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Results 201 - 250 of 1324
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Lee Myung Gwon - - 2010
We report a contraction-expansion array (CEA) microchannel that allows inertial size separation by a force balance between inertial lift and Dean drag forces in fluid regimes in which inertial fluid effects become significant. An abrupt change of the cross-sectional area of the channel curves fluid streams and produces a similar ...
Bhalerao Anish S AS Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA. - - 2011
Earlier work on particles in aqueous solution indicated that particle hydration could be expanded by incident light. To assess the effects of expanded hydration we measured Brownian displacements of microspheres exposed to light of varying intensities and wavelengths. Displacements were consistently diminished in an intensity-dependent and wavelength-dependent fashion, and center-to-center ...
Bhalerao Anish S - - 2010
Earlier work on particles in aqueous solution indicated that particle hydration could be expanded by incident light. To assess the effects of expanded hydration we measured Brownian displacements of microspheres exposed to light of varying intensities and wavelengths. Displacements were consistently diminished in an intensity-dependent and wavelength-dependent fashion, and center-to-center ...
Aebischer J - - 2011
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motoneurons in the brain and spinal cord. Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause a familial form of ALS. Mutant SOD1-damaged glial cells contribute to ALS pathogenesis by releasing neurotoxic factors, but the mechanistic basis of the motoneuron-specific ...
Kulrattanarak T - - 2011
Nowadays microfluidic devices are becoming popular for cell/DNA sorting and fractionation. One class of these devices, namely deterministic ratchets, seems most promising for continuous fractionation applications of suspensions (Kulrattanarak et al., 2008 [1]). Next to the two main types of particle behavior, zigzag and displacement motion as noted by the ...
Kliphuis Anna M J - - 2011
Respiration and photosynthesis are two important processes in microalgal growth that occur simultaneously in the light. To know the rates of both processes, at least one of them has to be measured. To be able to measure the rate of light respiration of Chlorella sorokiniana, the measurement of oxygen uptake ...
Skylar Anna - - 2010
The cytokinins regulate a broad range of plant developmental events. We recently reported that the homeodomain transcription factor STIMPY (STIP) positively mediates the cytokinin signals in maintaining proliferative and pluoripotent properties of the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis. In line with our proposed model, light-grown stip seedlings are less sensitive ...
Qin YuZhi - - 2010
In this study, we show that CIPK14, a stress responsive CBL-interacting protein kinase gene, is involved in phytochrome A-mediated far-red light inhibition of greening in Arabidopsis seedlings. The CIPK14-impairment mutant cipk14 grown in continuous far-red (FR) light did not show greening when exposed to white light illumination for 15 h. ...
Tabor Jeffrey J JJ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2011
Light is a powerful tool for manipulating living cells because it can be applied with high resolution across space and over time. We previously constructed a red light-sensitive Escherichia coli transcription system based on a chimera between the red/far-red switchable cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 and the E. coli EnvZ/OmpR two-component signaling ...
Ryu Min-Hyung - - 2010
Cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are ubiquitous second messengers that regulate metabolic and behavioral responses in diverse organisms. We describe purification, engineering, and characterization of photoactivated nucleotidyl cyclases that can be used to manipulate cAMP and cGMP levels in vivo. We identified the blaC gene encoding a putative photoactivated adenylyl ...
Johnson Marilyn - - 2011
This study determined the rate and associated factors of red light infringement among urban commuter cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a covert video camera to record cyclists at 10 sites across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia from October 2008 to April 2009. In total, 4225 cyclists faced a red ...
van Zanten Martijn - - 2010
Development and acclimation processes to the environment are associated with large-scale changes in chromatin compaction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we studied the effects of light signals on chromatin organization. A decrease in light intensity induces a large-scale reduction in chromatin compaction. This low light response is reversible and shows ...
Jiang Han-Wei - - 2010
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been well documented to be involved in diverse aspects of biotic and abiotic stresses, especially detoxification processes. Whether they regulate plant development remains unclear. Here, we report on our isolation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of a plant GST, AtGSTU17, from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and demonstrate ...
Exner Vivien - - 2010
Plants use different classes of photoreceptors to collect information about their light environment. Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors that control deetiolation, entrain the circadian clock, and are involved in flowering time control. Here, we describe the cry1-L407F allele of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which encodes a hypersensitive cryptochrome1 (cry1) protein. Plants ...
Magerøy Melissa Hamner - - 2010
Stem growth kinetics were measured in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Arabidopsis thaliana using highly-sensitive monitoring with 5-minute resolution, in darkness and in response to a short, single pulse of UV-C illumination. The results show that UV-C, like blue light, induces a rapid decrease in seedling growth rate. The fluence-response kinetics ...
Shichijo Chizuko - - 2010
Progression of the apical hook of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, exaggerated by phytochrome mediation at the early germination stage is followed in detail macroscopically and anatomically, and its proposed significance, i.e. survival by securing the seed coat release in the field, is reinforced by new findings. Furthermore, after self-release or artificial ...
Heijde Marc - - 2010
Cryptochromes (Crys) are blue light receptors believed to have evolved from the DNA photolyase protein family, implying that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. In this paper, we report the identification of five genes of the Cry/photolyase family (CPF) in two green algae of the Ostreococcus ...
Jeong Seok-Won - - 2010
Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated negatively by ethylene signaling and positively by sugar and light signaling. However, the antagonistic interactions underlying these signalings remain to be elucidated fully. We show that ethylene inhibits anthocyanin accumulation induced by sucrose (Suc) and light by suppressing the expression of transcription factors that positively regulate ...
Gangappa Sreeramaiah N - - 2010
MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that cross talks with light, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we have shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MYC2 directly binds to the G-box present in the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A1 (SPA1) promoter and that it controls the expression ...
Sun Xiao-Dong - - 2011
Ambient light has profound effects on early seedling de-etiolation through red and far-red light-absorbing phytochromes and blue and UV-A light-absorbing cryptochromes. Subsequent integration of various light signal transduction pathways leads to changes in gene expression and morphogenic responses. Here, we report the isolation of a new Arabidopsis light-signaling component, HYPOSENSITIVE ...
Sze N N - - 2011
Red light violations are a major cause of traffic crashes at signalized intersections. In Hong Kong, prosecutions for red light violations have increased in the past decade. An automated enforcement camera system has been established to combat this prohibited driver behavior. In addition, both demerit points and financial penalties were ...
Radhika Venkatesan - - 2010
To maximize fitness, plants need to perceive changes in their light environment and adjust their physiological responses accordingly. Whether and how such changes also affect the regulation of their defense responses against herbivores remains largely unclear. We addressed this issue by studying the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) in lima ...
Atoui A A Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, Lincoln Hwy. 1425 W., DeKalb, IL 60115, - - 2010
Light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. In fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. Light can also affect fungal metabolism, including ...
Bezy Ryan P - - 2010
Complementary chromatic acclimation (CCA) allows many cyanobacteria to change the composition of their light-harvesting antennae for maximal absorption of different wavelengths of light. In the freshwater species Fremyella diplosiphon, this process is controlled by the ratio of red to green light and allows the differential regulation of two subsets of ...
Zhang Da-Wei - - 2010
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX), the unique respiratory terminal oxidase in plants, catalyzes the energy wasteful cyanide (CN)-resistant respiration and plays a role in optimizing photosynthesis. Although it has been demonstrated that leaf AOX is upregulated after illumination, the in vivo mechanism of AOX upregulation by light and its physiological significance ...
Gupta Varsha - - 2010
Perception of red light (400 μmol photon m²/s) by the shoot bottom turned off the greening process in wheat. To understand the signaling cascade leading to this photomorphogenic response, certain signaling components were probed in seedlings grown in different light regimes. Upon analysis the gene expression of heterotrimeric Gα and Gβ ...
Toledo-Ortiz Gabriela - - 2010
Phytochrome regulates various physiological and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Among the members of the phytochrome family, phytochrome A (phyA) exclusively mediates the far-red light high irradiance response (FR-HIR), which is elicited by continuous far-red light. In FR-HIR, nuclear accumulation of phyA, which precedes physiological responses, is ...
Chen Chen-Hui CH Department of Genetics, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, - - 2010
Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor ...
Lau On Sun OS Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8104, - - 2010
Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light ...
Adams Eri - - 2010
Plant response to stress is orchestrated by hormone signalling pathways including those activated by jasmonates (JAs) and by ethylene, both of which stunt root growth. COI1 is a JA receptor and is required for the known responses to this hormone. It was observed that the coi1 mutant, which is largely ...
Olmedo María - - 2010
The activation of gene transcription by light is transient since light-dependent mRNA accumulation ceases after long exposures to light. This phenomenon, photoadaptation, has been observed in plants and fungi, and allows the perception of changes in light intensities. In the fungus Neurosporacrassa photoadaptation involves the transient binding of the photoresponsive ...
Sasidharan Rashmi - - 2010
Some plants can avoid shaded conditions via rapid shoot elongation, thus growing into better lit areas in a canopy. Cell wall-modifying mechanisms promoting this elongation response, therefore, are important regulatory points during shade avoidance. Two major cell wall-modifying protein families are expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). The role of these ...
Chao DaiYin - - 2010
The perception of ambient light signals that produce a relevant response to ensure exposure to appropriate levels of light energy is vital for plants. In response to this, intricate molecular mechanisms to mediate light signaling have evolved in plants. Among the responses induced by light, seedling extension is a determining ...
Rottwinkel Gregor - - 2010
Phytochromes are biliprotein photoreceptors that are found in plants, bacteria, and fungi. Prototypical phytochromes have a Pr ground state that absorbs in the red spectral range and is converted by light into the Pfr form, which absorbs longer-wavelength, far-red light. Recently, some bacterial phytochromes have been described that undergo dark ...
Dubois Patrice G - - 2010
Developmental responses associated with end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR) signaling were investigated in maize (Zea mays subspecies mays) seedlings. A survey of genetically diverse inbreds of temperate and tropical/semitropical origins, together with teosinte (Zea mays subspecies parviglumis) and a modern hybrid, revealed distinct elongation responses. A mesocotyl elongation response to the ...
Jeong Rae-Dong - - 2010
Light harvested by plants is essential for the survival of most life forms. This light perception ability requires the activities of proteins termed photoreceptors. We report a function for photoreceptors in mediating resistance (R) protein-derived plant defense. The blue-light photoreceptors, cryptochrome (CRY) 2 and phototropin (PHOT) 2, are required for ...
Yuan Ming - - 2010
NYB (Nanchong Yellow Barley) is a Chl-less barley mutant, which is controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. It is the only protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR)-less barley mutant known in the world. The putative mechanism of the mutation and its Chl synthesis and plastid development are studied here. Neither PORC nor an ...
Chen Meng M Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. chen.meng@duke.edu - - 2010
Light plays a profound role in plant development, yet how photoreceptor excitation directs phenotypic plasticity remains elusive. One of the earliest effects of light is the regulated translocation of the red/far-red photoreceptors, phytochromes, from the cytoplasm to subnuclear foci called phytochrome nuclear bodies. The function of these nuclear bodies is ...
Palágyi Andrea - - 2010
At the core of the circadian network in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), clock genes/proteins form multiple transcriptional/translational negative feedback loops and generate a basic approximately 24-h oscillation, which provides daily regulation for a wide range of processes. This temporal organization enhances the fitness of plants only if it corresponds to the ...
Zhong Shangwei - - 2010
The most remarkable change of de-etiolation in seedling is chlorophyll synthesis and greening. This transition is achieved by photoreduction of dark-accumulated protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in light. However, overaccumulation of Pchlide results in phototoxicity to plants, so appropriate accumulation and quick reduction of Pchlide are crucial for survival of seedlings during the ...
Keuskamp Diederik H - - 2010
Plants growing in dense vegetations compete with their neighbors for resources such as water, nutrients and light. The competition for light has been particularly well studied, both for its fitness consequences as well as the adaptive behaviors that plants display to win the battle for light interception. Aboveground, plants detect ...
Li Hua - - 2010
Phytochromes are a collection of dimeric photoreceptors that direct a diverse array of responses in plants and microorganisms through photoconversion between a red light-absorbing ground state Pr, and a far-red light-absorbing photoactivated state Pfr. Photoconversion from Pr to Pfr is initiated by a light-driven rotation within the covalently attached bilin, ...
Stamm Petra - - 2010
In contrast to animals, plants maintain highly plastic growth and development throughout their life, which enables them to adapt to environmental fluctuations. Phytohormones coordinately regulate these adaptations by integrating environmental inputs into a complex signalling network. In this review, the focus is on the rapid elongation that occurs in response ...
Bayram Ozgür - - 2010
Aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. Growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. The ...
Idnurm Alexander - - 2010
Light is a universal signal perceived by organisms, including fungi, in which light regulates common and unique biological processes depending on the species. Previous research has established that conserved proteins, originally called White collar 1 and 2 from the ascomycete Neurospora crassa, regulate UV/blue light sensing. Homologous proteins function in ...
Debrieux Dimitry - - 2010
Higher plants possess multiple members of the phytochrome family of red, far-red light sensors to modulate plant growth and development according to competition from neighbors. The phytochrome family is composed of the light-labile phyA and several light-stable members (phyB-phyE in Arabidopsis). phyA accumulates to high levels in etiolated seedlings and ...
Schmoll Monika - - 2010
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the elucidation of photoresponses and the mechanisms responsible for their induction in species of the genus Trichoderma. Although an influence of light on these fungi had already been reported five decades ago, their response is not limited to photoconidiation. While early ...
Idnurm Alexander - - 2010
Virtually all organisms exposed to light are capable of sensing this environmental signal. In recent years the photoreceptors that mediate the ability of fungi to "see" have been identified in diverse species, and increasingly characterized. The small sizes of fungal genomes and ease in genetic and molecular biology manipulations make ...
Zeddies David G - - 2010
The aim of this study was to use plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) as a general model to explore how fishes localize an underwater sound source in the relatively simple geometry of a monopole sound field. The robust phonotaxic responses displayed by gravid females toward a monopole sound projector (J-9) ...
Narukawa Megumi - - 2010
Previously, we reported that chlorogenic acid (CGA) facilitated root hair formation at pH 4.0 in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids). Light was essential for this process. In the present study, we determined relationships between CGA, light, and sugar during root hair formation in lettuce seedlings. The amount of ...
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