and Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA - - 2014
Sensory feedback is a ubiquitous feature of guidance systems in both animals and engineered vehicles. For example, a common strategy for moving along a straight path is to turn such that the measured rate of rotation is zero. This task can be accomplished by using a feedback signal that is ...
Wystrach Antoine A Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, - - 2014
Ants are excellent navigators, using a combination of innate strategies and learnt information to guide habitual routes. The mechanisms underlying this behaviour are little understood though one avenue of investigation is to explore how innate sensori-motor routines are used to accomplish route navigation. For instance, Australian desert ant foragers are ...
Faivre N N Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
In order to interpret a constantly changing environment, visual events far apart in space and time must be integrated into a unified percept. While spatial properties of invisible signals are known to be encoded without awareness, the fate of temporal properties remains largely unknown. Here, we probed temporal integration for ...
Wystrach Antoine A Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, - - 2014
The Central Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti is known to use celestial cues for compass orientation. We manipulated the available celestial cues for compass orientation for ants that had arrived at a feeder, were captured and then released at a distant test site that had no useful terrestrial panoramic cues. ...
Yifat Yuval - - 2014
We demonstrate wide-angle, broadband and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nano-antenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on of the reflected light. High fidelity images were projected at angles of 450 and 200 with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40%-50% over an optical ...
Marghetis Tyler T a Department of Cognitive Science , UC San Diego , La Jolla , CA , - - 2014
Mathematics requires precise inferences about abstract objects inaccessible to perception. How is this possible? One proposal is that mathematical reasoning, while concerned with entirely abstract objects, nevertheless relies on neural resources specialized for interacting with the world-in other words, mathematics may be grounded in spatial or sensorimotor systems. Mental arithmetic, ...
Amélineau Françoise F Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEFE-CNRS, UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, 34393 Montpellier, - - 2014
When animals move across a landscape, they alternate between active searching phases in areas with high prey density and commuting phases towards and in-between profitable feeding patches. Such active searching movements are more sinuous than travelling movements, and supposedly more costly in energy. Here we provide an empirical validation of ...
Nityananda Vivek V Queen Mary University of London, - - 2014
Primates can analyse visual scenes extremely rapidly, making accurate decisions for presentation times of only 20ms. We asked if bumblebees, despite having potentially more limited processing power, could similarly detect and discriminate visual patterns presented for durations of 100ms or less. Bumblebees detected stimuli and discriminated between differently oriented and ...
El Jundi Basil B Vision Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, 22362, Lund, - - 2014
Animals relying on a celestial compass for spatial orientation may use the position of the sun, the chromatic or intensity gradient of the sky, the polarization pattern of the sky, or a combination of these cues as compass signals. Behavioral experiments in bees and ants, indeed, showed that direct sunlight ...
Stilp Christian E CE Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky - - 2014
Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between information-bearing acoustic changes in the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The availability of information-bearing acoustic changes reliably predicts intelligibility of full-spectrum [Stilp and Kluender (2010). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(27), 12387-12392] and noise-vocoded sentences amid noise interruption [Stilp et al. (2013). ...
Rodmell Paul I PI University of Nottingham, Faculty of Engineering, Division of Electrical Systems and Optics Research, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United - - 2014
ABSTRACT. A Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation through the retina has been developed to understand the path-length distributions within the retinal vessel. For full-field illumination, the path-length distribution within the vessel comprises directly backscattered light and light that has passed once or twice through the vessel. The origins of ...
Morice Antoine H P AH Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ISM UMR 7287, 13288, Marseille cedex 09, - - 2014
While it has been shown that the Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) is used in the control of self-motion speed, this study examined its relevance in the control of interceptive actions while walking. We asked participants to intercept approaching targets by adjusting their walking speed in a virtual environment, and ...
De Luca Paul A PA Biology Department, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA, - - 2014
Bees produce vibrations in many contexts, including for defense and while foraging. Buzz pollination is a unique foraging behavior in which bees vibrate the anthers of flowers to eject pollen which is then collected and used as food. The relationships between buzzing properties and pollen release are well understood, but ...
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