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Erath Johann - - 2013
Photo-responsive polymer brushes constitute an attractive platform for tuning surface properties and functionality. Since the degree of photo-conversion can be controlled by the light dose, functional states with intermediate properties between those of the non exposed and fully exposed brushes are accessible. Here we investigate the light-modulated interfacial, adhesion and ...
Muppidi Srikanth - - 2013
To determine normal values for pupillometry indices in healthy control subjects and to examine these indices in patients with autonomic dysfunction and healthy controls. Infrared video pupillometry was used to investigate the pupil response to a brief light flash in 79 healthy controls, 28 patients with normal autonomic function (composite ...
Maertens Marianne - - 2013
The present paper deals with the classical question how a psychological experience, in this case apparent lightness, is linked by intervening neural processing to physical variables. We address two methodological issues: (a) how does one know the appropriate physical variable (what is the right x?) to look at, and (b) ...
Munk Marion R - - 2013
To identify neurosensory recovery, testing different functional variables during monthly intravitreal standard anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective interventional cohort study. Sixty-four treatment-naïve neovascular AMD patients with subfoveal lesions were treated and examined monthly for distance visual acuity, reading acuity, maximum reading speed, ...
Stepanyuk Galina A - - 2013
The bright bioluminescence of ctenophores, found in oceans worldwide, is determined by Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins, functionally identical to and sharing many properties of hydromedusan photoproteins. In contrast, however, the ctenophore photoproteins are extremely sensitive to UV and visible light over the range of their absorption spectrum. The spatial structure of a ...
Russo Gabrielle A - - 2013
Functional interpretations of the postcranium of the late Miocene ape Oreopithecus bambolii are controversial. The claim that Oreopithecus practiced habitual terrestrial bipedalism is partly based on restored postcranial remains originally recovered from Baccinello, Tuscany (Köhler and Moyà-Solà, 1997). The lower lumbar vertebrae of BA#72 were cited as evidence that Oreopithecus ...
Deng Wen-Tao WT Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. - - 2013
Phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) is the key effector enzyme of the vertebrate phototransduction pathway in rods and cones. Rod PDE6 catalytic core is composed of two distinct subunits, PDE6α and PDE6β, whereas two identical PDE6α' subunits form the cone PDE6 catalytic core. It is not known whether this difference in PDE6 catalytic ...
Siegel Joshua S - - 2013
Subject motion degrades the quality of task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Here, we test two classes of methods to counteract the effects of motion in task fMRI data: (1) a variety of motion regressions and (2) motion censoring ("motion scrubbing"). In motion regression, various regressors based on realignment ...
Lewald Jörg - - 2013
Blindness induces processes of neural plasticity, resulting in recruitment of the deafferentated visual areas for non-visual sensory functions. These processes are related to superior abilities of blind compared with sighted individuals for specific auditory and tactile tasks. Recently, an exceptional performance of the blind has been demonstrated for auditory motion ...
Vandewalle Gilles - - 2013
Light regulates multiple non-image-forming (or nonvisual) circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Exposure to light directly enhances alertness and performance, so light is an important regulator of wakefulness and cognition. The roles of rods, cones, and ipRGCs in the impact of light ...
Soukup Sandra-Fausia - - 2013
Inherited retinal degeneration in humans is caused by mutations in a wide spectrum of genes that regulate photoreceptor development and homeostasis. Many of these genes are structurally and functionally conserved in Drosophila, making the fly eye an ideal system in which to study the cellular and molecular basis of blindness ...
Majumder Anurima A Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics and Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2013
In rod photoreceptors, several phototransduction components display light-dependent translocation between cellular compartments. Notably, the G protein transducin translocates from rod outer segments to inner segments/spherules in bright light, but the functional consequences of translocation remain unclear. We generated transgenic mice where light-induced transducin translocation is impaired. These mice exhibited slow ...
Kelemen Oguz - - 2013
Recent studies demonstrated a reduced expression of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA binding protein and translation regulator, in the brain and peripheral lymphocytes of patients with schizophrenia. Low FMRP levels may be related to impaired neurodevelopmental processes and synaptic plasticity. Here, we studied the relationship between peripheral ...
Bälter Magnus - - 2013
The function of a parity generator/checker, which is an essential operation for detecting errors in data transmission, has been realized with multiphotochromic switches by taking advantage of a neuron-like fluorescence response and reversible light-induced transformations between the implicated isomers.
Klein Adrian - - 2013
We investigated the filter properties of the highly branched trunk lateral lines of the stichaeid Xiphister atropurpureus and compared them to the filter properties of simple lateral line canals. For this purpose artificial canals were constructed, some of which were fitted with artificial neuromasts. In still water, the response of ...
Barber Jesse R JR Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise,ID 83725, USA. - - 2013
Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle ...
Ke Xiaoxing - - 2013
The interaction and stability of Ru4 POM on few layer graphene via functional groups is investigated by time-dependent imaging using an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The Ru4 POM demonstrates dynamic motion on the graphene surface with its frequency and amplitude of rotation related to the nature of the functional group ...
Doucet Barbara M BM Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Galveston, TX, - - 2013
The optimal parameters of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for recovery of hand function after stroke are not known. This clinical pilot study examined whether higher or lower frequencies are more effective for improving fine motor control of the hand in a chronic poststroke population. A 1-month, 4 times per week, ...
Melia Umberto - - 2013
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, such as the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents is counteracted by pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide ...
Liu Lei - - 2013
This paper presents a neural recording analog front-end IC intended for simultaneous neural recording with action potential (AP) detection for data compression in wireless multichannel neural implants. The proposed neural recording front-end IC detects the neural spikes and sends only the preserved AP information for wireless transmission in order to ...
Jauk Emanuel - - 2013
The relationship between intelligence and creativity has been subject to empirical research for decades. Nevertheless, there is yet no consensus on how these constructs are related. One of the most prominent notions concerning the interplay between intelligence and creativity is the threshold hypothesis, which assumes that above-average intelligence represents a ...
Ahn Sangil - - 2013
We present a technique for enhancing the light output power of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by tilting of the front facet, which leads to a change of the modal reflectivity, resulting in an asymmetric light intensity distribution along the laser cavity. This asymmetry provides most of the light being emitted ...
Dermitzakis Konstantinos - - 2013
With the thumb serving an important role in the function of the human hand, improving robotic prosthetic thumb functionality will have a direct impact on the prosthesis itself. So far, no significant work exists that examines the ranges of motion a prosthetic thumb should exhibit; many myoelectric prostheses arbitrarily select ...
Meng Xiaoli - - 2013
Accurate detection of gait phases allows identification of specific functional deficits at each phase of the gait cycle for motor function assessment. This paper proposes a robust gait phase detection method to identify the seven gait phases in overground walking for normal and pathologic gaits. Four inertial sensors are used ...
Martin Glen K GK Research Service, Veterans Administration Loma Linda Healthcare System and Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Loma Linda University Health, 11201 Benton Street, Loma Linda, California 92357, USA. - - 2013
Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in rabbits as time waveforms by employing a phase-rotation technique to cancel all components in the final average, except the 2f1-f2 DPOAE. Subsequent filtering allowed the DPOAE waveform to be clearly visualized in the time domain. In most conditions, f2 was turned off for ...
Herichova I - - 2013
Shift work was positively associated with higher incidence of metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular disease, sleep disturbances, decreased immune functions, and cancer. Observed disorders were manifested usually after longer time of shift work (more than 10 years). On the other hand, disturbed daily profile of melatonin and cortisol during shift work ...
Santosa Hendrik - - 2013
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is used to detect concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin in the human brain. The main difficulty entailed in the analysis of fNIRS signals is the fact that the hemodynamic response to a specific neuronal activation is contaminated by physiological and instrument noises, motion artifacts, and ...
Buffi James H JH Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, - - 2013
The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints of the hand facilitate motion of the metacarpals and are critical for functional tasks, especially tasks involving precision grasping. Despite their importance, only limited data describing metacarpal kinematics exist. In this short communication, we quantified in vivo metacarpal kinematics from a single subject and used these ...
Mikamo Masashi - - 2013
The nitrogen (N2) single-breath washout (SBW) test is a measure of ventilation distribution inhomogeneity and also a small airway function that offers complementary information to spirometry; however, the relevance to the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and pulmonary emphysema in COPD is not fully understood. We hypothesized that pulmonary functions, forced ...
Ginzburg P - - 2013
One of the basic functionalities of photonic devices is the ability to manipulate the polarization state of light. Polarization components are usually implemented using the retardation effect in natural birefringent crystals and, thus, have a bulky design. Here, we have demonstrated the polarization manipulation of light by employing a thin ...
Adám Eva - - 2013
Phytochromes (phy) C, D and E are involved in the regulation of red/far-red light-induced photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana, but only limited data are available on the mode of action and biological function of these lesser studied phytochrome species. We fused N-terminal fragments or full-length PHYC, D and E to YELLOW ...
Tan Huiling H Functional Neurosurgery - Experimental Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, - - 2013
The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate ...
Kumar Rohan J - - 2013
Light-initiated, radical and hydrogen-bond induced self-assembly of bis-acetamido-functionalized triarylamines is demonstrated to occur in strongly dipolar "push-pull" molecules. This self-assembly process results in the formation of self-assembled nanostructures which in turn increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices.
Demay-Drouhard Paul - - 2013
A light click away: The first application of thiol-yne reaction to nanoparticle functionalization is described. This metal-free click chemistry approach is compatible with the addition of various molecules at the surface and can be combined with CuAAC methodology to perform chemoselective double functionalization.
Hallquist Michael N MN Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, USA. - - 2013
Recent resting-state functional connectivity fMRI (RS-fcMRI) research has demonstrated that head motion during fMRI acquisition systematically influences connectivity estimates despite bandpass filtering and nuisance regression, which are intended to reduce such nuisance variability. We provide evidence that the effects of head motion and other nuisance signals are poorly controlled when ...
Arbour Jessica Hilary JH Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. - - 2013
Diversity and disparity are unequally distributed both phylogenetically and geographically. This uneven distribution may be owing to differences in diversification rates between clades resulting from processes such as adaptive radiation. We examined the rate and distribution of evolution in feeding biomechanics in the extremely diverse and continentally distributed South American ...
Marinovic Welber - - 2013
Many visual processes integrate information over protracted periods, a process known as temporal integration. One consequence of this is that objects that cast images that move across the retinal surfaces can generate blurred form signals, similar to the motion blur that can be captured in photographs taken with slow shutter ...
Loureiro Rui - - 2013
This paper provides some additional evidence in support of the hypothesis that robot therapies are clinically beneficial in neurorehabilitation. Although only 4 subjects were included in the study, the design of the intervention and the measures were done so as to minimise bias. The results are presented as single case ...
Best Virginia V Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences and Hearing Research Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2013
This study tested the hypothesis that the reduced spatial release from speech-on-speech masking typically observed in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss results from increased energetic masking. Target sentences were presented simultaneously with a speech masker, and the spectral overlap between the pair (and hence the energetic masking) was systematically varied. ...
Shepherd Daniel - - 2013
Masking functions and fixed-signal functions were constructed using a narrow range of pedestal intensities for 10-ms, 1000-Hz gated tones. Data from three experiments agreed with previously reported data, clearly demonstrating negative masking and the pedestal effect. The data extend earlier findings by showing (1) the resilience of the pedestal effect ...
Toreyin H - - 2013
We report on a vestibular prosthesis signal processor realized using an experimental field programmable analog array (FPAA). Completing signal processing functions in the analog domain, the processor is designed to help replace a malfunctioning inner ear sensory organ, a semicircular canal. Relying on angular head motion detected by an inertial ...
Bourgain R - - 2013
We have implemented the Gedanken experiment of an individual atom scattering a wave packet of near-resonant light, and measured the associated Wigner time delay as a function of the frequency of the light. In our apparatus, the atom behaves as a two-level system and we have found delays as large ...
Cervantes-Badillo Mayte Guadalupe - - 2013
The BLR-1 and BLR-2 proteins of Trichoderma atroviride are the Neurospora crassa homologs of White Collar-1 and -2, two transcription factors involved in the regulation of genes by blue-light. BLR-1 and BLR-2 are essential for photoinduction of phr-1, a photolyase-encoding gene whose promoter exhibits sequences similar to well-characterized light regulatory ...
Schatz Andreas - - 2013
While hypoxia plays a key role in the pathophysiology of many common and well-studied retinal diseases, little is known about the effects of high altitude hypoxia on retinal function. The aim of the current study was to assess retinal function during exposure to high altitude hypoxia using electroretinography (ERG). This ...
Wang Xiaoqi - - 2013
The aptamer-functionalized hydrogel diffraction gratings were successfully fabricated by incorporating an aptamer and its complementary sequence as crosslinking junctions in the network structure. The gratings showed a sensitive response to human thrombin as read out from the diffracted light.
Skottun Bernt Christian - - 2013
Metacontrast is a form of visual masking in which the target and mask are non-overlapping. In metacontrast, the masking effect is typically largest when the mask is presented some time after the target. This is known as Type-B masking. The present report examines to what extent Type-B metacontrast masking can ...
Moyer Christian B - - 2013
Atrial fibrillation is an increasingly prevalent cardiovascular disease; changes in atrial structure and function induced by atrial fibrillation and its treatments are often spatially heterogeneous. However, spatial heterogeneity of function is difficult to assess with standard imaging techniques. This paper describes a method to assess global and regional mechanical function ...
Xie Jin - - 2013
An elegant approach to quaternary oxindole formation has been developed through a room temperature decarboxylation/radical C-H functionalization by visible-light photoredox catalysis.
Chihara Takanori - - 2013
The aim of the present study was to formulate the relationship between the perceived discomfort and the joint moment ratio for twelve joint motion directions of the upper limb by considering the between-subject variability, and to investigate the effect of joint motion direction. Three approximation models (i.e., linear, exponential, and ...
Dell'orco Daniele - - 2013
Vertebrate vision in rod photoreceptors begins when a photon hits the visual pigment rhodopsin (Rh) and triggers the phototransduction cascade. Although the fine biochemical and biophysical details of this paradigmatic signalling pathway have been studied for decades, phototransduction still presents unclear mechanistic aspects. Increasing lines of evidence suggest that the ...
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