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Miesenböck Gero G Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PT, UK. - - 2009
An emerging set of methods enables an experimental dialogue with biological systems composed of many interacting cell types--in particular, with neural circuits in the brain. These methods are sometimes called "optogenetic" because they use light-responsive proteins ("opto-") encoded in DNA ("-genetic"). Optogenetic devices can be introduced into tissues or whole ...
West Sheila K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Despite sensational news reports, few studies have quantified the rates of poor driving performance among older drivers and the predictors of poor performance. We determined the rate of running red traffic lights among older drivers and the relationship of failure to stop to measures of vision and cognition. METHODS: ...
Kneissl Julia - - 2009
To sense ambient light conditions in order to optimize their growth and development, plants employ a battery of photoreceptors responsive to light quality and quantity. Essential for the sensing of red and far-red (FR) light is the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. Among them, phytochrome A is special because it mediates ...
Krauss Ulrich - - 2009
Plants and fungi respond to environmental light stimuli via the action of different photoreceptor modules. One such class, responding to the blue region of light, is constituted by photoreceptors containing so-called light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains as sensor modules. Four major LOV families are currently identified in eukaryotes: (i) the plant phototropins, ...
Ozturk Nuri - - 2009
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue-light photoreceptors with known or presumed functions in light-dependent and light-independent gene regulation in plants and animals. Although the photochemistry of plant CRYs has been studied in some detail, the photochemical behavior of animal cryptochromes remains poorly defined in part because it has been difficult to purify ...
van Zanten Martijn - - 2009
Plants react quickly and profoundly to changes in their environment. A sudden increase in temperature, for example, induces differential petiole growth-driven upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that accessions that face the strongest fluctuations in diurnal temperature in their natural habitat are least sensitive for ...
Chen Chen-Hui CH Department of Genetics, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, - - 2009
Light is a key environmental signal for most life on earth. Over 5% of Neurospora crassa genes are expressed in response to light stimulation in a temporally regulated cascade that includes several transcription factors. Fungal genomes, including Neurospora's, may encode several different proteins capable of binding chromophores with the ability ...
Kang Chun-Ying - - 2009
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cryptochrome (CRY) blue light photoreceptors and the phytochrome (phy) red/far-red light photoreceptors mediate a variety of light responses. COP1, a RING motif-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, acts as a key repressor of photomorphogenesis. Production of stomata, which mediate gas and water vapor exchange between plants and their ...
Koyama Takayuki - - 2009
Phototropins (phot) are blue light receptors in plants which are involved in phototropism, stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements. Phototropin has two LOV domains (LOV1 and LOV2), and the LOV2 domain is responsible for activation of Ser/Thr kinase. There is an alpha-helix at the C-terminal side of the LOV2 domain, which ...
Lami Raphaël - - 2009
Proteorhodopsin (PR)-containing bacteria are hypothesized to use both light and organic compounds as energy sources. Recent studies have found that PR is common in marine microorganisms, but the impact of light on the growth of PR-containing organisms and PR transcription in the environment remains unclear. We examined the diversity of ...
Maguire Casey A CA Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts 02115, - - 2009
Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) is a sensitive reporter for studying different biological processes such as gene expression, promoter activity, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction, as well as tumor cell growth and response to therapy. Since Gluc is naturally secreted, the kinetics of these processes can be monitored in real-time by measuring an ...
Ulijasz Andrew T - - 2009
Phytochromes are a collection of bilin-containing photoreceptors that regulate a diverse array of processes in microorganisms and plants through photoconversion between two stable states, a red light-absorbing Pr form, and a far red light-absorbing Pfr form. Recently, a novel set of phytochrome-like chromoproteins was discovered in cyanobacteria, designated here as ...
Shen Zhuo - - 2009
To better understand light regulation of C(4) plant maize development, we investigated dynamic proteomic differences between green seedlings (control), etiolated seedlings, and etiolated seedlings illuminated for 6 or 12 h using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach based on nanoscale ultraperformance liquid chromatography-ESI-MS(E). Among more than 400 proteins identified, 73 were ...
Shimizu Hisayo - - 2009
In rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings, continuous white-light irradiation inhibited the growth of seminal roots but promoted the growth of crown roots. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of photoinhibition of seminal root growth. Photoinhibition occurred in the absence of nitrogen but increased with increasing nitrogen concentrations. In the presence ...
Elmitiny Noor - - 2010
When the driver encounters a signal change from green to yellow, he is required to make a stop or go decision based on his speed and the distance to the stop bar. Making the wrong decision will lead to a red-light running violation or an abrupt stop at the intersection. ...
Duangphakdee Orawan - - 2009
In Asia, the red dwarf honeybee, Apis florea, is notorious for its absconding habit. Interestingly, such colonies show a bimodal frequency distribution about a noonday lull throughout the year. Because slight errors in reading the relative position of the sun near its zenith results in very large orientation errors in ...
Adams Sally - - 2009
Flowering in Arabidopsis is accelerated by a reduced ratio of red light to far-red light (R/FR), which indicates the proximity of competitive vegetation. By exploiting the natural genetic variation in flowering time responses to low R/FR, we obtained further insight into the complex pathways that fine-tune the transition to flowering ...
Staneloni Roberto J - - 2009
Plant responses mediated by phytochrome A display a first phase saturated by transient light signals and a second phase requiring sustained excitation with far-red light (FR). These discrete outcomes, respectively so-called very-low-fluence response (VLFR) and high-irradiance response (HIR), are appropriate in different environmental and developmental contexts but the mechanisms that ...
Hughes Joseph L - - 2010
In Photosystem II (PSII) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus, high-light intensity growth conditions induce the preferential expression of the psbA(3) gene over the psbA(1) gene. These genes encode for the D1 protein variants labeled D1:3 and D1:1, respectively. We have compared steady state absorption and photo-induced difference spectra at <10 K of ...
Lorrain S?verine - - 2009
Phytochromes are red/far-red photosensors that regulate numerous developmental programs in plants. Among them, phytochrome A (phyA) is essential to enable seedling de-etiolation under continuous far-red (FR) light, a condition that mimics the environment under a dense canopy. The ecological relevance of this response is demonstrated by the high mortality rate ...
Avila-Pérez Marcela - - 2009
The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis can be activated by stimuli such as the addition of salt or ethanol and with blue light. In the latter response, YtvA activates sigma(B) through a cascade of Rsb proteins, organized in stressosomes. YtvA is composed of an N-terminal LOV (light, oxygen, and ...
Sellaro Romina R IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, and CONICET, Av. San Martín 4453, 1417-Buenos Aires, - - 2009
The synergism between red and blue light in the control of plant growth and development requires the coaction of the red light photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) and the blue light and UV-A receptor cryptochromes (cry). Here, we describe the mechanism of the coaction of these photoreceptors in controlling both development ...
Song Li - - 2009
Light and brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proved to be crucial in regulating plant growth and development; however, the mechanism of how they synergistically function is still largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms in photomorphogenesis, genome-wide analyses were carried out through examining the gene expressions of the dark-grown WT or ...
Sun Shi-Yong - - 2009
Plants show distinct morphologies in different light conditions through a process called photomorphogenesis. A predominant feature of photomorphogenesis is the reduced growth of seedlings under light conditions compared with darkness. For this adaptive event, the most well-known molecular mechanism involves photoreceptor-mediated inhibition of cell elongation. However, it is not known ...
Syphard Alexandra D - - 2009
  Periodic wildfire is an important natural process in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, but increasing fire recurrence threatens the fragile ecology of these regions. Because most fires are human-caused, we investigated how human population patterns affect fire frequency. Prior research in California suggests the relationship between population density and fire frequency is ...
Jacob W - - 2009
To investigate the impact of averseness, controllability and familiarity of a test situation on the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of exploratory behaviour, we tested conventional and conditional cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-deficient mice in behavioural paradigms with different emotional load, which depended on the strength of ...
Zheng Weifa - - 2009
This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown ...
Müller Rebecca - - 2009
Phytochrome A (phyA) is the primary photoreceptor for sensing extremely low amounts of light and for mediating various far-red light-induced responses in higher plants. Translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus is an essential step in phyA signal transduction. EID1 (for EMPFINDLICHER IM DUNKELROTEN LICHT1) is an F-box protein that ...
Sanz Catalina - - 2009
The fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus reacts to environmental signals, including light, gravity, touch, and the presence of nearby objects, by changing the speed and direction of growth of its fruiting body (sporangiophore). Phototropism, growth toward light, shares many features in fungi and plants but the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully ...
Lund Adrian K - - 2009
In Red Light for Red-Light Cameras?, Alena Erke concludes that "... on the whole, redlight cameras do not seem to be a successful safety measure." Although Erke's survey of the literature appears to have been comprehensive, her review of the studies was not critical. She appears to have accepted the ...
Osanai Takashi - - 2009
Although regulation of sigma factors has been intensively investigated, anti-sigma factors have not been identified in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. A previous study suggested that the sigma factor, SigE, of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a positive regulator of sugar catabolism, is posttranslationally activated by light-to-dark transition. In the present ...
Ishikawa Ryo - - 2009
A short exposure to light during relative night (night break; NB) delays flowering in the short day plant rice. NB acts by downregulating Heading date 3a (Hd3a) expression. Because phytochrome B mutants do not respond to NB and their flowering time is not affected even under NB conditions, phyB is ...
Lohr Nicole L - - 2009
Nitric oxide is an important messenger in numerous biological processes, such as angiogenesis, hypoxic vasodilation, and cardioprotection. Although nitric oxide synthases (NOS) produce the bulk of NO, there is increasing interest in NOS independent generation of NO in vivo, particularly during hypoxia or anoxia, where low oxygen tensions limit NOS ...
Bedwell Jeffrey S - - 2009
Past research with unaffected relatives of individuals with schizophrenia has suggested a new qualitative endophenotype for schizophrenia that involves a unique change in visual processing response to red light. The current study provides the first report of this "red light effect" in individuals with schizophrenia (N=15), compared with nonpsychiatric controls ...
Coll Núria S - - 2009
The flu mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana overaccumulates in the dark the immediate precursor of chlorophyllide, protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), a potent photosensitizer, that upon illumination generates singlet oxygen ((1)O2). Once (1)O2 has been released in plastids of the flu mutant, mature plants stop growing, while seedlings die. Several suppressor mutations, dubbed singlet ...
Chen Chen-Hui CH Department of Genetics, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755-3844, - - 2009
White collar-1 (WC-1) and white collar-2 (WC-2) are essential for light-mediated responses in Neurospora crassa, but the molecular mechanisms underlying gene induction and the roles of other real and putative photoreceptors remain poorly characterized. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of genome-wide microarrays reveals 5.6% of detectable transcripts, including several novel mediators, that ...
Castillon Alicia - - 2009
Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) are nuclear basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that negatively regulate photomorphogenesis both in the dark and in the light in Arabidopsis. The phytochrome (phy) family of photoreceptors induces the rapid phosphorylation and degradation of PIFs in response to both red and far-red light conditions to promote ...
Clack Ted - - 2009
Phytochromes are dimeric chromoproteins that regulate plant responses to red (R) and far-red (FR) light. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes five phytochrome apoproteins: type I phyA mediates responses to FR, and type II phyB-phyE mediate shade avoidance and classical R/FR-reversible responses. In this study, we describe the complete in vivo ...
Pierik Ronald - - 2009
Plants modify growth in response to the proximity of neighbors. Among these growth adjustments are shade avoidance responses, such as enhanced elongation of stems and petioles, that help plants to reach the light and outgrow their competitors. Neighbor detection occurs through photoreceptor-mediated detection of light spectral changes (i.e. reduced red:far-red ...
Shen Yunping - - 2009
Phytochrome A (phyA) is the primary photoreceptor for mediating the far-red high irradiance response in Arabidopsis thaliana. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) and its homolog FHY1-LIKE (FHL) define two positive regulators in the phyA signaling pathway. These two proteins have been reported to be essential for light-regulated phyA nuclear accumulation through ...
Riemann Michael - - 2009
The plant photoreceptor phytochrome is organised in a small gene family with phytochrome A (phyA) being unique, because it is specifically degraded upon activation by light. This so called photodestruction is thought to be important for dynamic aspects of sensing such as measuring day length or shading by competitors. Signal-triggered ...
Casson Stuart A - - 2009
Stomata are pores on the surfaces of leaves that regulate gas exchange between the plant interior and the atmosphere [1]. Plants adapt to changing environmental conditions in the short term by adjusting the aperture of the stomatal pores, whereas longer-term changes are accomplished by altering the proportion of stomata that ...
Srivilai Prayook - - 2009
Monokaryotic mycelia of several wild-type strains of the homobasidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea form abundant numbers of oidia both in the light and dark due to the regulation of oidia production by the A and B mating type genes. Nevertheless, little is known about whether and how the mating type loci and ...
Ruckle Michael E - - 2009
When plastids experience dysfunction they emit signals that help coordinate nuclear gene expression with their functional state. One of these signals can remodel a light-signaling network that regulates the expression of nuclear genes that encode particular antenna proteins of photosystem II. These findings led us to test whether plastid signals ...
Silvi Serena - - 2009
Molecular logic gates process physical or chemical "inputs" to generate "outputs" based on a set of logical operators. We report the design and operation of a chemical ensemble in solution that behaves as integrated AND, OR, and XNOR gates with optical input and output signals. The ensemble is composed of ...
Montgomery Beronda L - - 2009
Photoreceptors exhibit complex regulation of many aspects of growth and development, including developmental-, spatial- and temporal-specific photoregulatory responses. Such diverse regulation has been noted for all major classes of photoreceptors in plants, including red/far-red (R/FR) absorbing phytochromes and blue/UV-A (B/UV-A) light-absorbing cryptochromes and phototropins. However, the most insight into spatiotemporal ...
Sorokina Oxana - - 2009
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Advances in synthetic biology will require spatio-temporal regulation of biological processes in heterologous host cells. We develop a light-switchable, two-hybrid interaction in yeast, based upon the Arabidopsis proteins PHYTOCHROME A and FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1-LIKE. Light input to this regulatory module allows dynamic control of a light-emitting LUCIFERASE ...
Seibel Christian - - 2009
The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction ...
Wei Ming-Tzo - - 2009
Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the phenomenon of directed motion of electrically polarizable particles in a nonuniform electric field, is promising for applications in biochemical separation and filtration. For colloidal particles in suspension, the relaxation of the ionic species in the shear layer gives rise to a frequency-dependent, bidirectional DEP force in the ...
Bergougnoux Véronique - - 2009
The spontaneous mutant 7B-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum=Lycopersicon esculentum) is a photoperiod-dependent male-sterile mutant previously reported as resistant to various abiotic stresses specifically under blue light. Since this finding improved the potential of 7B-1's use in breeding programmes, its susceptibility to stress induced by coronatine (COR), the phytotoxine produced by ...
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