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Molas Maria Lia - - 2008
Aerial parts of plants curve towards the light (i.e. positive phototropism), and roots typically grow away from the light (i.e. negative phototropism). In addition, Arabidopsis roots exhibit positive phototropism relative to red light (RL), and this response is mediated by phytochromes A and B (phyA and phyB). Upon light stimulation, ...
Leivar Pablo - - 2008
We show that a previously uncharacterized Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) phytochrome interacting factor (PIF), designated PIF7, interacts specifically with the far-red light-absorbing Pfr form of phyB through a conserved domain called the active phyB binding motif. Similar to PIF3, upon light exposure, PIF7 rapidly migrates to intranuclear speckles, where ...
Nicolás Francisco E - - 2008
Mucor circinelloides responds to blue light by activating the biosynthesis of carotenoids and bending its sporangiophores towards the light source. The CrgA protein product acts as a repressor of carotene biosynthesis, as its inactivation leads to the overaccumulation of carotenoids in both the dark and the light. We show here ...
Dauzat Jean - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cotton shows a marked plasticity vs. density in terms of branch development and geometry, internode elongation and leaf expansion. This paper proposes interpretations for observed plasticity in terms of light quantity and quality. METHODS: 3-D virtual plants were reconstructed from field observations and 3-D digitization and were ...
Genoud Thierry - - 2008
The psi2 mutant of Arabidopsis displays amplification of the responses controlled by the red/far red light photoreceptors phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) but no apparent defect in blue light perception. We found that loss-of-function alleles of the protein phosphatase 7 (AtPP7) are responsible for the light hypersensitivity in ...
Zienkiewicz A - - 2008
Phototropin 1 (phot1) is a blue-light Ser/Thr receptor kinase that contains two LOV domains. It is a plasma membrane-associated protein that mediates phototropism, blue-light induced chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening. The aim of the present work was to analyze the intracellular localization of phot1 protein in Ipomoea nil seedlings. In ...
Endo Motomu - - 2008
Flowering is one of the most important steps in a plant life cycle. Plants utilize light as an informational source to determine the timing of flowering. In Arabidopsis, phytochrome A (phyA), phyB and cryptochrome2 (cry2) are major photoreceptors that regulate flowering. These photoreceptors perceive light stimuli by leaves for the ...
Goggin Danica E - - 2008
Light plays an important role in two separate processes within the seeds of Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass). Dormant seeds of L. rigidum remain dormant when imbibed in the light, but once seeds have lost dormancy through dark-stratification, light stimulates their germination. This study characterizes the light qualities and quantities which ...
Zhang Xiao-Ning - - 2008
Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. They are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes as light sensors. Long Hypocotyl in Far-Red 1 (HFR1) has been identified as a positive regulator and a possible transcription factor in both blue and far-red light signaling in plants. ...
Franklin Keara A - - 2008
The threat to plant survival presented by light limitation has driven the evolution of highly plastic adaptive strategies to either tolerate or avoid shading by neighbouring vegetation. When subject to vegetational shading, plants are exposed to a variety of informational signals, which include altered light quality and a reduction in ...
King Rod W - - 2008
Arabidopsis flowers in long day (LD) in response to signals transported from the photoinduced leaf to the shoot apex. These LD signals may include protein of the gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) while in short day (SD) with its slower flowering, signalling may involve sucrose and gibberellin. Here, it is ...
Sharrock Robert A - - 2008
Proteins of the phytochrome superfamily of red/far-red light receptors have a variety of biological roles in plants, algae, bacteria and fungi and demonstrate a diversity of spectral sensitivities and output signaling mechanisms. Over the past few years the first three-dimensional structures of phytochrome light-sensing domains from bacteria have been determined.
Bae Gabyong - - 2008
Phytochromes are red/far-red light photoreceptors that convert the information contained in external light into biological signals. The decoding process starts with the perception of red light, which occurs through photoisomerization of a chromophore located within the phytochrome, leading to structural changes that include the disruption of intramolecular interactions between the ...
Emran Farida F Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2008
The optokinetic reflex (OKR) is a basic visual reflex exhibited by most vertebrates and plays an important role in stabilizing the eye relative to the visual scene. However, the OKR requires that an animal detect moving stripes and it is possible that fish that fail to exhibit an OKR may ...
Oka Yoshito - - 2008
The phytochromes (phyA to phyE) are a major plant photoreceptor family that regulate a diversity of developmental processes in response to light. The N-terminal 651-amino acid domain of phyB (N651), which binds an open tetrapyrrole chromophore, acts to perceive and transduce regulatory light signals in the cell nucleus. The N651 ...
Rodriguez-Franco Marta - - 2008
As research advances acquisition of new data reveals novel aspects on already investigated issues. This is the case for SALT TOLERANCE (STO), an Arabidopsis protein that confers tolerance to high salt concentrations when ectopically expressed in yeast cells. For the last years, STO was considered to participate mainly in the ...
Laxmi Ashverya - - 2008
Light plays a key role in multiple plant developmental processes. It has been shown that root development is modulated by shoot-localized light signaling and requires shoot-derived transport of the plant hormone, auxin. However, the mechanism by which light regulates root development is not largely understood. In plants, the endogenous auxin, ...
Estrada Alejandro F - - 2008
The fungal proteins of the White Collar photoreceptor family, represented by WC-1 from Neurospora crassa, mediate the control by light of different biochemical and developmental processes, such as carotenogenesis or sporulation. Carotenoid biosynthesis is induced by light in the gibberellin-producing fungus Fusarium fujikuroi. In an attempt to identify the photoreceptor ...
Vermeulen Peter J - - 2008
Using a new experimental set up, the way in which height growth of stoloniferous plants is adjusted to that of their neighbours, as well as differences between genotypes in their ability to keep up with neighbour height growth were tested. Five Potentilla reptans genotypes inherently differing in petiole length were ...
Alabadí David - - 2008
In many plants, photomorphogenesis is the default developmental program after seed germination, and provides the key features that allow adaptation to light. This program is actively repressed if germination occurs in the absence of light, through a mechanism dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is encoded in Arabidopsis ...
Crepy María - - 2007
GIGANTEA (GI) is involved in the promotion of flowering by long days, in light input to the circadian clock, and in seedling de-etiolation under continuous red light or blue light but not under continuous far-red light (FR). Since red-light effects are mediated largely by phytochrome B and those of FR ...
Esquivel-Naranjo E U - - 2007
Light is an environmental factor that regulates pivotal processes in living organisms, and appropriate perception is key to adaptation to the environment. Blue light activates asexual reproduction in Trichoderma atroviride through transcription factors BLR-1 and BLR-2 which regulate light-responsive genes. Here, we show that blr-2 expression is a limiting factor ...
Warpeha Katherine M - - 2007
Different classes of biotic (e.g., plant hormones) and abiotic (e.g., different wavelengths of light) signals act through specific signal transduction mechanisms to coordinate all aspects of plant development. Full signal transduction chains have not yet been described for most light or hormonal-mediated events despite the wide range of events early ...
Kneissl Julia - - 2008
The phytochrome (phy)A and phyB photoreceptors mediate three photobiological response modes in plants; whereas phyA can mediate the very-low-fluence response (VLFR), the high-irradiance response (HIR) and, to some extent, the low fluence response (LFR), phyB and other type II phytochromes only mediate the LFR. To investigate to what level a ...
Stone Bethany B - - 2008
Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the ...
Castillon Alicia - - 2007
To adapt to the surrounding environment, plants constantly monitor and respond to changes in the red and far-red regions of the light spectrum through the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. Extensive efforts using genetic, molecular and photobiological techniques have led to the identification of a group of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors ...
Shen Hui - - 2007
Light is vital for plant growth and development. To respond to ambient light signals, plants are equipped with an array of photoreceptors, including phytochromes that sense red (R)/far-R (FR) regions and cryptochromes and phototropins that respond to the ultraviolet-A/blue (B) region of the light spectrum, respectively. Several positively and negatively ...
Mayfield John D - - 2007
14-3-3 proteins regulate a diverse set of biological responses but developmental phenotypes associated with 14-3-3 mutations have not been described in plants. Here, physiological and biochemical tests demonstrate interactions between 14-3-3s and the well-established mechanisms that govern light sensing and photoperiodic flowering control. Plants featuring homozygous disruption of 14-3-3 isoforms ...
Jonassen Else Müller - - 2008
HY5 and HYH are bZIP transcription factors well known to be involved in photomorphogenesis and light signalling. Loss-of-function mutants of HY5 and HYH revealed that these genes are essential for induction of a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1). In Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings nitrate reductase was expressed ...
McKevitt Matthew T - - 2007
Bacillus anthracis transitions from a dormant spore to a vegetative bacillus through a series of structural and biochemical changes collectively referred to as germination. The timing of germination is important during early steps in infection and may determine if B. anthracis survives or succumbs to responsive macrophages. In the current ...
Staneloni Roberto J - - 2008
In etiolated seedlings, light perceived by phytochrome promotes the expression of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein of photosystem II (Lhcb) genes. However, excess of photosynthetically active radiation can reduce Lhcb expression. Here, we investigate the convergence and divergence of phytochrome, high-light stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which could connect these ...
Cummings Ian G - - 2007
Plant growth chambers are commonly used to minimize environmental variation but the light sources used vary considerably from natural light and from each other. Incandescent globes are often used to add more far-red light, with the aim of producing a more natural red to far-red ratio (R:FR), but also add ...
Flück Martin - - 2007
Both the gradual rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic Eon as well as episodic fluctuations in oxygen over several million-year time spans during the Phanerozoic Era, have arguably exerted strong selective forces on cellular and organismic respiratory specialization and evolution. The rise in atmospheric oxygen, some 2 billion years ...
Franklin Keara A - - 2007
Light signals perceived by the phytochrome family of red (R) and far-red (FR) light-absorbing photoreceptors direct plant growth and development throughout their lifecycle. In contrast to other family members, phyA displays rapid light-induced proteolytic degradation upon conversion to the biologically active Pfr form and mediates high irradiance responses to continuous ...
Buer Charles S - - 2007
Flavonoids are synthesized in response to developmental and environmental signals and perform many functions in plants. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots grown in complete darkness do not accumulate flavonoids since the expression of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis is light dependent. Yet, flavonoids accumulate in root tips of plants with ...
López-Juez Enrique - - 2007
Leaf palisade cell development and the composition of chloroplasts respond to the fluence rate of light to maximise photosynthetic light capture while minimising photodamage. The underlying light sensory mechanisms are probably multiple and remain only partially understood. Phototropins (PHOT1 and PHOT2) are blue light receptors regulating responses which are light ...
Nakamura Yukiko - - 2007
Differential metabolomics based on a non-targeted FT-ICR/MS analysis demonstrated metabolite accumulation patterns reflecting light/dark conditions in Arabidopsis T87 cell culture. First, FT-ICR/MS data sets were converted into metabolome information using the Dr.DMASS software (http://kanaya.naist.jp/DrDMASS/). A quick search of a metabolite-species database, KNApSAcK (http://kanaya.naist.jp/KNApSAcK/), was implemented to assign metabolite candidates to ...
Sorce Carlo - - 2008
We investigated the role of auxin on stem elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown for 10d in continuous darkness or under low-irradiance blue, red, far red and white light. The third internode of treated seedlings was peeled and the tissues (epidermis and cortex+central cylinder) were separately analyzed for the ...
Finlayson Scott A - - 2007
The sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] phyB-1 mutant exhibits a constitutive shade-avoidance phenotype including excessive shoot elongation. It was previously shown that this mutant also overproduces ethylene. Although phytochrome B (phyB) is assumed to be the pigment most important in sensing and transducing shade signals, the sorghum phyB-1 mutant still ...
Retting Richard A - - 2008
Red light running is estimated to account for 900 intersection crash fatalities annually. Two principal methods used to reduce red light running involve lengthening the duration of yellow change intervals and automated red light enforcement. The present study evaluated the incremental effects on red light running of first lengthening yellow ...
Zhao Xiaoying - - 2007
Cryptochromes mediate blue light-dependent photomorphogenic responses, such as inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we analyzed a genetic suppressor, scc7-D (suppressors of cry1cry2), which suppressed the long-hypocotyl phenotype of the cry1cry2 (cryptochrome1/cryptochrome2) mutant in a light-dependent but wavelength-independent manner. scc7-D is a gain-of-expression allele of the GA2ox8 ...
Strunk Karen E KE UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 102 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2007
Heregulin-mediated activation of HER4 initiates receptor cleavage (releasing an 80-kDa HER4 intracellular domain, s80(HER4), containing nuclear localization sequences) and results in G(2)-M delay by unknown signaling mechanisms. We report herein that s80(HER4) contains a functional cyclin B-like sequence known as a D-box, which targets proteins for degradation by anaphase-promoting complex ...
Kozeko L Ye - - 2007
We have previously shown an increase in the Hsp70 and Hsp90 level in pea seedlings (cv. Damir) in response to clinorotation. In this work, Western-blot analysis of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 under clinorotation of different duration--from hours to days--was carried out with pea seedlings (cv. Intensive) with more intensive seed ...
O'Connor Richard J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To determine positive and negative beliefs about light cigarettes and potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) among college student smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: A web-based survey conducted in October-November 2004 among 424 students rating 5 advertisements for cigarette brands (Marlboro Red, Light, and Ultralight; Quest; Eclipse) on 28 items tapping ...
Kyndt John A - - 2007
Ppr from the purple phototrophic bacterium, Rhodospirillum centenum (also known as Rhodocista centenaria), is a hybrid of photoactive yellow protein (PYP), bacteriophytochrome (Bph), and histidine kinase (HK) domains. The holo-Ppr (containing both chromophores) exhibits characteristic absorption maxima at 435 nm due to the PYP domain and at 400, 642, and ...
Vuillet Laurie - - 2007
Bacteriophytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that bacteria use to mediate sensory responses to their light environment. Here, we show that the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris has two distinct types of bacteriophytochrome-related protein (RpBphP4) depending upon the strain considered. The first type binds the chromophore biliverdin and acts as a light-sensitive kinase, ...
Immeln Dominik - - 2007
Cryptochromes are sensory blue light receptors mediating various responses in plants and animals. Studies on the mechanism of plant cryptochromes have been focused on the flowering plant Arabidopsis. In the genome of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a single plant cryptochrome, Chlamydomonas photolyase homologue 1 (CPH1), has been identified. ...
Berrocal-Tito Gloria M - - 2007
The photolyases, DNA repair enzymes that use visible and long-wavelength UV light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) created by short-wavelength UV, belong to the larger photolyase-cryptochrome gene family. Cryptochromes (UVA-blue light photoreceptors) lack repair activity, and sensory and regulatory roles have been defined for them in plants and animals. ...
Masuda Jun-ichiro - - 2007
We examined photoperiodic response of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome morphogenesis (its transition to a storage organ) by using seed-derived plants. Rhizome enlargement (increase in girth) was brought about under 8, 10 and 12 h photoperiods, whereas the rhizomes elongated under 13 and 14 h photoperiods. Rhizomes elongated under 14 h ...
Jeong Dong-Hoon - - 2007
Plant growth and development are coordinately controlled by environmental signals and internal factors. Light signals, mediated by phytochromes, regulate photomorphogenesis by interacting with endogenous programmes that involve multiple phytohormones. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of growth-promoting phytohormones with a crucial role in the light-dependent development of plants. However, the interaction ...
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