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Zamparo Paola P Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, - - 2014
Shuttle runs can be utilized to study the physiological responses in sports (such as basketball) characterized by sprints (accelerations/decelerations) and changes of direction. The aim of this study was to determine the energy cost (C) of shuttle runs with different turning angles and over different distances (with different acceleration/deceleration patterns). ...
Kelly Jonathan W JW Iowa State - - 2014
Distance in immersive virtual reality is commonly underperceived relative to intended distance, causing virtual environments to appear smaller than they actually are. However, a brief period of interaction by walking through the virtual environment with visual feedback can cause dramatic improvement in perceived distance. The goal of the current project ...
Bierman Hilary S HS Center for Comparative and Evolutionary Biology of Hearing, Department of Biology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, - - 2014
Physiological and anatomical studies have suggested that alligators have unique adaptations for spatial hearing. Sound localization cues are primarily generated by the filtering of sound waves by the head. Different vertebrate lineages have evolved external and/or internal anatomical adaptations to enhance these cues, such as pinnae and interaural canals. It ...
Maoret Francesco F Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biotecnologie, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, - - 2014
The present investigation was aimed at testing whether the lizard sky polarization compass is time compensated. For this purpose, ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, were both trained and tested for orientation inside a Morris water maze under clear skies with the sun not in view. During training, lizards showed a striking ...
Arnold Derek H DH School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia 4072. Electronic address: - - 2014
Retinal motion can modulate visual sensitivity. For instance, low contrast drifting waveforms (targets) can be easier to detect when abutting the leading edges of movement in adjacent high contrast waveforms (inducers), rather than the trailing edges. This target-inducer interaction is contingent on the adjacent waveforms being consistent with one another ...
Schnell Bettina B Departments of Biology and Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA - - 2014
Sensory feedback is a ubiquitous feature of guidance systems in both animals and engineered vehicles. For example, a common strategy for moving along a straight path is to turn such that the measured rate of rotation is zero. This task can be accomplished by using a feedback signal that is ...
Wystrach Antoine A Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, - - 2014
Ants are excellent navigators, using a combination of innate strategies and learnt information to guide habitual routes. The mechanisms underlying this behaviour are little understood though one avenue of investigation is to explore how innate sensori-motor routines are used to accomplish route navigation. For instance, Australian desert ant foragers are ...
Faivre N N Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
In order to interpret a constantly changing environment, visual events far apart in space and time must be integrated into a unified percept. While spatial properties of invisible signals are known to be encoded without awareness, the fate of temporal properties remains largely unknown. Here, we probed temporal integration for ...
Nyakatura John A - - 2014
Head-bobbing in birds is a conspicuous behaviour related to vision comprising a hold phase and a thrust phase. The timing of these phases has been shown in many birds, including quail, to be coordinated with footfall during locomotion. We were interested in the biomechanics behind this phenomenon. During terrestrial locomotion ...
Wystrach Antoine A Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, - - 2014
The Central Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti is known to use celestial cues for compass orientation. We manipulated the available celestial cues for compass orientation for ants that had arrived at a feeder, were captured and then released at a distant test site that had no useful terrestrial panoramic cues. ...
Yifat Yuval - - 2014
We demonstrate wide-angle, broadband and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nano-antenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on of the reflected light. High fidelity images were projected at angles of 450 and 200 with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40%-50% over an optical ...
Amélineau Françoise F Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEFE-CNRS, UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, 34393 Montpellier, - - 2014
When animals move across a landscape, they alternate between active searching phases in areas with high prey density and commuting phases towards and in-between profitable feeding patches. Such active searching movements are more sinuous than travelling movements, and supposedly more costly in energy. Here we provide an empirical validation of ...
Nityananda Vivek V Queen Mary University of London, - - 2014
Primates can analyse visual scenes extremely rapidly, making accurate decisions for presentation times of only 20ms. We asked if bumblebees, despite having potentially more limited processing power, could similarly detect and discriminate visual patterns presented for durations of 100ms or less. Bumblebees detected stimuli and discriminated between differently oriented and ...
El Jundi Basil B Vision Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, 22362, Lund, - - 2014
Animals relying on a celestial compass for spatial orientation may use the position of the sun, the chromatic or intensity gradient of the sky, the polarization pattern of the sky, or a combination of these cues as compass signals. Behavioral experiments in bees and ants, indeed, showed that direct sunlight ...
Stilp Christian E CE Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky - - 2014
Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between information-bearing acoustic changes in the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The availability of information-bearing acoustic changes reliably predicts intelligibility of full-spectrum [Stilp and Kluender (2010). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(27), 12387-12392] and noise-vocoded sentences amid noise interruption [Stilp et al. (2013). ...
Rodmell Paul I PI University of Nottingham, Faculty of Engineering, Division of Electrical Systems and Optics Research, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United - - 2014
ABSTRACT. A Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation through the retina has been developed to understand the path-length distributions within the retinal vessel. For full-field illumination, the path-length distribution within the vessel comprises directly backscattered light and light that has passed once or twice through the vessel. The origins of ...
Horth Lisa L Department of Biological Science, 4700 Elkhorn Avenue, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, - - 2014
Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have ...
Morice Antoine H P AH Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ISM UMR 7287, 13288, Marseille cedex 09, - - 2014
While it has been shown that the Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) is used in the control of self-motion speed, this study examined its relevance in the control of interceptive actions while walking. We asked participants to intercept approaching targets by adjusting their walking speed in a virtual environment, and ...
De Luca Paul A PA Biology Department, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA, - - 2014
Bees produce vibrations in many contexts, including for defense and while foraging. Buzz pollination is a unique foraging behavior in which bees vibrate the anthers of flowers to eject pollen which is then collected and used as food. The relationships between buzzing properties and pollen release are well understood, but ...
Telles Francismeire Jane FJ Lund Vision Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, 22362, Lund, - - 2014
The European hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum is a diurnal nectar forager like the honeybee, and we expect similarities in their sensory ecology. Using behavioural tests and electroretinograms (ERGs), we studied the spectral sensitivity of M. stellatarum. By measuring ERGs in the dark-adapted eye and after adaptation to green light, we ...
Knight Frances Le Cornu FL Sensorimotor Development Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
The tactile surface forms a continuous sheet covering the body. And yet, the perceived distance between two touches varies across stimulation sites. Perceived tactile distance is larger when stimuli cross over the wrist, compared to when both fall on either the hand or the forearm. This effect could reflect a ...
Ma Chenguang - - 2014
We present a hybrid camera system that combines optical designs with computational processing to achieve content-adaptive high-resolution hyperspectral video acquisition. In particular, we record two video streams: one high-spatial resolution RGB video and one low-spatial resolution hyperspectral video in which the recorded points are dynamically selected using a spatial light ...
Askew Alicia A Department of Psychology, Presbyterian College, 503 South Broad Street, Clinton, SC, 29325, USA, - - 2014
We describe an automated apparatus that can be used to investigate the effects of defeat in hamsters. It consists of a covered alleyway that leads to a box, or arena, where hamsters can be kept separate or allowed to fight. The alleyway is divided into seven equal-sized chambers. Low-power lasers ...
Lin Cheng-Chieh CC College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Sargent College, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA, - - 2014
Visuoperceptual disorders have been identified in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may affect the perception of optic flow for heading direction during navigation. Studies in healthy subjects have confirmed that heading direction can be determined by equalizing the optic flow speed (OS) between visual fields. The present study investigated ...
Volberg Gregor G University of Regensburg, - - 2014
Previous studies often revealed a right-hemisphere specialization for processing the global level of compound visual stimuli. Here we explore whether a similar specialization exists for the detection of intersected contours defined by a chain of local elements. Subjects were presented with arrays of randomly oriented Gabor patches that could contain ...
Yousif Saad S University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Roadworks (work zones) are a common feature of our urban environment. They have a considerable impact on reducing roadway capacity, causing interruptions and imposing substantial delays to road users, which in turn adds to the cost to society and adverse impact on road safety. Shuttle-lane (alternate one-way working) is one ...
Long Christopher J CJ Research and Technology Labs, Cochlear Ltd., 13059 E. Peakview Avenue, Centennial, CO, 80111, USA, - - 2014
This study examines the relationship between focused-stimulation thresholds, electrode positions, and speech understanding in deaf subjects treated with a cochlear implant (CI). Focused stimulation is more selective than monopolar stimulation, which excites broad regions of the cochlea, so may be more sensitive as a probe of neural survival patterns. Focused ...
Hein Elisabeth E Evolutionary Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, Schleichstr. 4, 72076, Tübingen, Germany, - - 2014
To maintain stable object representations as our eyes or the objects themselves move, the visual system must determine how newly sampled information relates to existing object representations. To solve this correspondence problem, the visual system uses not only spatiotemporal information (e.g., the spatial and temporal proximity between elements), but also ...
Yang Yung-Hao YH Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, - - 2014
People tend to look toward where a sound occurs; however, the role of spatial congruency between sound and sight in the effect of sound facilitation on visual detection remains controversial. We propose that the role of spatial congruency depends on the reliability of the information provided by the facilitator; if ...
Caruso Valeria C VC Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy ; Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2014
Pitch and timbre perception are both based on the frequency content of sound, but previous perceptual experiments have disagreed about whether these two dimensions are processed independently from each other. We tested the interaction of pitch and timbre variations using sequential comparisons of sound pairs. Listeners judged whether two sequential ...
Kimura Toshifumi T School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo, - - 2014
A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. ...
Wu Yue Y Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai, 200237 (China); Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (USA) - - 2014
Using one ray of light to encode another ray of light is highly desirable because information in optical format can be directly transferred from one beam to another without converting back to the electronic format. One key medium to accomplish such an amazing task is photoswitchable molecules. Using bis(dithiazole)ethene that ...
Brandstaetter Andreas S AS CNRS, - - 2014
During the mating season, honeybee males, the drones, gather in congregation areas 10-40 m above ground. When a receptive female, a queen, enters the congregation, drones are attracted to her by queen-produced pheromones and visual cues and attempt to mate with the queen in mid-air. It is still unclear how ...
Giannoni-Guzmán Manuel A MA University of Puerto Rico, Puerto - - 2014
Circadian rhythms in social insects are highly plastic and are modulated by multiple factors. In addition, complex behaviors such as sun-compass orientation and time learning are clearly regulated by the circadian system in these organisms. Despite these unique features of social insect clocks, the mechanisms as well as the functional ...
Price S L SL Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Ecological opportunity, defined as access to new resources free from competitors, is thought to be a catalyst for the process of adaptive radiation. Much of what we know about ecological opportunity, and the larger process of adaptive radiation, is derived from vertebrate diversification on islands. Here, we examine lineage diversification ...
Chappell Mark M School of Applied Psychology (MG) and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Behavioural Basis of Health, Griffith Institute of Health, Griffith University, Nathan, 4111, QLD, Australia.. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previous attempts to measure localization bias around a right-angle turn (L-trajectory) have found either no spatial bias off the trajectory (Whitney, Cavanagh, & Murakami, 2000) or a bias, in different experiments, both 'inside' and 'outside' the trajectory (Nieman, Sheth, & Shimojo, 2010). However, Eagleman and Sejnowski (2007) presented data showing ...
Vilar Luís L Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Estrada da Costa, 1495-688 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal; Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Lusófona University of Humanities and Technologies, Campo Grande, 376, 1749-021 Lisboa, Portugal; CIPER - Interdisciplinary Centre for the Study of Human Performance, Estrada da Costa, 1495-688 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study examined how the location of the goal and ball constrained the interpersonal coordination tendencies emerging of attacker-defender dyadic systems in team sports. Additionally, we analysed how the positioning of defenders constrained the emergent coordination tendencies between the ball carrier and supporting teammates. To investigate these tendencies in team ...
Heil Peter P Department of Auditory Learning and Speech, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany, - - 2014
Absolute auditory threshold decreases with increasing sound duration, a phenomenon explainable by the assumptions that the sound evokes neural events whose probabilities of occurrence are proportional to the sound's amplitude raised to an exponent of about 3 and that a constant number of events are required for threshold (Heil and ...
Zeil Jochen J ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, , Building 46, Biology Place, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, - - 2014
We caught solitary foragers of the Australian Jack Jumper ant, Myrmecia croslandi, and released them in three compass directions at distances of 10 and 15 m from the nest at locations they have never been before. We recorded the head orientation and the movements of ants within a radius of ...
Dacke M M Department of Biology, Lund Vision Group, Lund University, , Lund, - - 2014
Recent research has focused on the different types of compass cues available to ball-rolling beetles for orientation, but little is known about the relative precision of each of these cues and how they interact. In this study, we find that the absolute orientation error of the celestial compass of the ...
Evangelista C C Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, , St. Lucia, Queensland, - - 2014
Although it is widely accepted that honeybees use the polarized-light pattern of the sky as a compass for navigation, there is little direct evidence that this information is actually sensed during flight. Here, we ask whether flying bees can obtain compass cues derived purely from polarized light, and communicate this ...
Lescroël Amélie A Biodiversité et gestion des territoires, URU 420, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France ; Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS, UMR 5175, Montpellier, - - 2014
IN THE CONTEXT OF PREDICTED ALTERATION OF SEA ICE COVER AND INCREASED FREQUENCY OF EXTREME EVENTS, IT IS ESPECIALLY TIMELY TO INVESTIGATE PLASTICITY WITHIN ANTARCTIC SPECIES RESPONDING TO A KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT OF THEIR ECOLOGY: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ...
Fahlman Andreas A Department of Life Sciences, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, TX, - - 2014
Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness ...
Dillon Michael E ME Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, , Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2014
Animal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, ...
Grossi Bruno B Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile ; Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee ...
Devault Travis L TL United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio, United States of - - 2014
The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to ...
Rio Kevin W KW Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, - - 2014
When people walk together in groups or crowds they must coordinate their walking speed and direction with their neighbors. This paper investigates how a pedestrian visually controls speed when following a leader on a straight path (one-dimensional following). To model the behavioral dynamics of following, participants in Experiment 1 walked ...
Tremblay Yann Y Centre de Recherche Halieutique Méditerrannéenne et Tropicale, Institut pour la Recherche et le Développement, Unité Mixte de Recherche 212: IRD-IFREMER-UM2 : Expoited Marine Ecosystems, Sète, - - 2014
The study of ecological and behavioral processes has been revolutionized in the last two decades with the rapid development of biologging-science. Recently, using image-capturing devices, some pilot studies demonstrated the potential of understanding marine vertebrate movement patterns in relation to their proximate, as opposed to remote sensed environmental contexts. Here, ...
Mazo Chantell C Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, , Miami, FL 33199, - - 2014
When small flying insects go off their intended course, they use the resulting pattern of motion on their eye, or optic flow, to guide corrective steering. A change in heading generates a unique, rotational motion pattern and a change in position generates a translational motion pattern, and each produces corrective ...
Kim Yee Joon YJ Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, - - 2014
This study examines how two factors affect target selection: the contiguity of the target with the surrounding surface and certainty about target location. Previous studies indicate that a target among distractors is easier to find when the search items are on the same surface rather than different surfaces. In contrast, ...
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