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Results 601 - 650 of 1224
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Webster Michael A - - 2002
We used a hue-scaling task to examine changes in color perception resulting from adaptation or induction to color contrast in spatially-varying backgrounds. Observers judged the perceived color of tests after or while viewing backgrounds composed of color differences along selected axes in color space. Both contrast adaptation and contrast induction ...
Knau Holger H Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento 95817, - - 2002
The chromatic content (saturation) of monochromatic stimuli (480, 505, 577, and 650 nm) was scaled as a function of field size at three different retinal locations by 58 observers ranging from 18 to 83 yr of age. The different retinal locations (6 deg nasal, 2.5 deg inferior and 6 deg ...
Twig G - - 2002
Horizontal cells are second-order retinal neurons that play a key role in spatial information processing. In some cold-blooded vertebrates such as turtles, a subtype of these cells, the chromaticity horizontal cells exhibit color-opponent responses and therefore are considered to be important also for color information processing. To reveal spatial and ...
Mínguez-Vega G - - 2001
We describe two different scale-tunable optical correlators working under totally incoherent light. They behave as spatially incoherent wavelength-independent imaging systems with an achromatic point-spread function (PSF). In both cases it is possible to adapt the scale of the achromatic PSF, i.e., to modify the scaling factor of the PSF and ...
Shau Y W - - 2001
The vibratory movement of the vocal folds (VF) plays an important role in normal function of phonation. We developed a noninvasive technique to quantify the human mucosal wave velocity (MWV) in vivo using color Doppler imaging (CDI). During phonation, the motion of mucosa-air interface generates a unique pattern of US ...
Goda N - - 2001
We evaluated the discriminability of color distributions in square-element textures. Each texture contained 225 colors, represented by a distribution of color vectors in color space defined by the L-M and S-(L+M) axes. Each color distribution was systematically manipulated by modulating the distribution of the vector lengths sinusoidally as a function ...
Hyder D J - - 2001
Hermann von Helmholtz's distinction between "pure intuitive" and "physical" geometry must be counted as the most influential of his many contributions to the philosophy of science. In a series of papers from the 1860s and 70s, Helmholtz argued against Kant's claim that our knowledge of Euclidean geometry was an a ...
Noginov M A - - 2001
We propose and experimentally realize the recording of two-color holographic gratings in Mn:YAlO(3), a potential material for holographic data storage. This type of recording allows for nonvolatile retrieval of recorded information at the recording wavelength. We demonstrate two-color recording and readout of a 256 x 256 pixel page using red ...
Kitaoka A - - 2001
Neon color spreading is closely related to the photopic visual phantom illusion, since these two completion phenomena are characterized by in-phase lightness induction, and the only difference in the stimulus configuration is the difference in the inducer height. This idea was supported by the present study. Neon color spreading showed ...
Moore D M - - 2001
This study examined the relationship of field dependence and differentially color coded instructional materials (black-and-white and colored) with 126 female students' achievement. Significant differences were found between field-independent and field-dependent students with the field-dependent students scoring higher on the Total Criterion measure. No significant interaction betWeen color coding and field ...
Foster D H - - 2001
The perceived colors of reflecting surfaces generally remain stable despite changes in the spectrum of the illuminating light. This color constancy can be measured operationally by asking observers to distinguish illuminant changes on a scene from changes in the reflecting properties of the surfaces comprising it. It is shown here ...
Sakagami M - - 2001
To examine the neural mechanism for behavioral inhibition, we recorded single-cell activity in macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which is known to receive visual information directly from the inferotemporal cortex. In response to a moving random pattern of colored dots, monkeys had to make a go or no-go response. In the ...
Vieira G F - - 2001
The color of an object is a psychophysical phenomenon. Regarding its physical aspect, the amount of light reflected from the surface of an object is taken into consideration many times. Two brands of porcelain were used to make 10 specimens that were submitted to the following treatments: glaze, grinding, polishing ...
Li A - - 2001
We examined how variations in color and brightness are used by the visual system in distinguishing textured surfaces that differed in their first- or second-order statistics. Observers viewed a 32 x 32 array containing two types of square elements differing in chromaticity or luminance or both. The spatial distributions of ...
Gigord L D - - 2001
The orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina shows a stable and dramatic flower-color polymorphism, with both yellow- and purple-flowered individuals present in natural populations throughout the range of the species in Europe. The evolutionary significance of flower-color polymorphisms found in many rewardless orchid species has been discussed at length, but the mechanisms responsible ...
Wachtler T - - 2001
The perceived color of an object depends on the chromaticity of its immediate background. But color appearance is also influenced by remote chromaticities. To quantify these influences, the effects of remote color fields on the appearance of a fixated 2 degrees test field were measured using a forced-choice method. Changes ...
Li H C - - 2001
Under what circumstances is the common motion of a group of elements more easily perceived when the elements differ in color and/or luminance polarity from their surround? Croner and Albright (1997), using a conventional global motion paradigm, first showed that motion coherence thresholds fell when target and distractor elements were ...
Arnold D H - - 2001
It has been demonstrated that subjects do not report changes in color and direction of motion as being co-incidental when they occur synchronously. Instead, for the changes to be reported as being synchronous, changes in direction of motion must precede changes in color. To explain this observation, some researchers have ...
Pammer K - - 2001
Metacontrast and apparent motion experiments designed to utilize transient system resources were adopted to investigate the proposal that transient system activity is differentially influenced by different colored stimuli. The results generally showed no effect of color on transient system activity in either adults or children. However, the predicted pattern of ...
Stoerig P - - 2001
Somewhere in the visual system, phenomenal vision--the seeing of colors, brightness, depths, shades, and motion--is generated not only from the distribution of light on the retina, but also when the eyes are closed, in dreams, hallucinations, phosphenes, and (possibly) imagery. Whether these different forms of phenomenal vision share a common ...
Spaethe J - - 2001
In optimal foraging theory, search time is a key variable defining the value of a prey type. But the sensory-perceptual processes that constrain the search for food have rarely been considered. Here we evaluate the flight behavior of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) searching for artificial flowers of various sizes and colors. ...
Eskew R T RT - - 2001
Detection and threshold-level discrimination of Gabor patches were studied under the conditions of noise masking, in an attempt to isolate 'higher-order' or nonclassical color mechanisms. Detection contours in the equiluminant plane of cone contrast space were measured by varying test chromaticity in the presence of chromatic masking noise. Three equiluminant ...
Spence I - - 2001
Three experiments were conducted to test participants' ability to detect targets in colored spatial displays using 7-level bipolar scales. Experiment 1 assessed the ability of participants to detect high or low targets using 12 scales whose poles either were directly opposed in color space or had a primary and an ...
Hellige J B - - 2001
Observers were presented with stimuli consisting of a line and two horizontally separated dots. A categorical spatial task required observers to indicate whether the dots were above or below the line and a coordinate spatial task required observers to indicate whether the line could fit into the space between the ...
Finlayson G D - - 2001
In computational terms we can solve the color constancy problem if device red, green, and blue sensor responses, or RGB's, for surfaces seen under an unknown illuminant can be mapped to corresponding RGB's under a known reference light. In recent years almost all authors have argued that this three-dimensional problem ...
Barel A O - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It was the aim of this study to carry out a comparative evaluation in vitro on standardized color charts and in vivo on healthy subjects using the Visi-Chroma VC-100, a new imaging tristimulus colorimeter and the Minolta Chromameter CR-200 as a reference instrument. The Visi-Chroma combines tristimulus color analysis ...
Knoblauch K - - 2001
Thresholds were measured along three directions in color space for detecting an equiluminant color change of a set of bars embedded in a larger field of spatio-temporal achromatic noise for observers ranging in age from 3 months to 86 years. Pre-verbal observers were assessed with a forced-choice preferential-looking technique while ...
Baik J W - - 2001
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of the presence, absence, and aging of a heat-enhancing compound (colorant) added to bleaching gel on the temperature rise of the gel itself, as well as the temperature rise within the pulp chamber, when a tooth was exposed to a variety of light-curing units ...
Yeh M - - 2001
In a series of experiments color coding, intensity coding, and decluttering were compared in order to assess their potential benefits for accessing information from electronic map displays. Participants viewed electronic battlefield maps containing 5 classes of information discriminable by color or intensity, or, in the decluttering condition, displayed or removed ...
Mayekar S M - - 2001
Attaining the highest clinical level in esthetic and cosmetic dentistry necessitates the development of artistic skills; of balancing illusion with reality. The shade of a tooth is a combination of color and light and varies in different light conditions. Understanding the differences in color shades is the basis to creating ...
Drew P P Division of Biology, Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, - - 2001
There is significant evidence for higher-level cortical control of pupillary responses to visual stimuli, suggesting that factors other than luminance changes may induce a pupillary response. In the present study, the pupillary responses to equiluminant flickering stimuli in a range of 3-13 Hz were examined. Flicker stimuli included color-black (luminance-modulated) ...
Briscoe A D - - 2001
We review the physiological, molecular, and neural mechanisms of insect color vision. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses reveal that the basic bauplan, UV-blue-green-trichromacy, appears to date back to the Devonian ancestor of all pterygote insects. There are variations on this theme, however. These concern the number of color receptor types, their ...
Voss K J - - 2000
A new instrument to measure the in situ bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of surfaces is described. This instrument measures the BRDF for eight illumination angles from 0 to 65 deg, three colors (475, 570, and 658 nm), and at over 100 selected viewing angles. The viewing zenith angles range ...
Lotto R B - - 2000
For reasons not well understood, the color of a surface can appear quite different when placed in different chromatic surrounds. Here we explore the possibility that these color contrast effects are generated according to what the same or similar stimuli have turned out to signify in the past about the ...
Clarys P. - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Two types of skin reflectance instruments are available nowadays for the determination of skin color: a tristumulus colorimeter (Chromameter from Minolta) using the CIE L*a*b* color system and the narrow-band simple reflectance meters (DermaSpectrometer from Cortex and Mexameter from Courage-Khazaka) using the erythema/melanin indices. The purpose of this study ...
Yamauchi Y - - 2000
A series of experiments were carried out to reveal determinants for the mode of color appearance by measuring the upper-limit luminance of a color chip for the surface-color mode. We used a CRT color monitor to present test and surround stimuli in the surface-color mode. The stimuli were composed of ...
Muizzuddin Neelam - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although there is an increasing awareness of the detrimental effects of solar irradiation on skin, a tanned look is still in fashion. To achieve the tanned look without sun exposure various sunless tanning formulations have become available. Most of these contain dihydroxyacetone (DHA) which binds to the proteins of ...
Young P A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A very important aspect of visual performance to consider, for present and future recommendations regarding aircrew visors, concerns their impact on color vision. The literature has remained mostly inconclusive with respect to the human perceptual process of colors during actual mission employment. OBJECTIVE: This study uses active duty military ...
Webster M A - - 2000
We examined individual differences in the color appearance of nonspectral lights and asked how they might be related to individual differences in sensitivity to chromatic stimuli. Observers set unique hues for moderately saturated equiluminant stimuli by varying their hue angle within a plane defined by the LvsM and SvsLM cone-opponent ...
Dörr S S Institut für Zoologie III, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany. - - 2000
Color constancy was investigated in behavioral training experiments on colors ranging from blue to yellow, located in the color space close to Planck's locus representing the main changes in natural skylight. Two individual goldfish were trained to peck at a test field of medium hue out of a series of ...
Bachmann G - - 2000
PURPOSE: Noise field campimetry, performed according to Aulhorn and Köst, confronts patients with a large field of irregularly flickering dots, and many patients immediately perceive their visual field defects. The original method had a somewhat low specificity and sensitivity, especially for patients with visual field defects caused by cortical lesions. ...
Drew MS - - 2000
Photometric stereo is a well-known technique for recovering surface normals of a surface but requires three or more images of a surface taken under illumination from different directions. At best, one may dispense with the need for multiple images by using colored lights tuned to camera filters. But a less ...
García J A - - 2000
We have used a subthreshold summation protocol to analyze spatial color-color interaction. By means of a CRT color monitor, we measured the threshold contours for a spatial frequency of 0.5 cycles/degree. Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to obtain isoluminance. The results suggest that the blue-yellow (b-y) and red-green (r-g) contrast ...
Chiao C C - - 2000
Many species of stomatopod crustaceans have multiple spectral classes of photoreceptors in their retinas. Behavioral evidence also indicates that stomatopods are capable of discriminating objects by their spectral differences alone. Most animals use only two to four different types of photoreceptors in their color vision systems, typically with broad sensitivity ...
Shioiri S - - 2000
We used an apparent motion technique to examine the intensity coding along the three cardinal axes of color space: achromatic (L + M + S), L-M cone, and S cone axes. Two horizontal bars of different colors were alternated to produce a vertical displacement. The color of the background was ...
Pérez M M - - 2000
Chromatic-discrimination thresholds have been determined by use of a CRT color monitor that simulates aperture and object observation modes. The results were compared with earlier ones [Appl. Opt. 35, 176 (1996)] that were obtained under the same experimental observation conditions with different devices. The differences found between the results obtained ...
Liu W - - 2000
A fast and efficient technique for profilometric measurement with a color-coded grating is proposed. Eight colors are used to code the grating, and each color represents only one logical state. There are 64 stripes in one period of the color grating, which is large enough for normal measurement. Compared with ...
Servedio M R - - 2000
This paper demonstrates that the specifics of predator avoidance learning, information loss, and recognition errors may heavily influence the evolution of aposematism. I establish a mathematical model of the change in frequency over time of bright individuals of a distasteful prey species. Warning color spreads through green beard selection as ...
Hachisu I - - 2000
A theoretical light curve is constructed for the quiescent phase of the recurrent nova U Scorpii in order to resolve the existing distance discrepancy between the outbursts (d approximately 6 kpc) and the quiescences (d approximately 14 kpc). Our U Sco model consists of a very massive white dwarf (WD), ...
Webster M A - - 2000
The McCollough effect is an orientation-specific color aftereffect induced by adapting to colored gratings. We examined how the McCollough effect depends on the relationships between color and luminance within the inducing and test gratings and compared the aftereffects to the color changes predicted from selective adaptation to different color-luminance combinations. ...
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