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Ontiveros Joe C - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate tooth color change after exposure to 25% hydrogen peroxide in-office tooth whitening system, with and without supplementary light exposure. METHODS: Twenty subjects were treated with two separate 45-min exposures of bleach, with and without light using an opposing-arch design. Visual ...
Mirhosseini Roya - - 2009
Conventional white-light sources suffer from a fundamental trade-off between color rendering index and the luminous efficacy; increasing one generally comes at the expense of the other. We demonstrate through simulation that dual-wavelength blue-emitting active regions in phosphor-converted white light sources maximize the output luminous flux while significantly increasing the color ...
Oh Jin-Woo - - 2009
We report on a tunable color filter with surface plasmon resonance (SPR), excited by a photorefractive (PR) diffraction grating. When a white light was incident at the diffraction grating formed by a PR effect, the SPR generated at a metal-dielectric material interface was absorbed, and the reflected light showed a ...
Hui K N - - 2009
A new design for a polychromatic light-emitting diode (LED) is proposed and demonstrated. LED chips of the primary colors are physically stacked on top of each other. Light emitted from each layer of the stack passes through each other, and thus is mixed naturally without additional optics. As a color-tunable ...
Kitakawa Takaaki - - 2009
We evaluated cyanopsia by means of achromatic-point settings at several time points started from the day before intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for cataract removal surgery. We intensively measured the initial drift in color appearance; we started the measurement less than 30 min after eyepatch removal, and the measurement continued for ...
Williams Carrick C - - 2009
In 2 experiments, eye movements were examined during searches in which elements were grouped into four 9-item clusters. The target (a red or blue T) was known in advance, and each cluster contained different numbers of target-color elements. Rather than color composition of a cluster invariantly guiding the order of ...
Eng Mary - - 2009
Metamerism is a phenomenon where two or more colored items with different colorant chemistries appear to the observer to be the same color. Those differences should result in different UV-visible spectra. Additionally, the literature on color science states that metameric samples will have spectra that intersect at three or more ...
Silveirinha Mário G - - 2009
A prism of glass separates white light into its spectral components in such a manner that colors associated with shorter wavelengths are more refracted than the colors associated with longer wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate that this property is not universal, and that a lossless metamaterial prism with a suitable microstructure ...
Zhang Weiwei - - 2009
This letter demonstrated the fabrication of the full color passive matrix organic light-emitting devices based on the combination of the microcavity structure, color filter and a common white polymeric OLED. In the microcavity structure, patterned ITO terraces with different thickness were used as the anode as well as cavity spacer. ...
Yoshida Koichi - - 2009
We synthesized silver methacrylate, added it to resin for dental use, and observed color changes in the resin from colorless to red-purple following light irradiation. Therefore, 0.01-0.10 wt% silver methacrylate was added to two types of resin powder, i.e., self-curing resin produced by the polymerization of a barbituric acid derivative, ...
Richards Whitman - - 2009
Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense "imaginary." In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies outside the RGB spectral boundaries. Using the classical ...
Barrick Thomas R - - 2009
We present a fast and informative technique for determining colors that differentiate white matter pathways generated by deterministic diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) based on streamline termination coordinate (TC) locations in native space. In particular, terminations coordinates are mapped to a standard stereotactic space and colors are generated using a fast ...
Willmer Pat - - 2009
Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by ...
van Lier Rob - - 2009
It is known that when a colored surface is viewed for some time and a blank screen is presented afterwards, an afterimage can be perceived in the complementary color. Color appearances in afterimages are due to adaptation of retinal cones and they are especially vivid when contours, presented after the ...
Ludwig Arne - - 2009
The transformation of wild animals into domestic ones available for human nutrition was a key prerequisite for modern human societies. However, no other domestic species has had such a substantial impact on the warfare, transportation, and communication capabilities of human societies as the horse. Here, we show that the analysis ...
Osmani Sarah Anne - - 2009
The effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins was investigated using glucuronosylated anthocyanins isolated from the flower petals of the red daisy (Bellis perennis) or obtained by enzymatic in vitro synthesis using heterologously expressed red daisy glucuronosyltransferase BpUGT94B1. Color stability toward light and heat stress was assessed by ...
Paravina Rade D - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine perceptibility and acceptability thresholds for color differences in light and dark skin-colored maxillofacial elastomers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 15 pairs of light specimens (mimicking white, Asian, and Hispanic skin) and 15 pairs of dark specimens (mimicking African-American skin) were ...
Said Alipour Bagher - - 2009
Luciferases are the enzymes that catalyze the reactions that produce light in bioluminescence. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase structure and assay conditions. Amongst different beetle luciferases, those from phrixothrix rail-road worm with a unique additional residue (Arg353) emit red bioluminescence color naturally. Insertion of ...
del Mar Pérez Maria - - 2009
PURPOSE: To determine the influence of type of polymerization light on changes in color and translucency of resin composites. METHODS: 16 shades of commercial composites were analyzed. Specimens were polymerized with quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) polymerization light. Color of non-polymerized and polymerized composites was measured against white and ...
Dain Stephen J - - 2009
PURPOSE: To determine (a) the effect of different sunglass tint colorations on traffic signal detection and recognition for color normal and color deficient observers, and (b) the adequacy of coloration requirements in current sunglass standards. METHODS: Twenty color-normals and 49 color-deficient males performed a tracking task while wearing sunglasses of ...
Huang Kuo-Chen - - 2009
A previous study indicated that color of a comparison stimulus, colored light, and illumination significantly affected the error in perceived depth with binocular and monocular vision. Here, the effects of spacing between standard and comparison stimuli, viewing distance, and five colored lights were investigated. 32 Taiwanese university students in five ...
Knösel Michael - - 2009
PURPOSES: To evaluate the concordance and repeatability of two in vivo methods for dental color assessment and to clarify the influence of different ambient light conditions and subject's head position on the assessed color variables. METHODS: Color assessments were performed by two examiners on 16 arbitrarily selected subjects under two ...
Perini Eduardo Sosti - - 2009
Among placental mammals, only primates have trichromatic color vision, however this is not a uniform condition. Under different genetic status, Old World monkeys have routine trichromacy, while New World monkeys show a visual polymorphism, characterized by obligatory male dichromacy. The ecological role of this genetic difference still remains unclear, but ...
Abramov Israel - - 2009
Color appearance can be specified by a procedure of direct hue and saturation scaling. The scaling data can be represented on a 2-D color space termed a uniform appearance diagram (UAD). The orthogonal and bipolar axes of the UAD are based on the four unique hue sensations, which are blue-yellow ...
Allen Justine J - - 2009
Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are known for their camouflage. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis use chromatophores and light reflectors for color change, and papillae to change three-dimensional physical skin texture. Papillae vary in size, shape and coloration; nine distinct sets of papillae are described here. The objective was to determine whether ...
Mazzoni Giuliana - - 2009
We administered suggestions to see a gray-scale pattern as colored and a colored pattern in shades of gray to 30 high suggestible and eight low suggestible students. The suggestions were administered twice, once following the induction of hypnosis and once without an induction. Besides rating the degree of color they ...
Leising Kenneth J KJ University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, United - - 2009
Three experiments established the effectiveness of an Automated Remote Environmental Navigation Apparatus (ARENA) developed in our lab to study behavioral processes in pigeons. The technology utilizes one or more wireless modules, each capable of presenting colored lights as visual stimuli to signal reward and of detecting subject peck responses. In ...
Caro Tim - - 2009
Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try ...
Yamanaka Akira - - 2009
Pupae of the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui exhibit pupal color polyphenism consisting of white, dark and intermediate types. We investigated environmental factors affecting pupal coloration and the physiological mechanisms underlying the control of pupal color polyphenism in this species. Over 80% of larvae reared at 16 degrees C developed ...
Seymour Kiley - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Color and motion serve as the prime examples of segregated processing in the visual brain, giving rise to the question how color-motion conjunctions are represented. This problem is also known as the "binding problem." RESULTS: Human volunteers viewed visual displays containing colored dots rotating around the center. The dots ...
Lin Zhi-Jie - - 2009
A colorimetric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was fabricated for the first time, based on a dual-color system including a strong red Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) ECL and a green reference light from a light emitting diode. Traditional ECL intensity information can be easily transformed into a color variation with this sensor, and the color ...
Borst Alexander - - 2009
Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere ...
Arnold Derek H - - 2009
When a brief static flash is presented in physical alignment with a moving target, the position of the flash can seem to lag behind that of the moving target. Various explanations exist. One of the most popular is the differential latency hypothesis. This assumes that neural latencies for moving stimuli ...
Meli Salvatore C - - 2009
To test the hypothesis that the wavelength (color) of ambient lightning should modulate experiences of a sensed presence when the right hemisphere was stimulated by weak, burst-firing magnetic fields, volunteers were exposed for 30 min to this condition or to a sham field while they sat (eyes opened) in either ...
Tamarova Z A - - 2009
Our recent results show the efficacy of pain suppression by exposure of antinociceptive acupuncture points (APs) to white polarized (P) light. But it is known that white light contains electromagnetic waves of different length (colors) and, possibly, not all of them produce a similar effect. There are no comparative data ...
Gomes Mauricio Neves - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light exposure associated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) or 15% hydrogen peroxide (BriteSmile, Discus, Culver City, CA, USA) on the microhardness and color changes of bovine enamel. Experimental groups were Britesmile + Light (BL) ...
Hansen Thorsten - - 2009
Form vision is traditionally regarded as processing primarily achromatic information. Previous investigations into the statistics of color and luminance in natural scenes have claimed that luminance and chromatic edges are not independent of each other and that any chromatic edge most likely occurs together with a luminance edge of similar ...
Bimler David L - - 2009
We studied changes in the color appearance of a chromatic stimulus as it underwent simultaneous contrast with a more luminous surround. Three normal trichromats provided color-naming descriptions for a 10 cd/m2 monochromatic field while a broadband white annulus surround ranged in luminance from 0.2 cd/m2 to 200 cd/m2. Descriptions of ...
Akbudak Bulent - - 2009
The objective of this work was to study the newly developed and existing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties for physicochemical changes in the fruits in the ripe period. Varieties 'CXD179' and 'CX8401' in fresh and canned, and 'CXD203' and 'CXD276' in paste were found superior with respect to ascorbic acid ...
Juricevic Igor I Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, - - 2009
Modern accounts of color appearance differ in whether they assume that the perceptual primaries (e.g., white and the unique hues of red, green, blue, and yellow) correspond to unique states determined by the spectral sensitivities of the observer or by the spectral statistics of the environment. We examined the interaction ...
Olkkonen Maria - - 2009
Color constancy is the ability to perceive constant surface colors under varying lighting conditions. Color constancy has traditionally been investigated with asymmetric matching, where stimuli are matched over two different contexts, or with achromatic settings, where a stimulus is made to appear gray. These methods deliver accurate information on the ...
Christiansen Jens H JH Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2009
In natural viewing, an object's background often changes over time. Temporally varying backgrounds were investigated here with a steady test field within a time-varying surrounding chromaticity. With slow surround variation (below approximately 3 Hz), the color appearance of a steady test is also perceived to fluctuate. At somewhat higher temporal ...
Johnston William M - - 2009
Measurements of the color of natural and restorative craniofacial and dental materials have many important applications to clinical practice and research. Although the specification of color at the level of the human observer involves only three dimensions or a color difference between two colors, a more technical viewpoint of color ...
Paravina Rade D - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate influence of different shade guides and respective shade matching methods on shade matching results and to analyze user satisfaction with these products and methods. METHODS: Eighty-eight pre-doctoral dental students completed the study. The color of four target shade tabs was matched ...
Kugel Gerard - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a light-enhanced in-office tooth whitening system in order to assess tooth color and safety. METHODS: Thirty-three adults were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Professional treatment involved application of a 25% H(2)O(2) gel (Discus Dental ZOOM!) with light enhancement, H(2)O(2) gel alone, or the light alone ...
Logvinenko Alexander D - - 2009
Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and ...
Slobodchikoff C N - - 2009
Some animals have the cognitive capacity to differentiate between different species of predators and generate different alarm calls in response. However, the presence of any addition information that might be encoded into alarm calls has been largely unexplored. In the present study, three similar-sized human females walked through a Gunnison's ...
Mäthger Lydia M - - 2009
Octopus, squid and cuttlefish are renowned for rapid adaptive coloration that is used for a wide range of communication and camouflage. Structural coloration plays a key role in augmenting the skin patterning that is produced largely by neurally controlled pigmented chromatophore organs. While most iridescence and white scattering is produced ...
Berndt André - - 2009
Here we describe bi-stable channelrhodopsins that convert a brief pulse of light into a stable step in membrane potential. These molecularly engineered probes nevertheless retain millisecond-scale temporal precision. Photocurrents can be precisely initiated and terminated with different colors of light, but operate at vastly longer time scales than conventional channelrhodopsins ...
Price Anna C - - 2008
Color patterns in fish are often multicomponent signals, composed of pigment-based and structural color patches that can be used to communicate within species, in both inter- and intrasexual interactions, and between species. In this review, we discuss some of the roles played by pigment-based elements of color pattern. We begin ...
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