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Pohjola Hanna H University of Eastern Finland , Finland ; Theatre Academy , - - 2014
The purpose of this case study was to describe the three-dimensional biomechanics of common ballet exercises in a ballet dancer with ischial tuberosity apophysitis. This was achieved by comparing kinematics between the symptomatic (i.e. ischial apophyseal symptoms) and contralateral lower limbs, as well as via reported pain. Results suggest consistent ...
Chen Yun Y Section of Neurobiology of the Eye, Ophthalmic Research Institute, 72076 Tuebingen, - - 2014
When the eye is covered with a filter that transmits light below 480 nm and a blue field is observed on a computer screen that is modulated in brightness at about 1 Hz, the foveais perceived as small irregular dark spot. It was proposed that the "foveal blue scotoma" results ...
Szymanski Marcin M Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, - - 2014
One of the risks in middle ear surgery is high frequency hearing loss. It is believed that manipulations on the middle ear ossicles with the instruments may cause overstimulation of the inner ear and damage of the hear cells. Controversy arises whether temporary separation of the ossicles has any impact ...
De Tommasi E - - 2014
Evolution shows that photonic structures are a constituent part of many animals and flora. These elements produce structural color and are useful in predator-prey interactions between animals and in the exploitation of light for photosynthetic organisms. In particular, diatoms have evolved patterned hydrated silica external valves able to confine light ...
Howarth Peter A PA Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, Loughborough Design School, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2015
High quality flat panel computer displays (FPDs) with high resolution screens are now commonplace, and black, grey, white, beige and silver surrounds ('bezels'), matt or glossy, are in widespread use. It has been suggested that bezels with high reflectance, or with a high gloss, could cause eyestrain, and we have ...
Farell Bart B Institute for Sensory Research, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, - - 2014
The separation between the eyes shapes the distribution of binocular disparities and gives a special role to horizontal disparities. However, for one-dimensional stimuli, disparity direction, like motion direction, is linked to stimulus orientation. This makes the perceived depth of one-dimensional stimuli orientation dependent and generally non-veridical. It also allows perceived ...
MacWilliams Bruce A BA aShriners Hospitals for Children, Salt Lake City, UT, USA bDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA cGillette Children's Specialty Healthcare, St. Paul, MN, USA dMedical and Surgical Spine Consultants of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA eUniversity of Minnesota Department Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, - - 2014
Study Design. Eight healthy volunteers participated in this observational study.Objective. Quantify three dimensional motions of the lumbar vertebrae during running via direct in vivo measurement and compare these motions to walking data from the same technique and running data from a skin mounted technique.Summary of Background Data. Lumbar spine motions ...
Zhou Yu Y Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois, 60208, - - 2014
A novel, apertureless, cantilever-free pen array can be used for dual scanning photochemical and molecular printing. Serial writing with light is enabled by combining self-focusing pyramidal pens with an opaque backing between pens. The elastomeric pens also afford force-tuned illumination and simultaneous delivery of materials and optical energy. These attributes ...
Chow John W JW Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery, Methodist Rehabilitation Center, 1350 East Woodrow Wilson Drive, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA, - - 2014
We compared gait using the planar law of intersegmental coordination between 14 hemorrhagic stroke subjects walking at a self-selected normal speed (56 ± 21 cm/s) and 15 age-matched healthy controls walking at a very slow speed (56 ± 19 cm/s). Sagittal plane elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot segments were submitted to principal component ...
Schätti A A Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, - - 2014
Mitigation of organ motion in active, scanning proton therapy is a challenge. One of the easiest methods to implement is re-scanning, where a treatment plan is applied several times with accordingly smaller weights. As a consequence, motion effects are averaged out. For discrete spot scanning, a major drawback of this ...
Kim Myoung-Kwon MK Department of Physical Therapy, Youngsan University, Republic of - - 2014
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to discover why people who have flat feet show a higher risk of damage to the musculoskeletal system than those who have normal feet. Furthermore, we examined the kinematic differences in the lower extremity between flat feet and normal feet in individuals on ...
Godbole Surekha R SR HOD and Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Sharad Pawar Dental College , Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India - - 2014
Infection control is an important concept in the present day practice of dentistry. The prosthodontists are at an added risk of transmission because of the infection spreading through the contaminated lab equipments while working in the lab. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of UV light ...
Purnapatra Subhajit B - - 2014
We develop an optical system for generating multiple light sheets. This is enabled by employing a special class of spatial filters in a cylindrical lens geometry. The proposed binary filter placed at the back aperture of the cylindrical lens results in the generation of a periodic transverse pattern extending along ...
Faruque Imraan A IA University of Maryland Department of Aerospace Engineering, College Park, MD, 20742, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Whether the remarkable flight performance of insects is because the animals leverage inherent physics at this scale or because they employ specialized neural feedback mechanisms is an active research question. In this study, an empirically-derived aerodynamics model is used with a transformation involving a delay and a rotation to identify ...
Socie Michael J MJ Departments of aMechanical Science and Engineering bKinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, - - 2014
This investigation examined spatiotemporal parameters of gait during the 6-min walk (6MW) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in healthy controls. Eighteen individuals with MS [divided into those who were independently ambulatory (n=10) and those who were ambulatory with assistance (n=8)] and 10 healthy controls performed a 6MW while ...
Hylander Samuel S Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems-EEMiS, Linnaeus University, 39182 Kalmar, Sweden - - 2014
Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All individuals ...
Maggioni Matteo - - 2014
We propose a framework for the denoising of videos jointly corrupted by spatially correlated (i.e. non-white) random noise and spatially correlated fixed-pattern noise. Our approach is based on motion-compensated 3-D spatiotemporal volumes, i.e. a sequence of 2-D square patches extracted along the motion trajectories of the noisy video. First, the ...
Riabinina Olena O Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics, Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, - - 2014
Insects inform themselves about the 3D structure of their surroundings through motion parallax. During flight, they often simplify this task by minimising rotational image movement. Coordinated head and body movements generate rapid shifts of gaze separated by periods of almost zero rotational movement, during which the distance of objects from ...
Herda Trent J TJ Neuromechanics Laboratory, Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, - - 2014
The purpose of the study was to examine motor unit (MU) recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates of the vastus lateralis between 2 healthy (HE) individuals (women, ages = 19 and 23 years) and 1 individual (man, age = 22 years) who acquired acute poliomyelitis (PO). Each participant performed ...
Goldsworthy Raymond L RL Research & Development, Sensimetrics Corporation, 14 Summer Street, Suite 305, Malden, Massachusetts - - 2014
This article introduces and provides an assessment of a spatial-filtering algorithm based on two closely-spaced (∼1 cm) microphones in a behind-the-ear shell. The evaluated spatial-filtering algorithm used fast (∼10 ms) temporal-spectral analysis to determine the location of incoming sounds and to enhance sounds arriving from straight ahead of the listener. Speech reception ...
Bitzer L A LA University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Engineering, NST and CENIDE, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, - - 2014
Recently, a scanning light stimulation system with an automated, adaptive focus correction during the measurement was introduced. Here, its application on encapsulated devices is discussed. This includes the changes an encapsulating optical medium introduces to the focusing process as well as to the subsequent light stimulation measurement. Further, the focusing ...
Iglesias Lindsy E - - 2014
Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter ...
Haller Nicola Kristin NK Institut für Zoologie, Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, Germany; Department of Biology, Lund University, - - 2014
Birds are generally thought to have excellent vision with high spatial resolution. However, spatial contrast sensitivity of birds for stationary targets is low compared to other animals with similar acuity, such as mammals. For fast flying animals body stability and coordination are highly important, and visual motion cues are known ...
Corbett Jennifer E - - 2014
Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a ...
Hager Felix A FA Ruhr University Bochum, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, D-44780 Bochum, Germany - - 2014
Although several behavioural studies demonstrate the ability of insects to localise the source of vibrations, it is still unclear how insects are able to perceive directional information from vibratory signals on solid substrates, because time-of-arrival and amplitude difference between receptory structures are thought to be too small to be processed ...
Kress Daniel D Bielefeld University, Germany - - 2014
In contrast to flying flies, walking flies experience relatively strong rotational gaze shifts, even during overall straight phases of locomotion. These gaze shifts are caused by the walking apparatus and modulated by the stride frequency. Accordingly, even during straight walking phases, the retinal image flow is composed of both translational ...
Kirby Christopher E - - 2014
This study examined pilots' visual scan patterns during a simulated high-speed, low-level flight and how their scan rates related to flight performance. As helicopters become faster and more agile, pilots are expected to navigate at low altitudes while traveling at high speeds. A pilot's ability to interpret information from a ...
Hui Ashley A Environmental Systems Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, - - 2014
Collective behaviours are influenced by the behavioural composition of the group. For example, a collective behaviour may emerge from the average behaviour of the group's constituents, or be driven by a few key individuals that catalyse the behaviour of others in the group. When ant colonies collectively relocate to a ...
Stokkermans M G M - - 2014
Visual adaptation (and especially dark adaptation) has been studied extensively in the past, however, mainly addressing adaptation to fully dark backgrounds. At this stage, it is unclear whether these results are not too simple to be applied to complex situations, such as predicting adaptation of a motorist driving at night. ...
Labroille Guillaume - - 2014
We designed and built a new type of spatial mode multiplexer, based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion (MPLC), with very low intrinsic loss and high mode selectivity. In this first demonstration we show that a typical 3-mode multiplexer achieves a mode selectivity better than -23 dB and a total insertion efficiency ...
Hove Michael J MJ Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1;Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA - - 2014
The auditory environment typically contains several sound sources that overlap in time, and the auditory system parses the complex sound wave into streams or voices that represent the various sound sources. Music is also often polyphonic. Interestingly, the main melody (spectral/pitch information) is most often carried by the highest-pitched voice, ...
Jarvis Danielle N DN Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Variability, or how a task changes across trials, may reveal differences between athletes of differing skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine trunk and lower extremity (LE) single joint kinematic variability and inter-segmental coordination variability in dancers and non-dancers during bipedal vertical dance jumps (sautés). Twenty healthy ...
Hackett Talya D TD University of Bristol, United - - 2014
Echolocating bats have historically been classified as either loud aerial-hawkers or whispering gleaners. Some bat species can forage in multiple ways and others have demonstrated limited flexibility in the amplitude of their echolocation calls. The desert long-eared bat, Otonycteris hemprichii, has been said to be a passive gleaning whispering bat ...
Freeberg Todd M TM Department of Psychology, Austin Peay Building 301B, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA, - - 2014
Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus ...
Noguchi Tomohiro T Department of Sensory Physiology, Asahikawa Medical University, Midorigaokahigashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recently, evidence has accumulated that the vomeronasal system cooperates with the main olfactory system to process volatile cues that regulate the animal's behavior. This is contradictory to the traditional view that the vomeronasal system is quite different from the main olfactory system in the time scale of information processing. Particularly, ...
Kosovicheva Anna A AA Department of Psychology, University of California, 3210 Tolman Hall #1650, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA, - - 2014
Saccades are made thousands of times a day and are the principal means of localizing objects in our environment. However, the saccade system faces the challenge of accurately localizing objects as they are constantly moving relative to the eye and head. Any delays in processing could cause errors in saccadic ...
Vasudevan Erin V L EV Motor Learning Lab, Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Albert Einstein Healthcare Network, Elkins Park, - - 2014
Locomotor adaptation is a form of short-term learning that enables gait modifications and reduces movement errors when the environment changes. This adaptation is critical for community ambulation for example, when walking on different surfaces. While many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) recover basic ambulation, less is known about recovery ...
Wood Joanne M JM School of Optometry and Vision Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, - - 2014
To quantify the effects of driver age on night-time pedestrian conspicuity, and to determine whether individual differences in visual performance can predict drivers' ability to recognise pedestrians at night. Participants were 32 visually normal drivers (20 younger: M = 24.4 years ± 6.4 years; 12 older: M = 72.0 years ± 5.0 years). Visual performance was measured in a laboratory-based testing session ...
Scholl Christina C Behavioral Physiology & Sociobiology (Zoology II), Biozentrum, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074, Wuerzburg, - - 2014
Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain ...
Sofianidis George G Laboratory of Motor Control and Learning, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, - - 2014
Interpersonal entrainment emerges spontaneously when partners performing rhythmic movements together exchange sensory feedback about the other's movements. In this study, we asked whether couples of expert dancers, non-dancers and mixed couples can suppress the spontaneous haptically mediated inter-personal entrainment when their rhythmic sway is paced by differing metronome tempos. Fifty-four ...
Elzinga Michael J MJ University of Washington, Box 351800, 24 Kincaid Hall, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2014
The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished ...
Shelton Ryan M RM University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, - - 2014
Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. ...
Cronin Adam L AL United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, 020-8550, Japan, - - 2014
To optimise behaviour, organisms require information on the quantity of various components of their environment, and the ability of animals to discriminate quantity has been a subject of considerable recent interest. This body of research hints at generalised mechanisms of quantity discrimination in vertebrates, but data on invertebrates are still ...
Riboli Francesco F 1] European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy [2] Department of Physics, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy - - 2014
Disordered photonic materials can diffuse and localize light through random multiple scattering, offering opportunities to study mesoscopic phenomena, control light-matter interactions, and provide new strategies for photonic applications. Light transport in such media is governed by photonic modes characterized by resonances with finite spectral width and spatial extent. Considerable steps ...
Shirota Camila C Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, United States; Center for Bionic Medicine, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Appropriately responding to mechanical perturbations during gait is critical to maintain balance and avoid falls. Tripping perturbation onset during swing phase is strongly related to the use of different recovery strategies; however, it is insufficient to fully explain how strategies are chosen. The dynamic interactions between the foot and the ...
Pansopha Poonsup P Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654, - - 2014
Several insects require both olfactory and visual cues during odour-source localisation to successfully locate an odour source. In the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori, detection of the female sex pheromone triggers a programmed walking pattern, starting from a surge (straight-line walking) followed by zigzag walking. Although pheromone-triggered behaviour in silkmoths is ...
Maglio Sam J SJ 1Department of Marketing, University of Toronto - - 2014
Being objectively close to or far from a place changes how people perceive the location of that place in a subjective, psychological sense. In the six studies reported here, we investigated whether people's spatial orientation (defined as moving toward or away from a place) will produce similar effects-by specifically influencing ...
Schiffner Ingo I Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Germany; University of Queensland, - - 2014
We analyse the tracks of clock-shifted pigeons from six releases to determine how pigeons cope with the conflict between their sun compass and the other navigational cues. Time-lag embedding is used to calculate the short-term correlation dimension, a parameter that reflects the complexity of the navigational system and with it, ...
Pirotta Enrico E Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK - - 2014
Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of ...
Warnecke Michaela - - 2014
Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) use biosonar to navigate and locate objects in their surroundings. During natural foraging, they often encounter echoes returned by a target of interest located to the front while other, often stronger, clutter echoes are returned from objects, such as vegetation, located to the sides or ...
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