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Results 501 - 550 of 1344
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Mammen Anumodh Pazhoor - - 2011
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal pacemaker that coordinates circadian rhythmicity in mammals. The studies on understanding the circadian system in diurnal rodents are limited. In this study, we have used the 3 striped South Indian Palm Squirrel (Funambulus palmarum). The locomotor activity showed a diurnal pattern of activity ...
Peng Hsien-Te - - 2011
Compare the muscle activation patterns of the quadricep-hamstring during drop jumps with increasing demands of drop heights. Observational. University biomechanics laboratory. Fifteen male and eight female college physical education students. Electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) during the landing and takeoff phase of drop jumps ...
Cury Kevin M - - 2010
It has been proposed that a single sniff generates a "snapshot" of the olfactory world. However, odor coding on this timescale is poorly understood, and it is not known whether coding is invariant to changes in respiration frequency. We investigated this by recording spike trains from the olfactory bulb in ...
Delaney Edwin - - 2010
The authors designed and built a device that can house mice or rats and allow researchers to control the light:dark cycles inside. They developed this chamber for neuroscientists who are studying the condition-dependent plasticity of the mouse visual cortex. The chamber, which (when closed) completely blocks outside light, consists of ...
Savard M - - 2011
Peripheral sensory neurons respond to stimuli containing a wide range of spatio-temporal frequencies. We investigated electroreceptor neuron coding in the gymnotiform wave-type weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Previous studies used low to mid temporal frequencies (<256 Hz) and showed that electroreceptor neuron responses to sensory stimuli could be almost exclusively ...
Klems Joseph P - - 2010
A wavelet-based algorithm was implemented to separate the high frequency portion of ambient nanoparticle measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast mobility particle ...
Gahn Forest J - - 2010
The fossil record indicates that crinoids have exhibited remarkable regenerative abilities since their origin in the Ordovician, abilities that they likely inherited from stem-group echinoderms. Regeneration in extant and fossil crinoids is recognized by abrupt differences in the size of abutting plates, aberrant branching patterns, and discontinuities in carbon isotopes. ...
Smit Izak P J - - 2010
Despite the importance of fire in shaping savannas, it remains poorly understood how the frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fire interact to influence woody vegetation structure, which is a key determinant of savanna biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive analysis of vertical and horizontal woody vegetation structure across one of the ...
Hartbauer Manfred M Institute of Zoology, Neurobiology and Behaviour Group, Karl-Franzens University, Universitätsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria. - - 2010
Katydid receivers face the problem of detecting behaviourally relevant predatory cues from echolocating bats in the same frequency domain as their own conspecific mating signals. We therefore tested the hypothesis that katydids are able to detect the presence of insectivorous bats in spike discharges at early stages of nervous processing ...
Miller D - - 2010
Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that repeat at approximately 24 hours. In humans, circadian rhythms have an average period of 24.2 hours. The 24-hour patterns of light and dark on the retina synchronize circadian rhythms to the local time on earth. Lighting characteristics affecting circadian rhythms are very different than ...
Kahya Mehmet C MC Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, - - 2010
In this study, we aimed to use both the probability-based and the frequency-based analyses methods simultaneously to examine cutaneous silent period (CSP) induced by strong electrical currents. Subjects were asked to contract their first dorsal interosseus muscles so that one motor unit monitored via intramuscular wire electrodes discharged at a ...
Engelmann J - - 2010
Weakly electric fish use electroreception for both active and passive electrolocation and for electrocommunication. While both active and passive electrolocation systems are prominent in weakly electric Mormyriform fishes, knowledge of their passive electrolocation ability is still scarce. To better estimate the contribution of passive electric sensing to the orientation toward ...
Simmons Peter J - - 2010
We investigate coding in a locust brain neuron, DNI, which transforms graded synaptic input from ocellar L-neurons into axonal spikes that travel to excite particular thoracic flight neurons. Ocellar neurons are naturally stimulated by fluctuations in light collected from a wide field of view, for example when the visual horizon ...
O'Connell Daniel C - - 2010
Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austen's (1813/1994) novel Pride and prejudice; (2) the interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by ...
Eatock Ruth Anne - - 2010
Vestibular epithelia of the inner ear detect head motions over a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies. In mammals, afferent nerve fibers from central and peripheral zones of vestibular epithelia form distinct populations with different response dynamics and spike timing. Centralzone afferents are large, fast conduits for phasic signals encoded ...
Sivyer Benjamin - - 2010
There are two types of direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) identified in the rabbit retina, which can be readily distinguished both morphologically and physiologically. The well characterized ON-OFF DSGCs respond to a broad range of image velocities whereas the less common ON DSGCs are tuned to slower image velocities. This study ...
Kim Sung Soo - - 2010
What does the hand tell the brain? Tactile stimulation of the hand evokes remarkably precise patterns of neural activity, suggesting that the timing of individual spikes may convey information. However, many aspects of the transformation of mechanical deformations of the skin into spike trains remain unknown. Here we describe an ...
Jacobs Julia - - 2011
High-frequency (HF) changes were analysed in relation to anatomical origin of spikes, shape and occurrence within the seizure onset zone (SOZ). We evaluated whether HF changes are linked to the SOZ, as established for distinct high-frequency oscillations. SEEG was filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2000 Hz. Spikes were ...
Rajan Kanaka - - 2010
Neuronal activity arises from an interaction between ongoing firing generated spontaneously by neural circuits and responses driven by external stimuli. Using mean-field analysis, we ask how a neural network that intrinsically generates chaotic patterns of activity can remain sensitive to extrinsic input. We find that inputs not only drive network ...
Turkin Vladimir V - - 2010
The discharge properties of hindlimb motoneurons in ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats were measured to assess contributions of persistent intrinsic currents to these characteristics and to determine their distribution in motoneuron pools. Most motoneurons (30/37) responded to ramp current injections with adapting patterns of discharge and the frequency-current (f-I) relations of nearly ...
Greene Nathaniel T - - 2010
Evidence suggests that the lateral superior olive (LSO) initiates an excitatory pathway specialized to process interaural level differences (ILDs), the primary cues used by mammals to localize high-frequency sounds in the horizontal plane. Type I units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of decerebrate cats exhibit monaural ...
You Kyung-Jin - - 2010
We provide a novel method to infer finger flexing motions using a four-channel surface electromyogram (EMG). Surface EMG signals can be recorded from the human body non-invasively and easily. Surface EMG signals in this study were obtained from four channel electrodes placed around the forearm. The motions consist of the ...
Wallace M N MN MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. - - 2011
Phase-locked responses to pure tones have previously been described in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of the guinea pig. They are interesting because they show that some cells may use a temporal code for representing sounds of 60-300 Hz rather than the rate or place mechanisms used over most of ...
Schmied Annie - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The influence of contraction strength on motoneurone (MN) synchrony is poorly documented. With stronger contraction, more common and/or synchronized inputs might contribute to greater MN drive and generate more synchronous firings. This effect might be counterbalanced, however, by a negative impact of MN faster firing rates on synaptic effectiveness. ...
Jackson Matthew E - - 2010
Auditory sensitivity has often been measured by identifying neural threshold in real-time (online) which can introduce bias in the audiograms that are produced. We tested this by recording auditory nerve activity of the notodontid moth Nadata gibbosa elicited by bat-like ultrasound and analysing the response offline. We compared this audiogram ...
Nasimi Ali - - 2010
The spike discharge regularity may be important in the processing of information in the auditory pathway. It has already been shown that many cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus fire regularly in response to monaural stimulation by the best frequency tones. The aim of this study was ...
Jo W K - - 2010
This study evaluated the feasibility of applying a visible-light-activated photocatalytic technique to cleanse air dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) at low concentration conditions (0.027-5.4 ppm), by using nitrogen-enhanced TiO2. In addition, the applicability of a backup adsorption unit for the secondary control of DMDS exiting from the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) unit was ...
Russell Thomas L - - 2010
We studied the circuitry that underlies the behavior of the local edge detector (LED) retinal ganglion cell in rabbit by measuring the spatial and temporal properties of excitatory and inhibitory currents under whole cell voltage clamp. Previous work showed that LED excitation is suppressed by activity in the surround. However, ...
Jackson Matthew E - - 2010
Auditory sensitivity has often been measured by identifying neural threshold in real time (online) which can introduce bias in the audiograms that are produced. This was tested by recording auditory nerve activity of the Notodontid moth Nadata gibbosa elicited by bat-like ultrasound and analyzing the response offline. The offline audiogram ...
Cattrysse Erik - - 2010
The reproducibility of the three-dimensional (3D) kinematic aspects of motion coupling patterns during manual mobilizing techniques is still a debatable matter. The present in vitro study analysed segmental 3D motion of the atlanto-axial joint during manual axial rotation mobilization. Twenty fresh frozen human cervical specimens were studied in a test-retest ...
Birznieks Ingvars - - 2010
Torsional loads are ubiquitous during everyday dextrous manipulations. We examined how information about torque is provided to the sensorimotor control system by populations of tactile afferents. Torsional loads of different magnitudes were applied in clockwise and anticlockwise directions to a standard central site on the fingertip. Three different background levels ...
Sayles Mark - - 2010
Frequency-tuning is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. The filter bandwidth of peripheral auditory neurons determines the frequency resolution of an animal's auditory system. Behavioural studies in animals and humans have defined frequency-tuning in terms of the "equivalent-rectangular bandwidth" (ERB) of peripheral filters. In contrast, most physiological studies report the ...
Gunaydin Lisa A - - 2010
Channelrhodopsins such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can drive spiking with millisecond precision in a wide variety of cells, tissues and animal species. However, several properties of this protein have limited the precision of optogenetic control. First, when ChR2 is expressed at high levels, extra spikes (for example, doublets) can occur in ...
Fernandez Fernando R FR Department of Bioengineering, Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. - - 2010
Gain modulation is an important feature of neural activity. Previous work has focused on the ability of background synaptic noise to modulate the slope (i.e., gain) of the frequency-current (f-I) relationship in neurons. To date, demonstrations of gain control that are independent of synaptic noise have been limited. We investigated ...
Spavieri Deusdedit Lineu DL - - 2010
To comprehend the principles underlying sensory information processing, it is important to understand how the nervous system deals with various sources of perturbation. Here, we analyze how the representation of motion information in the fly's nervous system changes with temperature and luminance. Although these two environmental variables have a considerable ...
Barati Saied S Electrical Engineering Department, S. Rajaee University, Tehran, Iran. - - 2010
An analog spike detector circuit is presented, which adaptively generates a threshold level for spike detection based on hard-thresholding. Operation of the circuit was tested not only with a neural signal obtained from real in-vivo recording from a live animal, but also with a large sinusoidal baseline variation intentionally added ...
Solinas Sergio - - 2010
The way the cerebellar granular layer transforms incoming mossy fiber signals into new spike patterns to be related to Purkinje cells is not yet clear. Here, a realistic computational model of the granular layer was developed and used to address four main functional hypotheses: center-surround organization, time-windowing, high-pass filtering in ...
Siqueira Jos? R JR - - 2010
The integration of nanostructured films containing biomolecules and silicon-based technologies is a promising direction for reaching miniaturized biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity. A challenge, however, is to avoid cross talk among sensing units in an array with multiple sensors located on a small area. In this letter, we ...
Gnecco Enrico - - 2010
The trajectories of differently shaped nanoparticles manipulated by atomic force microscopy are related to the scan path of the probing tip. The direction of motion of the nanoparticles is essentially fixed by the distance b between consecutive scan lines. Well-defined formulas are obtained in the case of rigid nanospheres and ...
Laudanski Jonathan J School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United - - 2010
We report evidence of mode-locking to the envelope of a periodic stimulus in chopper units of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Mode-locking is a generalized description of how responses in periodically forced nonlinear systems can be closely linked to the input envelope, while showing temporal patterns of higher order than ...
Tian Jianghong - - 2010
Animal locomotion results from muscle contraction and relaxation cycles that are generated within the central nervous system and then are relayed to the periphery by motoneurons. Thus, motoneuron function is an essential element for understanding control of animal locomotion. This paper presents motoneuron input-output relationships, including impulse adaptation, in the ...
Ito Iori - - 2009
In many species, sensory stimuli elicit the oscillatory synchronization of groups of neurons. What determines the properties of these oscillations? In the olfactory system of the moth, we found that odors elicited oscillatory synchronization through a neural mechanism like that described in locust and Drosophila. During responses to long odor ...
Brea Jorge N - - 2009
Gamma oscillations in the olfactory bulb can be produced as an interaction of subthreshold oscillations (STOs) in the mitral cells (MCs) with inhibitory granule cells (GCs). The mechanism does not require that the GCs spike, and we work in a regime in which the MCs fire at rates lower than ...
Borkowski L S - - 2009
We study the response of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron stimulated by a periodic sequence of conductance pulses arriving through the synapse in the high-frequency regime. In addition to the usual excitation threshold there is a smooth crossover from the firing to the silent regime for increasing pulse amplitude gsyn. The amplitude ...
Tao Hu - - 2009
We demonstrate reconfigurable anisotropic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies where artificial "atoms" reorient within unit cells in response to an external stimulus. This is accomplished by fabricating planar arrays of split ring resonators on bimaterial cantilevers designed to bend out of plane in response to a thermal stimulus. We observe a ...
Asi Navdeep S - - 2009
By examining the mechanical properties of the tympanum of the noctuid moth, Noctua pronuba, Windmill et al. (2006) suggested that this insect increases (up-tunes) the frequencies of its best hearing when exposed to high intensity sounds (HIS) resembling the echolocation calls of attacking bats. We tested whether this biophysical phenomenon ...
Bukowska M M Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 4064, Huddinge, 141 04, - - 2010
We used microneurography to investigate the functional properties of low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the oral mucosa of the inside of the lower lip. Impulse responses were recorded from the inferior alveolar nerve of four human subjects. The threshold force and receptive field boundaries were identified for 19 single mechanoreceptive afferents ...
Manuel Marin M Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie, Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8119, Université Paris Descartes, Paris 75006, France. - - 2009
The fast contraction time of mouse motor units creates a unique situation in which motoneurons have to fire at low frequencies to produce small forces but also at very high frequency (much higher than in cat or rat motoneurons) to reach the fusion frequency of their motor units. To understand ...
Brown Kyle S - - 2009
The controlled use of fire was a breakthrough adaptation in human evolution. It first provided heat and light and later allowed the physical properties of materials to be manipulated for the production of ceramics and metals. The analysis of tools at multiple sites shows that the source stone materials were ...
Ozer Mahmut - - 2009
Ion channel stochasticity can influence the voltage dynamics of neuronal membrane, with stronger effects for smaller patches of membrane because of the correspondingly smaller number of channels. We examine this question with respect to first spike statistics in response to a periodic input of membrane patches including stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley channels, ...
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