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Stavenga Doekele G - - 2006
Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, optical structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement with molecular phylogeny. ...
González-Tomás L - - 2006
Consumers' perceptions of the color and texture of 8 commercial vanilla dairy desserts were studied and related to color and rheological measurements. First, the 8 desserts were evaluated by a group of consumers by means of the Free Choice Profile. For both color and texture, a 2-dimensional solution was chosen, ...
Curd Francis M - - 2006
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Shade selection is affected by a host of variables, including lighting. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of dental students to match shades under natural lighting and using a light-correcting device, specifically to determine whether there are differences based on: (1) year ...
Waitt Corri - - 2006
The use of photographs, slides, computerized images, and video to study behavior is increasingly being employed in nonhuman primates. However, since these mediums have been designed to simulate natural coloration for normal trichromatic human vision, they can fail to reproduce color in meaningful and accurate ways for viewers with different ...
Hall Carol A - - 2006
Six horses (Equus caballus) were trained to discriminate color from grays in a counterbalanced sequence in which lightness cues were irrelevant. Subsequently, the pretrained colors were presented in a different sequence. Two sets of novel colors paired with novel grays were also tested. Performance was just as good in these ...
Romney A Kimball - - 2006
Independent researchers have proved mathematically that, given a set of color-matching functions, there exists a unique set of three monochromatic spectral lights that optimizes luminous efficiency and color gamut. These lights are called prime colors. We present a method for transforming reflectance spectra into Munsell color space by using hypothetical ...
Stevens Martin - - 2006
Camouflage typically involves colour patterns that match the background. However, it has been argued that concealment may be achieved by strategic use of apparently conspicuous markings. Recent evidence supports the theory that the presence of contrasting patterns placed peripherally on an animal's body (disruptive coloration) provides survival advantages. However, no ...
Schaefer H Martin - - 2006
Natural selection shapes the evolution of anti-predator defences, such as camouflage. It is currently contentious whether crypsis and disruptive coloration are alternative mechanisms of camouflage or whether they are interrelated anti-predator defences. Disruptively coloured prey is characterized by highly contrasting patterns to conceal the body shape, whereas cryptic prey minimizes ...
Harle Deacon E - - 2006
To investigate the associations between interictal pattern glare, visual stress, and visual triggers of migraine. There has been relatively little research on the visual stimuli that can trigger migraine episodes. This is surprising, since if practitioners can obviate such triggers, then some attacks may be prevented. The existing literature suggests ...
Toth Z - - 2006
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for coat color in horses. Besides defining coat color classes (gray, chestnut, bay, and black), the phenotypes were also measured quantitatively according to standardized international procedures (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*, a*, b*), where L* describes lightness, a* describes color ...
Foster David H - - 2006
Estimates of the frequency of metameric surfaces, which appear the same to the eye under one illuminant but different under another, were obtained from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes. The degree of metamerism was specified with respect to a color-difference measure after allowing for full chromatic adaptation. The relative ...
Barli Onder - - 2006
The associations of sex and eyedness of consumers in a market and the market's lighting and wall color with price attraction and perceived quality of goods and the inside visual appeal were studied using an inventory after shopping by 440 men and 478 women, 20 to 60 years old (M ...
Pattanapanyasat Kovit - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The standard three-tube, three-color flow cytometric method utilizing the TriTEST reagents in conjunction with the MultiSET software commonly used in most laboratories in Thailand for CD4 enumeration is expensive and thus unavailable to most HIV-infected patients. A more affordable method, i.e., the PanLeucogating protocol using only two monoclonal antibody ...
Stevens Martin - - 2006
Many animals use concealing markings to reduce the risk of predation. These include background pattern matching (crypsis), where the coloration matches a random sample of the background and disruptive patterns, whose effectiveness has been hypothesized to lie in breaking up the body into a series of apparently unrelated objects. We ...
Müller M M - - 2006
We used an electrophysiological measure of selective stimulus processing (the steady-state visual evoked potential, SSVEP) to investigate feature-specific attention to color cues. Subjects viewed a display consisting of spatially intermingled red and blue dots that continually shifted their positions at random. The red and blue dots flickered at different frequencies ...
Huertas Rafael - - 2006
We have analyzed the way in which simulated textures made of random dots influence visual suprathreshold color tolerances. We considered 32 textures created by a systematic variation of the following variables: size, number, and color of the dots. Each texture was mapped on the five centers recommended by the International ...
Acevedo Daniel - - 2006
We present an evaluation of a parameterized set of 2D icon-based visualization methods where we quantified how perceptual interactions among visual elements affect effective data exploration. During the experiment, subjects quantified three different design factors for each method: the spatial resolution it could represent, the number of data values it ...
Woods Russell L - - 2006
Color matches made with a Nagel anomaloscope are used in the differentiation of color vision deficiencies. When these color matches are made over a wide range of retinal illuminances, the changes in the color match provide information about the regeneration kinetics and the absorption spectra of the middle- and long-wavelength ...
Takeuchi Yuichi - - 2006
Spatial resolution of insect compound eyes is much coarser than that of humans: a single pixel of the human visual system covers about 0.008 degrees whereas that of diurnal insects is typically about 1.0 degrees . Anatomically, the pixels correspond to single cone outer segments in humans and to single ...
Wang Peng - - 2006
It is widely accepted that motion and color are processed in separate brain areas of primates. Numerous studies on monkeys suggest that neural mechanisms responsible for motion processing respond faster than those for color. Recent studies on humans, however, provide contradictory evidence. Is this discrepancy due to a gap between ...
Zhang Zonghua - - 2006
We present a novel color fringe projection system to obtain absolute 3D shape and color of objects simultaneously. Optimum 3-frequency interferometry is used to produce time efficient analysis of the projected fringes by encoding three fringe sets of different pitch into the primary colors of a digital light projector and ...
Tohda Koji - - 2006
In Part 1 of this series (Anal. Sci., 2006, 22, 383), design, fabrication, and optical data acquisition of an array of tiny color changing capsules embedded in a cellulose acetate bar, called the "sliver sensor", have been described. Capsule colors are read by a CCD camera and translated into blue, ...
Parry Neil R A - - 2006
Perceived shifts in hue that occur with increasing retinal eccentricity were measured by using an asymmetric color matching paradigm for a range of chromatic stimuli. Across nine observers a consistent pattern of hue shift was found; certain hues underwent large perceived shifts in appearance with increasing eccentricity, while for others ...
Lu Ruibo - - 2006
Color gamut and static and dynamic color shifts of a multi-domain in-plane-switching liquid crystal display (IPS LCD) are calculated quantitatively using RGB (red, green, and blue) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlights. Simulation results indicate that the LED backlight exhibits a wider color gamut, better angular color ...
Wilkinson Krista M - - 2006
A pressing decision in AAC concerns the organization of aided visual symbols. One recent proposal suggested that basic principles of visual processing may be important determinants of how easily a symbol is found in an array, and that this, in turn will influence more functional outcomes like symbol identification or ...
Schäfer Axel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of illumination with colored fluorescent light on heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic regulation. Previous examinations have only focused on full-spectrum fluorescent bright light as it is used for the therapy of seasonal affective disorder and disturbances of circadian rhythms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 3 ...
White Brian J BJ Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Abteilung Allgemeine Psychologie, Otto-Behaghel-Strasse 10F, 35394, Giessen, Germany. - - 2006
The pathways controlling motor behavior are believed to exhibit little selectivity for color, but there is growing evidence suggesting that color signals can be used to guide actions. We investigated this by having observers make a saccade or a rapid pointing movement to a small, peripherally flashed (100 ms) Gaussian ...
Cuthill Innes C - - 2006
In psychological studies of visual perception, symmetry is accepted as a potent cue in visual search for cryptic objects, yet its importance for non-human animals has been assumed rather than tested. Furthermore, while the salience of bilateral symmetry has been established in laboratory-based search tasks using human subjects, its role ...
Ding Fujian - - 2006
A three-color mixing application for food safety inspection is presented. It is shown that the chromaticness of the visual signal resulting from the three-color mixing achieved through our device is directly related to the three-band ratio of light intensity at three selected wavebands. An optical visual device using three-color mixing ...
Hiraga Sota - - 2006
The swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus Linné [Lepidoptera: Papilionidae] exhibits pupal protective color polyphenism. Interactions of various environmental factors on pupal coloration were analyzed in non-diapausing individuals. Under sufficient light (200lux), most pupating larvae became green pupae when the surface of the pupation site was smooth, while they became brown when ...
Hansen Thorsten - - 2006
Assigning a basic color name to an object and rating the amount of a particular hue is a fundamental visual capability. Traditional color scaling studies have used increment flashes or isoluminant stimuli of a homogeneous color. Natural objects, however, do not contain a single color but are characterized by a ...
Mollon John - - 2006
In 1789, when neither the physical basis of hue nor the retinal basis of color perception was established, the mathematician Gaspard Monte stated firmly that our color perceptions do not depend on the absolute value of the physical variable, but are influenced by the context and in particular by our ...
Hong Sang Wook - - 2006
Is neural binding of color and form required for perception of a unified colored object? Individual cells selectively tuned to both color and orientation are proposed to moot the binding problem. This study reveals perceptual misbinding of color, thereby revealing separate neural representations of color and form followed by a ...
Moreland J D - - 2006
An earlier modeling study of the effect of changes in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) on a wide range of surface colors is re-examined. That study reported changes in local chromaticity variance and in color spacing, some of which were incompatible with tritan-like confusions in normals associated with high-simulated MPOD. ...
Pokorny Joel - - 2006
Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged ...
Lutze Margaret - - 2006
The PC pathway conveys both chromatic and achromatic information, with PC neurons being more responsive to chromatic (L-M) than to achromatic (L+M) stimuli. In considering the evolution of color vision, it has been suggested that the dynamic range of chromatic PC-pathway processing is tuned to the chromatic content of the ...
Philipona David L - - 2006
Psychophysical studies suggest that different colors have different perceptual status: red and blue for example are thought of as elementary sensations whereas yellowish green is not. The dominant account for such perceptual asymmetries attributes them to specificities of the neuronal representation of colors. Alternative accounts involve cultural or linguistic arguments. ...
Bimler David L - - 2006
The surface-mode property of "blackness" is induced by simultaneous contrast with an adjacent, more luminant surround. As numerous studies have shown, the degree of blackness induced within an achromatic test field is a function of the relative luminance of the adjacent chromatic inducing field, but not of its hue. But ...
Gomes Bruno D - - 2006
It would be informative to have an electrophysiological method to study, in an objective way, the effects of mercury exposure and other neurotoxics on human color vision performance. The purpose of the present work was to study human color discrimination by measuring chromatic difference thresholds with visual evoked potential (VEP). ...
Murray I J - - 2006
A successive, asymmetric color-matching paradigm was used to investigate the link between cone contrast and the stability of perceived colors. We measured the perceived color shifts of 10 Munsell samples, induced by test illuminant A, simulated in u'v' color space. The capacity of the visual system to resist these shifts, ...
Autrusseau Florent - - 2006
Temporally varying chromatic-inducing light was used to infer receptive-field organization. Time-varying shifts in color appearance within a test field were induced by a surrounding chromatic pattern; the shifts were then nulled by adding a time-varying stimulus to the test area so the observer perceived a steady test. This method measured ...
Pinto Paulo D - - 2006
A variety of light sources are used in museum environments where the main concern is to prevent damaging effects of the light on paintings. Yet, the visual impression of an artistic painting is strongly influenced by the intensity and spectral profile of the illumination. The aim of this work was ...
Kusunoki Makoto - - 2006
When objects are viewed in different illuminants, their color does not change or changes little in spite of significant changes in the wavelength composition of the light reflected from them. In previous studies, we have addressed the physiology underlying this color constancy by recording from cells in areas V1, V2, ...
Boyaci Huseyin - - 2006
Researchers studying surface color perception have typically used stimuli that consist of a small number of matte patches (real or simulated) embedded in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight (a "Mondrian," Land & McCann, 1971). Reliable estimation of the color of a matte surface is a difficult if ...
Long Fuhui - - 2006
The perceptual color qualities of hue, saturation, and brightness do not correspond in any simple way to the physical characteristics of retinal stimuli, a fact that poses a major obstacle for any explanation of color vision. Here we test the hypothesis that these basic color attributes are determined by the ...
Nobre Anna Christina - - 2006
Evidence regarding the ability of attention to bias neural processing at the level of single features has been gathering steadily, but most of the experiments to date used arrays with multiple objects and locations, making it difficult to rule out indirect influences from object or spatial attention. To investigate feature-specific ...
Shepherd Alex J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine visual search performance in migraine and headache-free control groups and to determine whether reports of selective color vision deficits in migraine occur preattentively. BACKGROUND: Visual search is a classic technique to measure certain components of visual attention. The technique can be manipulated to measure both preattentive (automatic) ...
Johnsen Sönke - - 2006
Recent studies have shown that certain nocturnal insect and vertebrate species have true color vision under nocturnal illumination. Thus, their vision is potentially affected by changes in the spectral quality of twilight and nocturnal illumination, due to the presence or absence of the moon, artificial light pollution and other factors. ...
Langer Steve - - 2006
Nine observers reviewed a previously assembled library of 320 chest computed radiography (CR) images. Observers participated in four sessions, reading a different 1/4 of the sample on each of four liquid crystal displays: a 2-megapixel (MP) consumer color display, a 2-MP business color display, a 2-MP medical-grade gray display, and ...
Hsieh P-J - - 2006
A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading. It is commonly believed that the color of the apparently vanished object is filled in with the color of the background because the features of the filled-in area are determined by features located outside the stabilized boundary. Crane, H. D., & Piantanida, ...
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