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Results 451 - 500 of 1324
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Finch-Savage William E - - 2007
The depth of seed dormancy can be influenced by a number of different environmental signals, but whether a common mechanism underlies this apparently similar response has yet to be investigated. Full-genome microarrays were used for a global transcript analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Cape Verde Island accession seeds exposed to dry ...
Oliverio Karina Andrea KA IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1417-Buenos Aires, - - 2007
GIGANTEA (GI) is a nuclear protein involved in the promotion of flowering by long days, in light input to the circadian clock, and in seedling photomorphogenesis under continuous red light but not far-red light (FR). Here, we report that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) different alleles of gi have defects in ...
Alvey Richard M - - 2007
Co-ordination of chromophore and apoprotein biosynthesis is required during photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae production, such as occurs during complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). This response to ambient light colour changes is controlled by a phytochrome-class photoreceptor and involves changes in the synthesis of cyanobacterial light-harvesting antennae. During growth in red light, CCA ...
Reinhold Thomas - - 2007
When grown in short day conditions and at low light, leaves of Arabidopsis plants with mutations in the genes encoding two plastidial ATP/ADP transporters (so-called null mutants) spontaneously develop necrotic lesions. Under these conditions, the mutants also display light-induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and constitutive expression of genes for copper/zinc superoxide ...
Jiao Yuling - - 2007
Plants have evolved complex and sophisticated transcriptional networks that mediate developmental changes in response to light. These light-regulated processes include seedling photomorphogenesis, seed germination and the shade-avoidance and photoperiod responses. Understanding the components and hierarchical structure of the transcriptional networks that are activated during these processes has long been of ...
Kato Takahiko - - 2007
In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is currently accepted that certain mutants with lesions in clock-associated genes commonly display hallmarked phenotypes with regard to three characteristic biological events: (i) altered rhythmic expression of circadian-controlled genes, (ii) changes in flowering time, and (iii) altered sensitivity to red light in elongation of hypocotyls. During ...
Galen Candace - - 2007
Light gradients in the soil have largely been overlooked in understanding plant responses to the environment. However, roots contain photoreceptors that may receive ambient light through the soil or piped light through the vascular cylinder. In recent experiments we demonstrated linkages between phototropin-1 photoreceptor production, root growth efficiency, and drought ...
Scantlebury Nadia - - 2007
We report a quantitative analysis of the modulation of locomotion by light in the Drosophila larva. The photobehavior of wild type larvae and of larvae carrying mutations altering various aspects of locomotion was evaluated in an assay that exposes individual animals to intermittent pulses of dark and light (ON/OFF assay). ...
Warpeha Katherine M - - 2007
Different classes of biotic (e.g. plant hormones) and abiotic (e.g. different wavelengths of light) signals act through specific signal transduction mechanisms to coordinate higher plant development. While a great deal of progress has been made, full signal transduction chains have not yet been described for most blue light- or abscisic ...
Yamauchi Yukika - - 2007
Gibberellin levels in imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are regulated by light via phytochrome, presumably through regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis genes, AtGA3ox1 and AtGA3ox2, and a deactivation gene, AtGA2ox2. Here, we show that a loss-of-function ga2ox2 mutation causes an increase in GA(4) levels and partly suppresses the germination inability during dark ...
VanVickle-Chavez Sarah J - - 2007
Cryptochromes are a highly conserved class of UV-A/blue light photoreceptors. In Drosophila, cryptochrome is required for the normal entrainment of circadian rhythms to light dark cycles. The photocycle and molecular mechanism of animal cryptochrome photoreception are presently unknown. Drosophila cryptochrome undergoes light-dependent degradation when heterologously expressed in Schneider-2 cells. We ...
Achard Patrick - - 2007
Plant morphogenesis is profoundly influenced by light (a phenomenon known as photomorphogenesis). For example, light inhibits seedling hypocotyl growth via activation of phytochromes and additional photoreceptors. Subsequently, information is transmitted through photoreceptor-linked signal transduction pathways and used (via previously unknown mechanisms) to control hypocotyl growth. Here we show that light ...
Christie John M - - 2007
Phototropins are blue-light receptors controlling a range of responses that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. These include phototropism, light-induced stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements in response to changes in light intensity. Since the isolation of the Arabidopsis PHOT1 gene in 1997, phototropins have been identified in ferns ...
Li Qing-Hua - - 2007
Cryptochromes are blue light receptors that mediate various light-induced responses in plants and animals. They share sequence similarity to photolyases, flavoproteins that catalyze the repair of UV light-damaged DNA, but do not have photolyase activity. Arabidopsis cryptochromes work together with the red/far-red light receptor phytochromes to regulate various light responses, ...
Folta Kevin M - - 2007
Light has a profound effect on plant growth and development. Red and blue light best drive photosynthetic metabolism, so it is no surprise that these light qualities are particularly efficient in advancing the developmental characteristics associated with autotrophic growth habits. Photosynthetically inefficient light qualities also impart important environmental information to ...
Schuster Andrè - - 2007
In fungi, light is primarily known to influence general morphogenesis and both sexual and asexual sporulation. In order to expand the knowledge on the effect of light in fungi and to determine the role of the light regulatory protein ENVOY in the implementation of this effect, we performed a global ...
Kevei Eva - - 2007
Phytochrome photoreceptors regulate development, growth, and fitness throughout the entire life-cycle of plants, from seed germination to flowering, by regulating expression patterns of approximately 10-30% of the entire plant transcriptome. Identification of components and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying phytochrome-controlled signal transduction cascades have therefore attracted considerable attention. Phytochrome-controlled ...
Husaineid Said S H - - 2007
Transgenic tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (=Solanum lycopersicum)] lines overexpressing tomato PHYA, PHYB1, or PHYB2, under control of the constitutive double-35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have been generated to test the level of saturation in individual phytochrome-signalling pathways in tomato. Western blot analysis confirmed the elevated phytochrome protein levels in ...
Yang C Y David - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: To develop an effective driver assistance system that can prevent red light violations, it is important to have a thorough understanding of contributing factors and circumstances surrounding such violations. METHODS: Red light violation behavior was examined using about 47,000 violation records that were captured by photo enforcement cameras from ...
Suetsugu Noriyuki - - 2007
In this review, we describe the regulation of photomovement responses by phototropin and phytochrome photoreceptors. The blue light receptor phototropin mediates various photomovement responses such as phototropism, chloroplast movement and stomatal opening. In cryptogamic plants including ferns, mosses and green alga, red as well as blue light mediates phototropism and ...
Vandenbussche Filip - - 2007
Ethylene, or its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), can stimulate hypocotyl elongation in the light. It is questioned whether gibberellins (GAs) play a role in this response. Tests with light of different wavelengths demonstrated that the ethylene response depends on blue light and functional cryptochrome signalling. Levels of bio-active GA(4) were ...
Stinnett Suzanne M - - 2007
The veA gene is a light-dependent regulator governing development and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. We have identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif in the A. nidulans VeA amino acid sequence and demonstrated its functionality when expressed in yeast. Furthermore, migration of VeA to the nucleus was ...
Kanegae Takeshi - - 2006
Plants sense their environmental light conditions by using three photoreceptors that absorb in the UV, blue/near UV, and red/far-red spectral ranges. These photoreceptors have specific chromophore components corresponding to their absorption spectra. Phytochrome, a red/far-red light receptor, has phytochromobilin as its chromophore, whereas the blue/near UV photoreceptors cryptochrome and phototropin ...
Rosales-Saavedra T - - 2006
The influence of light on living organisms is critical, not only because of its importance as the main source of energy for the biosphere, but also due to its capacity to induce changes in the behaviour and morphology of nearly all forms of life. The common soil fungus Trichoderma atroviride ...
Purschwitz Janina - - 2006
Light is essential for photosynthetic organisms, but also serves as an important environmental cue for non-photosynthetic species; thus, light sensing is evolutionarily conserved throughout the kingdoms, from archaea and fungi to humans. Light sensors are chromoproteins, the low-molecular weight compound of which absorbs specific wavelengths and induces a reaction from ...
Bolige Aoen - - 2007
Little is known about the photoreceptors involved in the photoperiodism of unicellular organisms, which we elucidated by deriving their action spectra. The flagellated alga Euglena gracilis exhibits photoperiodism, with a long-day response in cell reproduction. The underlying clock is a circadian rhythm with photoinductive capability, peaking at subjective dusk and ...
Bolige Aoen - - 2007
Irradiance spectra change spatiotemporally, and angiosperms adapt accordingly, mainly through phytochromes. This study challenges the long-held belief that the flagellated alga Euglena gracilis lacks phytochromes and is therefore unaffected by spectral changes. We photoautotrophically cultured the alga under continuous light (LL), then transferred it to darkness. After about 26h in ...
Lorrain Séverine - - 2006
Ambient light conditions trigger both developmental transitions, such as the induction of flowering, and a suite of adaptive responses, exemplified by the shade-avoidance syndrome. These responses are initiated by three families of photoreceptors that are conserved in all higher plants: the phototropins, cryptochromes and phytochromes (phyA--phyE, cry1--cry3, phot1 and phot2 ...
Im Chung-Soon - - 2006
Phototropin (PHOT) is a photoreceptor involved in a variety of blue-light-elicited physiological processes including phototropism, chloroplast movement and stomatal opening in plants. The work presented here tests whether PHOT is involved in expression of light-regulated genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. When C. reinhardtii was transferred from the dark to very low-fluence ...
Allen Trudie - - 2006
Circadian gating of light signaling limits the timing of maximum responsiveness to light to specific times of day. The fhy3 (for far-red elongated hypocotyl3) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in independently gating signaling from a group of photoreceptors to an individual response. fhy3 shows an enhanced response to red ...
Lee Jae-Hoon - - 2006
To examine the mechanism of EIN3-mediated gene expression by ethylene, the expression patterns of ethylene-inducible genes by ethylene were monitored in Col-0 and ethylene signaling mutants. In Col-0, the inducibility of ACC oxidase by ethylene in light-grown seedlings was much higher than in dark-grown seedlings. While the expression of ACC ...
Dhingra Amit - - 2006
During the transition from darkness to light, a suite of light sensors guides gene expression, biochemistry, and morphology to optimize acclimation to the new environment. Ultraviolet, blue, red, and far-red light all have demonstrated roles in modulating light responses, such as changes in gene expression and suppression of stem growth ...
Ahmad Margaret - - 2007
Cryptochromes are blue-light absorbing photoreceptors found in many organisms where they have been involved in numerous growth, developmental, and circadian responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, mediate several blue-light-dependent responses including hypocotyl growth inhibition. Our study shows that an increase in the intensity of the ambient magnetic ...
Gaidenko Tatiana A - - 2006
The general stress response of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis is regulated by a partner-switching mechanism in which serine and threonine phosphorylation controls protein interactions in the stress-signaling pathway. The environmental branch of this pathway contains a family of five paralogous proteins that function as negative regulators. Here we present genetic ...
Tsuboi Hidenori - - 2006
In general, phototropic responses in land plants are induced by blue light and mediated by blue light receptor phototropins. In many cryptogam plants including the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris, however, red as well as blue light effectively induces a positive phototropic response in protonemal cells. In A. capillus-veneris, the red light ...
Kettenring Karin M - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In wetland plant communities, species-specific responses to pulses of white light and to red : far-red light ratios can vary widely and influence plant emergence from the seed bank. Carex species are the characteristic plants of sedge meadows of natural prairie wetlands in mid-continental USA but are ...
Bedwell Jeffrey S - - 2006
Previous research has demonstrated the ability of diffuse red light to suppress activity in the magnocellular (M) visual pathway. An earlier psychophysical study found that a subset of nonpsychotic relatives of persons with schizophrenia showed the opposite effect when compared to healthy adults (Bedwell et al., 2003), suggesting a novel ...
Silva Fátima - - 2006
Light regulates many developmental and physiological processes in a large number of organisms. The best-known light response in the fungus Mucor circinelloides is the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. Here, we show that M. circinelloides sporangiophores also respond to light, exhibiting a positive phototropism. Analysis of both responses to different light wavelengths ...
Fellner Martin - - 2006
Modern corn (Zea mays L.) varieties have been selected for their ability to maintain productivity in dense plantings. We have tested the possibility that the physiological consequence of the selection involves changes in responsiveness to light and auxin.Etiolated seedlings of two older corn hybrids 307 and 3306 elongated significantly more ...
Rossini Silvia - - 2006
ELIPs (early light-induced proteins) are thylakoid proteins transiently induced during greening of etiolated seedlings and during exposure to high light stress conditions. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins may be involved in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. To test this hypothesis, we have generated Arabidopsis ...
Nishimura Takeshi - - 2006
When maize coleoptiles were unilaterally exposed to red light (7.9 micromol m(-2)s(-1) for 5 min), 3 h after treatment IAA levels in coleoptiles decreased in all regions, from top to basal, with levels about 60% of dark controls. Localized irradiation in the 5 mm top zone was sufficient to cause ...
Ishikawa Masaki - - 2006
Arabidopsis phytochrome A (phyA) regulates not only seed germination and seedling de-etiolation but also circadian rhythms and flowering time in adult plants. The SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA1) acts as a negative regulator of phyA-mediated de-etiolation of young seedlings, but its roles in adult plants have not yet been described. Here, ...
Canamero Roberto C - - 2006
Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. They are flavoproteins with significant homology to photolyases, but instead of repairing DNA they function by transducing blue light energy into a signal that can be recognized by the cellular signaling machinery. Here we report the effect of ...
Kim Dong Su - - 2006
Light critically affects the physiology of plants. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we used a proteomics approach to analyze the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to red (660 nm), far-red (730 nm) and blue (450 nm) light, which are utilized by type II and type I phytochromes, and blue light receptors, respectively. ...
Edwards J R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Human osteoclast formation from mononuclear phagocyte precursors involves interactions between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily members and their receptors. LIGHT is a transmembrane protein expressed and shed from the surface of activated T cells. Since activated T cells have been implicated in osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), this ...
Allen Trudie - - 2006
Plants use specialized photoreceptors to detect the amount, quality, periodicity and direction of light and to modulate their growth and development accordingly. These regulatory light signals often interact with other environmental cues. Exposure of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings to red (R) or far-red (FR) light causes hypocotyls to grow in random ...
Nomura Christopher T - - 2006
The ctaCIDIEI and ctaCIIDIIEII gene clusters that encode heme-copper cytochrome oxidases have been characterized in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and the inactivation of ctaDI was shown to affect high-light adaptation. In this study, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 wild-type, ctaDI, ctaDII, and ctaDI-ctaDII double mutants were grown under ...
Kabachevskaya Alena M - - 2007
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity was found to be higher in etiolated oat seedlings than in green seedlings. White and red (R) light exposure inhibited PLD activity in etiolated seedlings. Far-red light eliminated R-light-induced decrease in PLD activity, indicating phytochrome participation in observed photomodulation. Inhibitor of electron transport in chloroplast 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea ...
Martinez Kristie L Hebert - - 2006
Red light running causes about 260,000 crashes and 750 fatalities each year in the US (Retting, Ulmer, & Williams, 1999, Accident Analysis & Prevention). This study investigated the effects of photo enforcement cameras on reducing red light running and characterized the typical red light runner throughout photo enforcement program implementation. ...
Wang Chang-Quan - - 2006
Effects of temperature, light, salinity and developmental phases on the accumulation of red pigments in the C(3) halophyte Suaeda salsa were studied, and the physical and chemical characteristics of the red pigments were also analyzed. The results indicate that: these red pigments are insoluble in organic solvents but free in ...
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