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Results 451 - 500 of 1246
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Beer R Dirk - - 2005
We describe a device that can display very high intensity (up to 400,000 cd/m2), high-resolution visual stimuli. The device is inexpensive, is easily controlled by a conventional computer and video card, and can be calibrated for use in vision research or clinical applications. The display is capable of presenting highly ...
Erica Bree Rosenblum
An experimental approach was taken to evaluate the role of phenotypic plasticity in reptile coloration for three lizard species which exhibit dramatic variation in dorsal body darkness associated with different substrate environments. In southern New Mexico, blanched color morphs of Aspidoscelis inornata, Holbrookia maculata, and Sceloporus undulatus inhabit the gypsum ...
Becker Cordula - - 2006
Our understanding of human visual perception generally rests on the assumption that conscious visual states represent the interaction of spatial structures in the environment and our nervous system. This assumption is questioned by circumstances where conscious visual states can be triggered by external stimulation which is not primarily spatially defined. ...
Coch Donna - - 2005
Stimuli designed to selectively elicit motion or color processing were used in a developmental event-related potential study with adults and children aged 6, 7 and 8. A positivity at posterior site INZ (P-INZ) was greater to motion stimuli only in adults. The P1 and N1 were larger to color stimuli ...
Katsuura Tetsuo - - 2005
This article presents our recent studies on the effects of color temperature on the taste sense and the influence of color temperature on bright light exposure during night rest period. Ten male Japanese and ten male Chinese were exposed to four illumination conditions (200, 1500 lx x 3000, 7500 K). ...
Campisi T - - 2005
In this work, sediment samples collected from several Spanish harbours were tested with two toxicity procedures, designed for solid samples: the Microtox Basic Solid-Phase Test (BSPT) and a modified procedure of the previous test protocol (mBSPT). According to the BSPT procedure, after initial light readings, pure bacteria were exposed to ...
Magen Hagit - - 2005
We used the psychological refractory period paradigm, in which participants respond to two successive tasks (T1 and T2). We created in T2 spatial and color Simon effects, known to be caused by response selection processes. Previous studies in which the spatial Simon effect was manipulated in T2 showed that this ...
Devinck Frédéric F Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Suite 2400 Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. - - 2005
When a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour, the brighter color will spread into the entire enclosed area. This is known as the watercolor effect (WCE). Here we quantified the effect of color spreading using both color-matching and hue-cancellation tasks. ...
Liu Junjie - - 2005
Neurological case studies and qualitative measurements suggest that regions within human extrastriate cortex are specialized for different perceptual functions, including color. However, there are few quantitative measurements of human extrastriate color specializations. We studied the chromatic and temporal responses in several different clusters of human visual field maps using functional ...
Yokoyama Shozo - - 2005
Being the largest land mammals, elephants have very few natural enemies and are active during both day and night. Compared with those of diurnal and nocturnal animals, the eyes of elephants and other arrhythmic species, such as many ungulates and large carnivores, must function in both the bright light of ...
Gunde Marta Klanjsek - - 2005
Switchable windows are being installed into modern buildings. We report on how the variable transmittance of gasochromic and electrochromic switchable windows changes the color rendering properties of the daylight passing through these windows. We present a series of color rendering examples. Correlated color temperature and color rendering indices are insufficient ...
Lee Yi-Hui - - 2005
PURPOSE: The use of incubator covers to enhance preterm infants' rest and recovery is common in the NICU. However, the kinds of covers used vary extensively among and within nurseries. Few data exist on the effectiveness of different types of covers in reducing light levels to the infant. This study ...
Strangi Giuseppe - - 2005
Distributed feedback microstructures play a fundamental role in confining and manipulating light to obtain lasing in media with gain. Here, we present an innovative array of organic, color-tunable microlasers which are intrinsically phase locked. Dye-doped helixed liquid crystals were embedded within periodic, polymeric microchannels sculptured by light through a single-step ...
López Rosario - - 2005
Avian cone photoreceptors have an oil droplet in the outer portion of their inner segment that acts as a long-pass cut-off filter between incident light and visual pigment. Chick cone droplets are mainly red, orange, yellow, green, and colorless, and the colors are due to three carotenoid pigments with characteristic ...
Large Mary-Ellen - - 2005
Perceptual continuity is an important aspect of our experience of the visual world. In this study, we focus on an example of perceptual continuity involving the maintenance of figure-ground segregation despite the removal of binding cues that initiated the segregation. Fragmented line drawings of objects were superimposed on a background ...
Yokoyama Shozo - - 2005
Red-green color vision is strongly suspected to enhance the survival of its possessors. Despite being red-green color blind, however, many species have successfully competed in nature, which brings into question the evolutionary advantage of achieving red-green color vision. Here, we propose a new method of identifying positive selection at individual ...
Granzier Jeroen J M - - 2005
Humans can identify the colors of objects fairly consistently, despite considerable variations in the spectral composition of the illumination. It has been suggested that the correlation between luminance and color within a scene helps to disentangle the influences of illumination and reflectance, because the surfaces that reflect the light of ...
Horwitz Gregory D - - 2005
The motion of a color-defined edge is often more difficult to perceive than the motion of a luminance-defined edge. Neurons subserving motion vision may therefore be particularly sensitive to luminance contrast. One class of neurons thought to play a critical role in motion perception is V1 neurons whose spatiotemporal receptive ...
Yamauchi Yasuki - - 2005
The mode of color appearance is determined not solely by physical properties of the stimulus but also by the conditions of surrounding stimuli. Coplanar ratio hypothesis suggests that the information provided in the same plane plays an important role in the judgment of lightness. We measured the upper-limit luminances of ...
Merilaita Sami - - 2005
The initial evolution of aposematic and mimetic antipredator signals is thought to be paradoxical because such coloration is expected to increase the risk of predation before reaching a stage when predators associate it effectively with a defense. We propose, however, that constraints associated with the alternative strategy, cryptic coloration, may ...
Mandelli Marie-Juliette F - - 2005
Glass patterns are a valuable tool to study the cortical stages of form perception. We use circular Glass patterns (cGP) to study the relation between form and color vision. The detection of Glass patterns is thought to be carried out in at least two stages. In the first stage, the ...
Momose Keiko K Member IEEE, School of Human Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama, - - 2005
In order to test the human color vision objectively, we have developed the technique using the sweep parameter VEP technique (Norcia and Tyler, 1985) with an iso-luminant chromatic grating is effective to detect the defective color vision (Momose and Saito, EMBC2002). In this study, the wavelet transform using complex Morlet ...
Cheroske Alexander G - - 2005
In interactions, many tropical stomatopod species display conspicuous colored body spots that can communicate information about the sender's state (e.g., sex, aggressiveness, etc.). Species inhabiting a variety of depths experience large differences in illumination spectrum and intensity due to filtering of light by water and its constituents. Stomatopod spectral sensitivity ...
Locher Paul - - 2005
We examined the interactive contribution of the color and size of the three areas occupied by the primary colors red, yellow, and blue in adaptations of abstract compositions by Mondrian to the perceived weight of the areas and the location of the balance centers of the compositions. Thirty-six art stimuli ...
Millán María S - - 2004
A method to assess the discrimination capability of a camera to measure small color differences is proposed. The method helps to fix the working conditions of the camera and analyzes the reliability of the measurements through comparison with a reference instrument. Attention is paid to the camera's performance in the ...
Cao Dingcai - - 2005
Chromatic assimilation is the shift in color appearance of a test field toward the appearance of nearby light. Possible explanations of chromatic assimilation include wavelength independent spread light, wavelength-dependent chromatic aberration and neural summation. This study evaluated these explanations by measuring chromatic assimilation from a concentric-ring pattern into an equal-energy-white ...
Hernández-Chavarría Francisco - - 2004
The common Spanish name of the moth Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidae) is cuatro ventanas (four 'windows'), because it exhibits a transparent oval path in each wing. The scales of the colored areas and the bristles from the "window" were analyzed. We developed a simple device to measure transmittance across the "windows" ...
Moradi Farshad - - 2004
Visual input is segregated in the brain into subsystems that process different attributes such as motion and color. At the same time, visual information is perceptually segregated into objects and surfaces. Here we demonstrate that perceptual segregation of visual entities based on a transparency cue precedes and affects perceptual binding ...
Frey Frank M - - 2004
The maintenance of floral-color variation within natural populations is enigmatic because directional selection through pollinator preferences combined with random genetic drift should lead to the rapid loss of such variation. Fluctuating, balancing, and negative frequency-dependent selection mediated through pollinators have been identified as factors that may contribute to the maintenance ...
Yamashita Yukio - - 2004
We examined the threshold at which a camouflaged color texture pattern (target) embedded in a surrounding colored texture pattern (background) was discriminated by making the difference between their color distributions serve as a cue. The texture consisted of 900 colored disks. The color applied to the disk was chosen from ...
Horwitz Gregory D - - 2005
We measured the color tuning of a population of S-cone-driven V1 neurons in awake, fixating monkeys. Analysis of randomly chosen color stimuli that were effective in evoking action potentials showed that these neurons received opposite sign input from the S cones and a combination of L and M cones. Surprisingly, ...
Choi Kyongsik - - 2004
A novel full-color autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) display system has been developed using color-dispersion-compensated (CDC) synthetic phase holograms (SPHs) on a phase-type spatial light modulator. To design the CDC phase holograms, we used a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm with scaling constants and phase quantization level constraints. We obtained a high ...
Gao Jianmin - - 2004
We report the discovery of a new class of light-sensing molecules. These light sensors are composed of fluorophore oligomers assembled on a DNA backbone. A combinatorial library of tetrafluorophores consisting of over 14 000 compounds was synthesized and screened for rapid responses toward light exposure. Among the most light-sensitive molecules, ...
Zentall Thomas R - - 2005
Before accepting a configural or holistic account of visual perception, one should be sure that an analytic (elemental) account does not provide an equal or better explanation of the results. I suggest that when one forms a compound of a color and a line orientation with one element previously trained ...
Ito Tomoyoshi - - 2004
A color-reconstruction method for electroholography is proposed in which three colored reference lights, namely, red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes, simultaneously illuminate one hologram plane. Three colored light-emitting diodes are placed at the apexes of a small right-angled triangle. Inasmuch as there is a small gap between consecutive light axes, ...
van Arsdel Richard E - - 2004
Spectral-sensitivity functions for large, long-duration increments presented on a photopic white background indicate that wavelength-opponent mechanisms mediate detection in both normal and dichromatic humans. Normal humans exhibit high color-vision sensitivity as they discriminate the color of spectral flashes at detection-threshold intensities. However, dichromatic humans require stimuli up to about 0.4 ...
Obein Gaël - - 2004
Gloss is an attribute of visual appearance that originates from the geometrical distribution of the light reflected by the surface. We used the maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS) procedure (L.T. Maloney & J. N. Yang, 2003) to estimate gloss scales over an extended range. Observers' judgments were obtained for a ...
Khang Byung-Geun - - 2004
The color perceived to belong to the illumination of objects is often based on cues from the scene within which the objects are perceived, instead of being based on any view of the source itself. We present measurements of illuminant color estimation by human observers for moving, spectrally filtered spotlights. ...
Mazzoni Alberto - - 2005
This paper describes an automatic system for the analysis and classification of leech behavior. Three colored beads were attached to the dorsal side of a free moving or pinned leech, and color CCD camera images were taken of the animal. The leech was restrained to moving in a small tank ...
Chen Ai-Hua - - 2004
In the present study, the electrical activities of paired retinal ganglion cells, under full field light stimuli with a variety of chromatic configurations, were recorded from a small functioning piece of retina using multi-electrode array (MEA). Neurons that had increased firings at light-ON and -OFF transients and did not show ...
McGraw Paul V - - 2004
Precortical color vision is mediated by three independent opponent or cardinal mechanisms that linearly combine receptoral outputs to form L/M, S/(L+M), and L+M channels. However, data from a variety of psychophysical and physiological experiments indicate that chromatic processing undergoes a reorganization away from the basic opponent model. Frequently, this post-opponent ...
Kimchi Ruth - - 2004
We examined grouping under inattention using Driver, Davis, Russell, Turatto, & Freeman's (2001) method. On each trial, two successive displays were briefly presented, each comprising a central target square surrounded by elements. The task was to judge whether the two targets were the same or different. The organization of the ...
Werner John S - - 2004
The human visual system undergoes continuous anatomical, physiological and functional changes throughout the life span. There is also continuous change in the spectral distribution and intensity of light reaching the retina from infancy through senescence, primarily due to changes in the absorption of short-wave light by the lens. Despite these ...
Stuart-Fox Devi M - - 2004
Many animal species display striking color differences with respect to geographic location, sex, and body region. Traditional adaptive explanations for such complex patterns invoke an interaction between selection for conspicuous signals and natural selection for crypsis. Although there is now a substantial body of evidence supporting the role of sexual ...
Beran Michael J - - 2004
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) selected either Arabic numerals or colored squares on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. On shift trials, the locations of 2 stimuli were interchanged at some point. More errors were made when this interchange occurred for the next 2 stimuli to ...
Jacobson James M - - 2004
Rapid automatic naming tasks are clinical tools for probing brain functions that underlie normal cognition. To compare performance for various stimuli in normal subjects and assess the effect of aging, we administered six single-dimension stimuli (color, form, number, letter, animal, and object) and five dual-dimension stimuli (color-form, color-number, color-letter, color-animal, ...
Hoekstra Hopi E - - 2004
Patterns of geographic variation in phenotype or genotype may provide evidence for natural selection. Here, we compare phenotypic variation in color, allele frequencies of a pigmentation gene (the melanocortin-1 receptor, Mc1r), and patterns of neutral mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in rock pocket mice (Chaetodipus intermedius) across a habitat gradient in ...
Siddiqi Afsheen - - 2004
Poison frogs in the anuran family Dendrobatidae use bright colors on their bodies to advertise toxicity. The species Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt 1858, the strawberry poison frog, shows extreme polymorphism in color and pattern in Panama. It is known that females of D. pumilio preferentially choose mates of their own color ...
Carroll Joseph - - 2004
There is enormous variation in the X-linked L/M (long/middle wavelength sensitive) gene array underlying "normal" color vision in humans. This variability has been shown to underlie individual variation in color matching behavior. Recently, red-green color blindness has also been shown to be associated with distinctly different genotypes. This has opened ...
Baraas Rigmor C - - 2004
The ability of color-deficient observers to discriminate between illuminant changes and surface-reflectance changes in a scene was tested with natural and Munsell reflectance spectra. To avoid the confounding effects of spatial structure, stimuli were simulations of Mondrian-like colored patterns, presented on a computer-controlled color monitor. Protanopes performed less well than ...
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