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Results 301 - 350 of 1191
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Kianianmomeni Arash - - 2013
Many algae, particularly microalgae, possess a sophisticated light-sensing system including photoreceptors and light-modulated signaling pathways to sense environmental information and secure the survival in a rapidly changing environment. Over the last couple of years, the multifaceted world of algal photobiology has enriched our understanding of the light absorption mechanisms and ...
Maykranz Daniel - - 2013
The work-loop method is frequently used to determine the mechanical work performed by a system, for instance, when analyzing muscles or describing the work balance at the joint level. While for these examples usually only one-dimensional movements are investigated, for two- or three-dimensional movements, such as leg function during walking ...
Laming Donald - - 2013
This discussion paper seeks to reshape the contemporary understanding of visual adaptation. Received wisdom says that input luminance is scaled down in the retina. There is, first, a near-logarithmic compression described by the Naka-Rushton equation and, second, a control of gain (better attenuation) by feedback from the output of each ...
Yuan Zhen - - 2013
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive method to capture brain activities according to the measurements of changes in both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations. However, fNIRS recordings are the hemodynamic signals that come from the latent neural sources that are spatially and temporally mixed across the brain. The purpose ...
Zhuo Jingyuan - - 2013
Many anthraquinone compounds have exhibited light-active properties in solutions and on materials under UVA or fluorescent light exposure. Two anthraquinone derivatives were incorporated onto cotton fabrics by a vat dyeing process. The dyed fabrics demonstrated light-induced biocidal functions, and the functions were durable against laundering and long term light exposure. ...
Agrawal Yuri - - 2013
Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP/oVEMP) tests are widely used clinical tests of otolith function. However, VEMP testing may not be the ideal measure of otolith function given the significant inter-individual variability in responses and given that the stimuli used to elicit VEMPs are not physiological. We therefore evaluated ...
Sandow M J - - 2013
This study was part of a larger project to develop a (kinetic) theory of carpal motion based on computationally derived isometric constraints. Three-dimensional models were created from computed tomography scans of the wrists of ten normal subjects and carpal spatial relationships at physiological motion extremes were assessed. Specific points on ...
Kumar Deepak - - 2013
Neuromuscular control relies on sensory feedback that influences responses to changing external demands, and the normal response is for movement and muscle activation patterns to adapt to repeated perturbations. People with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are known to have pain, quadriceps weakness and neuromotor deficits which could affect adaption to external ...
Grimaldi Giuliana - - 2013
Recent studies suggest that surface muscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) might suppress neurological upper limb tremor. We assessed its effects on upper limb physiological tremor, which is mainly driven by mechanical-reflex oscillations. We investigated the interaction between FES and augmented visual feedback, since (a) most daily activities are performed using ...
Chiandetti Cinzia - - 2013
Genetic factors determine the asymmetrical position of vertebrate embryos allowing asymmetric environmental stimulation to shape cerebral lateralization. In birds, late-light stimulation, just before hatching, on the right optic nerve triggers anatomical and functional cerebral asymmetries. However, some brain asymmetries develop in absence of embryonic light stimulation. Furthermore, early-light action affects ...
Bissen-Miyajima Hiroko - - 2013
To evaluate the surface light scattering associated with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and visual function 6 years after implantation. Private practice. Retrospective comparative case series. Patients received a hydrophobic acrylic IOL and were followed for more than 6 years. Six years postoperatively, the intensity of the surface light scattering was ...
McKay Colette M - - 2013
An experiment was conducted with eight cochlear implant subjects to investigate the feasibility of using electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) measures other than ECAP thresholds to predict the way that behavioral thresholds change with rate of stimulation, and hence, whether they can be used without combination with behavioral measures ...
Lee Sun Kyu - - 2013
The clinical features and treatment outcomes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) are known to be different depending on the type of and involved canal. This difference could be due to differences in the functional change of the otolith organ. Case series. Forty-nine patients were diagnosed to primary BPPV; 18 ...
García Núñez C - - 2013
ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different radii (rNW) have been aligned between pre-patterned electrodes using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fabrication of high gain UV sensors. The DEP conditions (voltage amplitude and frequency) and electrode material, geometry and size were optimized to enhance the efficiency during the DEP process. To understand the ...
Pinto da Silva Luís - - 2013
The photophysical properties of four bare firefly bioluminophores were studied in vacuo by means of a density functional theory approach. The objective of this work was to fingerprint the excited-state properties of these molecules without perturbations of the microenvironment (either solution or enzyme active site). It is known that intermolecular ...
Kang Do Hyun - - 2013
In this review, we highlight the properties, functions and applications of stimuli-responsive hydrogel patterns in bioanalytical applications. Stimuli-responsive hydrogel patterns can be realized by well-established micro- and nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography and micromolding, and are currently adopted as active components for manipulation of flow and biosamples in microchannel and ...
Burrows Malcolm - - 2013
Gears are found rarely in animals and have never been reported to intermesh and rotate functionally like mechanical gears. We now demonstrate functional gears in the ballistic jumping movements of the flightless planthopper insect Issus. The nymphs, but not adults, have a row of cuticular gear (cog) teeth around the ...
Pudasaini Ashutosh - - 2013
Plants employ a variety of LOV domain photoreceptors to regulate diverse aspects of growth and development. The Zeitlupe (ZTL), Flavin-Kelch-Fbox-1 (FKF1) and LOV-Kelch-Fbox-2 (LKP2) proteins dictate measurement of day length, flowering time and regulation of the circadian clock by blue-light regulation of protein complex formation. Previous reports indicated that ZTL ...
Smith Grace G Department Of Sport And Exercise Sciences University Of Chester Chester - - 2013
The metatarsophalangeal joint is an important contributor to lower limb energetics during sprint running. This study compared the kinematics, kinetics and energetics of the metatarsophalangeal joint during sprinting barefoot and wearing standardised sprint spikes. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether standard sprinting footwear alters the natural motion ...
Canver Matthew C - - 2013
Pupillometry is used clinically to evaluate retinal and optic nerve function by measuring pupillary response to light stimuli. We have developed a mathematical algorithm to automate and expedite the analysis of non-filtered, non-calculated pupillometric data obtained from mouse pupillary light reflex recordings, obtained from dynamic pupillary diameter recordings following exposure ...
Ando Takamasa - - 2013
The potential exists to apply diffraction gratings to optical imaging systems to improve camera resolution and shorten optical length. However, we have noted the generation of striped flare lights, which differ from unnecessary-order diffraction lights, under intense lighting. We have elucidated the generation principle of these new striped lights and ...
Nunes A F - - 2013
Context: Contrast sensitivity (CS) function is one of the most important tests available for evaluating visual impairment. Multiple sclerosis (MS) can produce highly selective losses in visual function and psychophysical studies have demonstrated CS deficits for some spatial frequencies. Aims: This work studies the differences in CS between a group ...
Jeans Jennifer - - 2013
Changing light environments force photoautotroph cells, including coral symbionts, to acclimate to maintain photosynthesis. Photosystem II (PSII) is subjected to photoinactivation at a rate proportional to the incident light, and cells must adjust their rates of protein repair to counter this photoinactivation. We examined PSII function in the coral symbiont ...
Ibrahim George M - - 2013
Synchronization of neural oscillations is thought to integrate distributed neural populations into functional cell assemblies. Epilepsy is widely regarded as disorder of neural synchrony. Knowledge is scant, however, regarding whether ictal changes in synchrony involving epileptogenic cortex are expressed similarly across various frequency ranges. Cortical regions involved in epileptic networks ...
Terhune John M - - 2013
Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) are subject to underwater noise disturbance from anthropogenic sources, especially shipping. The underwater audiograms of harbor porpoise were used to create a frequency weighting function, dBht(Phocoena phocoena), to permit estimation of the broadband perceived amplitudes of ambient and shipping noise. An equation was fit to the ...
Krause Eike E Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany. - - 2013
To study if acoustic stimuli used for vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) studies can damage the cochlea. Prospective diagnostic study. Academic tertiary referral center. In 30 young healthy adults aged between 20 and 35 years without any audiovestibular disorders, cVEMP studies were performed in a standard setting (tone burst, 500 ...
Lutfi Robert A RA Auditory Behavioral Research Lab, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. - - 2013
In recent years there has been growing interest in masking that cannot be attributed to interactions in the cochlea-so--called informational masking (IM). Similarity in the acoustic properties of target and masker and uncertainty regarding the masker are the two major factors identified with IM. These factors involve quite different manipulations ...
Starr Harlan M - - 2013
To systematically review various flexor tendon rehabilitation protocols and to contrast those using early passive versus early active range of motion. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library databases to identify articles involving flexor tendon injury, repair, and rehabilitation protocols. All zones of injury were included. Articles were classified based on ...
Kim Jung Wan - - 2013
The objective of this study was to report the cause of increased contrast sensitivity and improved functional visual acuity after upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Twenty-two eyelids of 16 patients with dermatochalasis and involutional ptosis were prospectively studied. Contrast sensitivity, corneal topography, high-order aberration (HOA), and degree of lash ptosis were examined ...
Chetta Matthew M Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, 2130 Taubman Center, SPC 5340, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5340, - - 2013
Rheumatoid arthritis patients with swan neck deformities are postulated to have greater metacarpophalangeal joint arc of motion because of their need to flex the joint to make a fist, whereas the boutonniere deformity places the fingers into the flexed position, creating less demand on the joint for grip. This study ...
Farrell-Whelan Max M Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
In two experiments, we demonstrate a misperception of the velocity of a random-dot stimulus moving in the presence of a static line oriented obliquely to the direction of dot motion. As shown in previous studies, the perceived direction of the dots is shifted away from the orientation of the static ...
Power Jonathan D - - 2013
Head motion systematically alters correlations in resting state functional connectivity fMRI (RSFC). In this report we examine impact of motion on signal intensity and RSFC correlations. We find that motion-induced signal changes (1) are often complex and variable waveforms, (2) are often shared across nearly all brain voxels, and (3) ...
Baumann Oliver - - 2013
Recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed that the human cerebellum plays a role in visual motion perception, but the nature of its contribution to this function is not understood. Some reports suggest that the cerebellum might facilitate motion perception by aiding attentive tracking of visual objects. Others have identified ...
Lowe Andrew S AS MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL, United - - 2013
We have examined the form, diversity, and organization of three functional classes of retinal inputs to the zebrafish optic tectum during development. Our systems-based approach was to analyze data from populations of retinal ganglion cells labeled with a presynaptic targeted calcium indicator, synaptophysin GCaMP3 (SyGCaMP3). Collectively, our findings provide an ...
Suzuki Sachihiro C SC Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, WA - - 2013
Proper functioning of sensory systems requires the generation of appropriate numbers and proportions of neuronal subtypes that encode distinct information. Perception of color relies on signals from multiple cone photoreceptor types. In cone-dominated retinas, each cone expresses a single opsin type with peak sensitivity to UV, long (L) (red), medium ...
Rao Siyuan - - 2013
The biohybrid sensor is an emerging technique for multi-functional detection that utilizes the instinctive responses or interactions of biomolecules. We develop a biohybrid pH sensor by taking advantage of the pH-dependent photoelectric characteristics of proteorhodopsin (pR). The transient absorption kinetics study indicates that the photoelectric behavior of pR is attributed ...
Schroll Peter P Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. - - 2013
Coumarin-functionalized cellulose sheets were chemically modified using a visible light catalyzed "Photo-Meerwein" arylation. Use of a photomask to pattern the surface resulted in directly visible images.
Trushko Anastasiya - - 2013
The generation of pulling and pushing forces is one of the important functions of microtubules, which are dynamic and polarized structures. The ends of dynamic microtubules are able to form relatively stable links to cellular structures, so that when a microtubule grows it can exert a pushing force and when ...
Edwards Jodi D - - 2013
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess changes in thresholds for the onset of short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in individuals with chronic stroke compared to age-matched healthy adults and evaluate the relationship between these thresholds and motor function in the chronic stroke group. ...
Shen Lijuan - - 2013
Proper design and preparation of high-performance and stable dual functional photocatalytic materials remains a significant objective of research. In this work, highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles of about 3-6 nm in diameter are immobilized in the metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66(NH2) via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The resulting Pd@UiO-66(NH2) nanocomposite exhibits ...
Hughes Steven - - 2013
Melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) represent a third class of retinal photoreceptor [1-3]. These cells are intrinsically photosensitive, but also receive inputs from rod and cone photoreceptors [4-7], acting as the primary sensory conduit mediating non-image-forming responses to light [8-11]. Multiple subtypes of pRGC have been described in the ...
Albrecht-Borth Verónica V Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology , Australian National University Canberra, Acton, Australian Capital Territory 0200, - - 2013
Excess light can have a negative impact on photosynthesis; thus, plants have evolved many different ways to adapt to different light conditions to both optimize energy use and avoid damage caused by excess light. Analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant snowy cotyledon4 (sco4) revealed a mutation in a chloroplast-targeted ...
Kastner David B DB Neuroscience Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA, - - 2013
Sensory systems change their sensitivity based on recent stimuli to adjust their response range to the range of inputs and to predict future sensory input. Here, we report the presence of retinal ganglion cells that have antagonistic plasticity, showing central adaptation and peripheral sensitization. Ganglion cell responses were captured by ...
Rasetshwane Daniel - - 2013
Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression ...
Bogfjellmo Lotte-Guri LG Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Buskerud University College, Institute of Optometry and Visual Science, Kongsberg, - - 2013
Sensitivity to moving structure decreases with age and slow speeds may be selectively impaired. This loss could be caused by elevated internal noise in the responses of motion sensors or a reduction in the efficiency with which motion responses are integrated. We adapt an equivalent noise paradigm to analyze the ...
Buckingham Michael J - - 2013
Acoustic attenuation in seawater usually has little effect on the spatial statistics of ambient noise in the ocean. This expectation does not hold, however, at higher frequencies, above 10 kHz, and extreme depths, in excess of 6 km, an operating regime that is within the capabilities of the most recently developed ...
Vladusich Tony - - 2013
A recently introduced computational theory of visual surface representation, termed gamut relativity, overturns the classical assumption that brightness, lightness, and transparency constitute perceptual dimensions corresponding to the physical dimensions of luminance, diffuse reflectance, and transmittance, respectively. Here I extend the theory to show how surface gloss and lightness can be ...
Parker Joshua - - 2013
Point pattern sets arise in many different areas of physical, biological, and applied research, representing many random realizations of underlying pattern formation mechanisms. These pattern sets can be heterogeneous with respect to underlying spatial processes, which may not be visually distiguishable. This heterogeneity can be elucidated by looking at statistical ...
Bortolozzo Umberto - - 2013
An optical valve is realized by associating a nematic liquid crystal layer with a Cr-doped gallium arsenide as a photoconductive substrate. The light-valve is shown to efficiently operate in transmission at 1.06 μm optical wavelength. The optical phase shift and refractive index change are measured as a function of the incident ...
Wong Chi Wah - - 2013
In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional connectivity measures can be influenced by the presence of a strong global component. A widely used pre-processing method for reducing the contribution of this component is global signal regression, in which a global mean time series signal is projected out of the ...
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