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Lin John Y - - 2012
Classically, temporally precise excitation of membrane potential in neurons within intact tissue can be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect electrical stimulation induced by changing magnetic fields. Both of these approaches have a predetermined selectivity based on the biophysical properties of the nervous tissue and membrane in the region ...
Szkudlarek Hanna J - - 2012
The olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN) is a small midbrain structure responsible for pupil constriction in response to eye illumination. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that OPN neurons code light intensity levels and therefore are called luminance detectors. Recently, we described an additional population of OPN neurons, characterized by a slow ...
Pfeiffer Michael M Institute for Theoretical Computer Science, TU Graz, Graz, Austria. - - 2012
The task of an organism to extract information about the external environment from sensory signals is based entirely on the analysis of ongoing afferent spike activity provided by the sense organs. We investigate the processing of auditory stimuli by an acoustic interneuron of insects. In contrast to most previous work ...
Salari Neda - - 2012
The state of a neural assembly preceding an incoming stimulus is assumed to modulate the processing of subsequently presented stimuli. The nature of this state can differ with respect to the frequency of ongoing oscillatory activity. Oscillatory brain activity of specific frequency range such as alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma ...
Sammons Joshua J Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, - - 2012
Rhodopsin is the dim-light photoreceptor responsible for initiation of the visual transduction cascade. In the dark its activity is very low, while light activation catalyzes the activation of its G-protein transducin. The first step in resetting rhodopsin and the phototransduction cascade involves the phosphorylation of light-active rhodopsin by rhodopsin kinase. ...
Shortall Adrian C AC The Dental School, University of Birmingham, St Chad's Queensway, Birmingham B4 6NN, - - 2012
The first part of this series of two described the history of light curing in dentistry and developments in LED lights since their introduction over 20 years ago. Current second- and third-generation LED light units have progressively replaced their halogen lamp predecessors because of their inherent advantages. The background to ...
Zha Dingjun D Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of - - 2012
Mammalian hearing is refined by amplification of the sound-evoked vibration of the cochlear partition. This amplification is at least partly due to forces produced by protein motors residing in the cylindrical body of the outer hair cell. To transmit power to the cochlear partition, it is required that the outer ...
McCarley Robin L RL Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-1804, USA. - - 2012
Stimuli-responsive systems for the transport and delivery of materials to a given location at a specific time are highly valuable in numerous applications. The characteristics of the delivery system are dictated by the requirements of a particular application, which include the nature of the stimulus for actuation of the delivery ...
Brown James M - - 2012
The roles of the parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) retino-geniculo-cortical pathways during shifts of visual attention were investigated by creating M/dorsal-biased (eg low spatial frequency target, no objects present) and P/ventral-biased (ie high spatial frequency target, the perception of 3-D objects) stimulus conditions and measuring location-based inhibition-of-return (IOR). P/ventral-biased conditions ...
Guérin Eva - - 2012
There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this ...
Strimbu Clark Elliott - - 2012
Active hair bundle motility has been proposed to underlie the amplification mechanism in the auditory endorgans of non-mammals and in the vestibular systems of all vertebrates, and to constitute a crucial component of cochlear amplification in mammals. We used semi-intact in vitro preparations of the bullfrog sacculus to study the ...
Schreiber Joseph - - 2012
: This study investigated the effect of knowledge translation procedures as part of a continuing education conference for pediatric physical therapists on knowledge and frequency of use of tests and measures. : All attendees (28) were invited to complete a baseline self-report survey on knowledge and frequency of use of ...
Williams Anthony J - - 2012
Auditory neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the pallid bat have highly rate selective responses to downward frequency modulated (FM) sweeps attributable to the spectrotemporal pattern of their echolocation call (a brief FM pulse). Several mechanisms are known to shape FM rate selectivity within the pallid bat IC. Here ...
Lugo J E - - 2012
The fulcrum principle establishes that a subthreshold excitatory signal (entering in one sense) that is synchronous with a facilitation signal (entering in a different sense) can be increased (up to a resonant-like level) and then decreased by the energy and frequency content of the facilitating signal. As a result, the ...
de Haan Roel - - 2012
Sensory systems adapt to prolonged stimulation by decreasing their response to continuous stimuli. Whereas visual motion adaptation has traditionally been studied in immobilized animals, recent work indicates that the animal's behavioral state influences the response properties of higher-order motion vision-sensitive neurons. During insect flight octopamine is released, and pharmacological octopaminergic ...
Bernmark Eva - - 2012
For ergonomic purposes it is useful to quantify the energy expenditure and the level of physical activity imposed on workers. Oxygen consumption (VO2) is often used to calculate energy expenditure and can be used as an indication of physical activity. Twenty-five subjects participated in the study. Oxygen consumption (VO2) in ...
Pitzalis Sabrina - - 2012
Neuroimaging studies have identified several motion-sensitive visual areas in the human brain, but the time course of their activation cannot be measured with these techniques. In the present study, we combined electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods (including retinotopic brain mapping) to determine the spatio-temporal profile of motion-onset visual evoked potentials for ...
Martiniuc Aurel Vasile - - 2012
The information regarding visual stimulus is encoded in spike trains at the output of retina by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Among these, the directional selective cells (DSRGC) are signaling the direction of stimulus motion. DSRGCs' spike trains show accentuated periods of short interspike intervals (ISIs) framed by periods of isolated ...
Sritharan Duluxan - - 2012
Theta-frequency (4-12 Hz) rhythms in the hippocampus play important roles in learning and memory. CA1 interneurons located at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum junction (LM/RAD) are thought to contribute to hippocampal theta population activities by rhythmically pacing pyramidal cells with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. This implies that LM/RAD cells need to fire ...
Tucker Chandra L - - 2012
Tools for optical control of proteins offer an unprecedented level of spatiotemporal control over biological processes, adding a new layer of experimental opportunity. While use of light-activated cation channels and anion pumps has already revolutionized neurobiology, an emerging class of more general optogenetic tools may have similar transformative effects. These ...
Arroyo C - - 2011
Aims;  The objective was to study the response of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 cells to heat, pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound under pressure (Manosonication, MS) and ultraviolet light (UV-C) treatments after exposure to different sublethal stresses that may be encountered in food-processing environments. Methods and Results:  C. sakazakii stationary growth-phase ...
Chow Ari M - - 2011
The heat shock protein Hsp60 exhibited marked oscillation during a 12-hour day period when the coral Turbinaria reniformis was maintained in the laboratory under constant conditions of light (200μE) and temperature (27°C). A biphasic pattern of Hsp60 was apparent, punctuated by a low protein level at the midpoint of the ...
Carey Cayelan C - - 2011
Climate change scenarios predict that rivers, lakes, and reservoirs will experience increased temperatures, more intense and longer periods of thermal stratification, modified hydrology, and altered nutrient loading. These environmental drivers will have substantial effects on freshwater phytoplankton species composition and biomass, potentially favouring cyanobacteria over other phytoplankton. In this Review, ...
Reardon Erin E - - 2011
Gymnotiform weakly electric fishes generate electric organ discharges (EODs) and sense perturbations of the resulting electric field for purposes of orientation, prey detection and communication. Some species produce oscillatory ('wave-type') EODs at very high frequencies (up to 2 kHz) that have been proposed to be energetically expensive. If high-frequency EODs ...
Voss Logan J - - 2011
The acute in vitro brain slice model is a widely used neurophysiological research tool. When applying this method, most researchers continuously perfuse slices with carbogenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to maintain pH balance and tissue oxygen delivery. Common wisdom suggests that static recordings are incompatible with submerged bath methodology because ...
Zheng Ruiting - - 2011
Different from the electrical conductivity of conductive composites, the thermal conductivity usually does not have distinctive percolation characteristics. Here we report that graphite suspensions show distinct behavior in the thermal conductivity at the electrical percolation threshold, including a sharp kink at the percolation threshold, below which thermal conductivity increases rapidly ...
Peng Shushi - - 2011
Urban heat island is among the most evident aspects of human impacts on the earth system. Here we assess the diurnal and seasonal variation of surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) defined as the surface temperature difference between urban area and suburban area measured from the MODIS. Differences in SUHII ...
Osorio-Vargas Paula A - - 2011
Low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) irradiation induces morphological, optical and surface changes in the commercial nano-TiO(2)-based photocatalyst, Evonik-Degussa P-25. Low-temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements performed on this material provided the first experimental evidence for the formation of oxygen vacancies (V(o)), which were also found responsible for the visible-light absorption. The V(o) ...
Carlile Edina L EL Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, - - 2012
We studied whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)) treatment, which is known to increase production of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain, might also produce an NO-dependent anxiolytic-like behavioral response. Male NIH Swiss mice (20-25g) were subjected to a 60-min HBO(2) treatment at different absolute atmospheres, and anxiety was assessed using the ...
He S M - - 2011
Junction temperature (JT) is a key parameter of the performance and lifetime of light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, a mobile instrument system has been developed for the non-contact measurement of JTs of LED under LabVIEW control. The electroluminescence (EL) peak shift of the LED is explored to measure ...
Kirchhoff Helmut - - 2011
The machinery that conducts the light-driven reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis is hosted within specialized paired membranes called thylakoids. In higher plants, the thylakoids are segregated into two morphological and functional domains called grana and stroma lamellae. A large fraction of the luminal volume of the granal thylakoids is occupied by ...
Han Su-Hyun SH Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, - - 2012
In field conditions, the zebra2 (z2) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa) produces leaves with transverse pale-green/yellow stripes. It was recently reported that ZEBRA2 encodes carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and that low levels of lutein, an essential carotenoid for non-photochemical quenching, cause leaf variegation in z2 mutants. However, we found that the ...
Kannan Nisha N - - 2011
In Drosophila multiple circadian oscillators and behavioral rhythms are known to exist, yet most previous studies that attempted to understand circadian entrainment have focused on the activity/rest rhythm and to some extent the adult emergence rhythm. Egg laying behavior of Drosophila females also follows circadian rhythmicity and has been seen ...
Krämer Wiebke E - - 2011
Coral bleaching is the manifestation of the dysfunction of the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and dinoflagellates of the diverse genus Symbiodinium and is induced by elevated temperatures and high irradiance. We investigated the photophysiological response of two genetically distinct Symbiodinium subtypes within clade A upon exposure to elevated temperatures at two ...
Pakula Christiane - - 2011
Consumers and cooks often assess the degree of doneness of roasted beef by the internal meat colour. Real-time colour measurement of the cooking process is therefore developed in order to determine the degree of doneness, and thus the end of the cooking process, by the internal meat colour. The colour ...
Bonilla Sylvia - - 2011
The cyanobacteria Planktothrix agardhii and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii are common bloom forming species in eutrophic freshwaters. These filamentous species share certain physiological traits that imply they might flourish under similar environmental conditions. We compared the distribution of the two species in a large database (940 samples) covering different climatic regions and ...
Pesce Robert E - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to compare the activation and deactivation forces generated during first-order archwire deflections when different sizes and types of NiTi wires are paired with conventional and self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and to evaluate the rotational control between these same archwire and bracket combinations. Four maxillary premolar ...
Gatto Elda - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires for correct selection of orthodontic wires. Seven different NiTi wires of two different sizes (0.014 and 0.016 inches), commonly used during the alignment phase, were tested. A three-point bending test was carried ...
Velázquez Amado Rosa María - - 2011
It has been proposed that at moderate concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Many of the ROS-mediated responses, such as those mediated by the glutathione (GSH) system, protect cells against oxidative stress and reestablish "redox homeostasis". The response to stress is ...
van Zanten Martijn - - 2012
Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid ...
McKeown Shari I - - 2011
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillation is a safe and effective treatment for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, but poses a patient and caregiver risk when the circuit is disconnected. We modified the circuit to include a heated expiratory filter, eliminating the need for daily filter changes due to buildup of ...
Lauscher P - - 2011
We investigated changes in heart rate variability (HRV) across different degrees of acute dilutional anemia (hemoglobin [Hb]=9, 7, 5, 4, and 3 g/dL) in a pig model. Twelve anesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs of either gender (mean body weight 27.5±5.5 kg) were hemodiluted by exchange of blood for hydroxyethyl starch (6%; ...
Jacob R H - - 2011
An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of two chilling rates (Con and Fast) on colour change of lamb meat during simulated retail display. Measurements were made on 3 muscles; LD (m. longisimuss dorsi), SM (m semimembranosus) and ST (m. semitendinous). Meat samples from 32 Merino crossbred lambs were ...
Coronado Eduardo A - - 2011
We present to a general readership an overview of the rich variety of phenomena and applications that arise from the interaction of metallic nanoparticles with light. First, we present the fundamental physics of localized surface plasmon resonances, the most relevant theories and numerical methods, as well as optical detection schemes. ...
Lombardo Luca - - 2011
Abstract Objectives: To investigate and compare the characteristics of commonly used types of traditional and heat-activated initial archwire by plotting their load/deflection graphs and quantifying three suitable parameters describing the discharge plateau phase. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight archwires (22 nickel titanium [NiTi] and 26 heat-activated) of cross-sectional diameter ranging from ...
Nobel Gerard - - 2011
Motion sickness (MS) has been identified as a non-thermal factor that can moderate autonomic thermoregulatory responses. It has been shown that MS exaggerates core cooling during immersion in cold (15°C) and luke-warm (28°C) water by attenuating cold-induced vasoconstriction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MS affects ...
O'Brien P G - - 2011
Wave-optics analysis is performed to show that selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystals (STCPCs) can be utilized as rear contacts to enhance the performance of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). For instance, the current generated in an a-Si:H cell with an STCPC functioning as its rear contact is comparable to that of ...
Jakovljević Miroljub - - 2011
Determination of the thermal thresholds is used clinically for evaluation of peripheral nervous system function. The aim of this study was to evaluate reliability of the method of levels performed with a new, low cost device for determining cutaneous temperature sensitivity. Nineteen male subjects were included in the study. Thermal ...
Lu Haifeng - - 2011
Direct degradation of macromolecules by photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) is important for the industrial application of PSB wastewater treatment. Light and oxygen are the most important parameters in PSB growth. This paper studied the PSB macromolecule degradation process under three different light and oxygen conditions: light-anaerobic, natural light-microaerobic and dark-aerobic. The ...
Aoki Rina - - 2011
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the oxygen-dependent cleavage of heme to produce biliverdin IXα in phycobilin biosynthesis. In the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 there are two genes, ho1 (sll1184) and ho2 (sll1875), encoding HO isoforms. Reverse-transcription PCR indicated that ho1 is constitutively expressed, and ho2 is induced ...
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