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Reynaud Alexandre A McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal PQ, - - 2014
While the contrast sensitivity approach has been successful in evaluating the processing of first-order stimuli, there is a need to develop comparable ways of assessing second-order vision. Our purpose here is to establish normative data on second-order contrast-, orientation-, and motion-modulation sensitivity in humans. We propose a unified framework, applying ...
Kurillo Gregorij G University of California at Berkeley, - - 2014
We present work-in-progress on framework for 3D Kinect-based remote motion and function assessment. Tele-MFAsT facilities streaming of data (video, depth, skeleton, and audio) from network-connected Microsoft Kinect cameras that can be utilized to observe a patient remotely during function assessment by a physician or therapist, measure motion trajectories, and joint ...
Cai Qunfeng Q Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of - - 2014
Various cochlear pathologies, such as acoustic trauma, ototoxicity and age-related degeneration, cause hearing loss. These pre-existing hearing losses can alter cochlear responses to subsequent acoustic overstimulation. So far, the knowledge on the impacts of pre-existing hearing loss caused by genetic alteration of cochlear genes is limited. Prestin is the motor ...
Anderson Barton L BL School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, - - 2014
The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible ...
Awai Lea L Spinal Cord Injury Center, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich Zurich, - - 2014
Recovery of walking function after neurotrauma, e.g., after spinal cord injury, is routinely captured using standardized walking outcome measures of time and distance. However, these measures do not provide information on possible underlying mechanisms of recovery, nor do they tell anything about the quality of gait. Subjects with an incomplete ...
Putcha Deepti D Department of Psychology, Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University Boston, MA, USA ; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, - - 2014
The visual input created by the relative motion between an individual and the environment, also called optic flow, influences the sense of self-motion, postural orientation, veering of gait, and visuospatial cognition. An optic flow network comprising visual motion areas V6, V3A, and MT+, as well as visuo-vestibular areas including posterior ...
Thomas John J School of Health Sciences, RMIT University Bundoora, VIC, - - 2014
Meditation proficiency is related to trait-like (learned) effects on brain function, developed over time. Previous studies show increases in EEG power in lower frequency bands (theta, alpha) in experienced meditators in both meditation states and baseline conditions. Higher gamma band power has been found in advanced Buddhist meditators, yet it ...
Shih Po-Jen PJ Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, CEE NUK, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nanzih District, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. - - 2014
Scanning specimens in liquids using commercial atomic force microscopy (AFM) is very time-consuming due to the necessary try-and-error iteration for determining appropriate triggering frequencies and probes. In addition, the iteration easily contaminates the AFM tip and damages the samples, which consumes probes. One reason for this could be inaccuracy in ...
van der Hoorn Anouk A Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Neuroimaging Center, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2014
Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related cerebral circuitry were explored with functional magnetic resonance imaging in ...
Takarae Yukari Y 1 Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, - - 2014
Impairments in visual motion perception and use of visual motion information to guide behavior have been reported in autism, but the brain alterations underlying these abnormalities are not well characterized. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to investigate neural correlates of impairments related to visual motion processing. Sixteen ...
Morgan M J MJ Max-Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Koeln, - - 2014
The traditional method of single stimuli for measuring perceptual illusions and context effects confounds perceptual effects with changes in the observer's decision criterion. By deciding consciously or unconsciously to select one of the two response alternatives more than the other when unsure of the correct response, the observer can shift ...
Nikkanen Lauri L Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, , Turku 20014, - - 2014
Plants have adopted a number of mechanisms to restore redox homeostasis in the chloroplast under fluctuating light conditions in nature. Chloroplast thioredoxin systems are crucial components of this redox network, mediating environmental signals to chloroplast proteins. In the reduced state, thioredoxins control the structure and function of proteins by reducing ...
Hiraba Hisao H Department of Dysphasia Rehabilitation, Nihon University of Dentistry, 1-8-13 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8310, - - 2014
We previously found that the greatest salivation response in healthy human subjects is produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz frequency with 1.9  μ m amplitude (89 Hz-S), as reported by Hiraba et al. (2012, 20011, and 2008). We assessed relationships between the blood flow to brain via functional near-infrared spectroscopy ...
Fenwick R Bryn RB 1] Joint BSC-CRG-IRB Research Programme in Computational Biology, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona, Spain - - 2014
Correlated motions in proteins can mediate fundamental biochemical processes such as signal transduction and allostery. The mechanisms that underlie these processes remain largely unknown due mainly to limitations in their direct detection. Here, based on a detailed analysis of protein structures deposited in the protein data bank, as well as ...
Vecchi Diego D Aerospace Medicine Department, Experimental Flight Centre, Italian Air Force Logistic Command, Aeroporto di Pratica di Mare, Pomezia, - - 2014
Hypoxia, even mild, is known to produce negative effects on visual function, including decreased visual acuity and sensitivity to contrast, mostly in low light. This is of special concern when night vision devices (NVDs) are used during flight because they also provide poor images in terms of resolution and contrast. ...
Redfield Morgan T MT Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, - - 2014
Knowledge of how persons with amputation use their prostheses and how this use changes over time may facilitate effective rehabilitation practices and enhance understanding of prosthesis functionality. Perpetual monitoring and classification of prosthesis use may also increase the health and quality of life for prosthetic users. Existing monitoring and classification ...
Glasser Davis M DM Center for Visual Science, University of - - 2014
In addition to motion perception per se, we utilize motion information for a wide range of brain functions. These varied functions place different demands on the visual system, and therefore a stimulus that provides useful information for one function may be inadequate for another. For example, the direction of motion ...
Blair Cindy K CK 1 Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 2 Center for the Study of Aging/Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 3 Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 4 Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, Durham, NC 5 Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 6 Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 7 University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, - - 2014
While moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities (MVPA) confer the greatest health benefits, evidence suggests that light-intensity activities are also beneficial, particularly for older adults and individuals with moderate-severe comorbidities. To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between light-intensity activity and physical function in older cancer survivors at increased risk for age- and ...
Pashaie Ramin - - 2014
The brain is a large network of interconnected neurons where each cell functions as a nonlinear processing element. Unraveling the mysteries of information processing in the complex networks of the brain requires versatile neurostimulation and imaging techniques. Optogenetics is a new stimulation method which allows the activity of neurons to ...
Ferreira Ari J S AJ Department of Biology and the Science and Technology Research Center, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, Cairo, New Cairo, - - 2014
Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and ...
Rémy Allard A INSERM, U968, Paris France ; Institut de la Vision, Sorbonne Universités - University Pierre and Marie Curie, UMR_S 968, Paris France ; CNRS, UMR_7210, Paris - - 2014
Adding noise to a stimulus is useful to characterize visual processing. To avoid triggering a processing strategy shift between the processing in low and high noise, Allard and Cavanagh (2011) recommended using noise that is extended as a function of all dimensions such as space, time, frequency and orientation. Contrariwise, ...
Tong Yunjie Y McLean Imaging Center, McLean Hospital , Belmont, MA , USA ; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University Medical School , Boston, MA , - - 2014
The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional MRI (fMRI) reflects both neuronal activations and global physiological fluctuations. These physiological fluctuations can be attributed to physiological low frequency oscillations (pLFOs), respiration, and cardiac pulsation. With typical TR values, i.e., 2 s or longer, the high frequency physiological signals (i.e., from respiration and ...
Perez Fornos Angelica A Service of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva University Hospitals , Geneva , - - 2014
The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular ...
Craft Cheryl Mae - - 2014
Cone arrestin (Arr4) was discovered 20 years ago as a human X-chromosomal gene that is highly expressed in pinealocytes and cone photoreceptors. Subsequently, specific antibodies were developed to identify Arr4 and to distinguish cone photoreceptor morphology in health and disease states. These reagents were used to demonstrate Arr4 translocation from ...
Seifert Ludovic L CETAPS Laboratory - EA 3832, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Rouen, Rouen, - - 2014
This study investigated the functional intra-individual movement variability of ice climbers differing in skill level to understand how icefall properties were used by participants as affordances to adapt inter-limb coordination patterns during performance. Seven expert climbers and seven beginners were observed as they climbed a 30 m icefall. Movement and ...
Sommer Martha E - - 2014
The retinal rod cell is an exquisitely sensitive single-photon detector that primarily functions in dim light (e.g., moonlight). However, rod cells must routinely survive light intensities more than a billion times greater (e.g., bright daylight). One serious challenge to rod cell survival in daylight is the massive amount of all-trans-retinal ...
Chen Jeannie - - 2014
Arrestin-1 is the second most abundant protein in rod photoreceptors and is nearly equimolar to rhodopsin. Its well-recognized role is to "arrest" signaling from light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin, a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor. In doing so, arrestin-1 plays a key role in the rapid recovery of the light response. Arrestin-1 exists ...
Balasubramanian Ravikumar R Harvard Reproductive Endocrine Sciences Center and the Reproductive Endocrine Unit of the Department of Medicine (R.B., J.E.H., A.A.D., N.P., W.F.C.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; Division of Sleep Medicine (D.A.C., E.B.K., C.A.C.), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; and Department of Endocrinology-Hospital São João (D.P.), Department of Experimental Biology-Faculty of Medicine (D.P.), and IPATIMUP-Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology (D.P.), University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, - - 2014
Context: Loss of prokineticin 2 (PROK2) signaling in mice disrupts circadian rhythms, but the role of PROK2 signaling in the regulation of circadian rhythms in humans is undetermined. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the circadian rhythms of humans with complete loss-of-function PROK2 mutation using an inpatient ...
Coia Andrew J AJ Department of Psychology, Cognitive and Brain Sciences, University of Nevada Reno, NV, - - 2014
When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when ...
Oh Sookyung S Department of Energy-Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, - - 2014
Light perception by photoreceptors impacts plastid transcription, development, and differentiation. This photoreceptor-dependent activity suggests a mechanism for photoregulation of gene expression in the nucleus and plastid that serves to coordinate expression of critical genes of these two organelles. This coordinate expression is required for proper stoichiometric accumulation of components needed ...
Moritz Gillian L GL Department of Biological Sciences, The Class of 1978 Life Sciences Center, Dartmouth College Hanover, NH, - - 2014
The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations ...
Sun Jingbo J Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, - - 2014
While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such ...
Xiao Bei B Department of Computer Science, American University, Washington, DC, - - 2014
Translucency is an important aspect of material appearance. To some extent, humans are able to estimate translucency in a consistent way across different shapes and lighting conditions, i.e., to exhibit translucency constancy. However, Fleming and Bülthoff (2005) have shown that that there can be large failures of constancy, with lighting ...
Durant Szonya S Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, - - 2014
The human brain areas MT and MST have been studied in great detail using fMRI with regards to their motion processing properties; however, to what extent this corresponds with single cell recordings remains to be fully described. Average response over human MT+ has been shown to increase linearly with motion ...
Witz Nirel N McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2014
Our aim was to compare sensitivity for horizontal and vertical disparity corrugations and to resolve whether these stimuli are processed by similar or radically different underlying mechanisms. We measure global disparity sensitivity as a function of carrier spatial frequency for equi-detectable carriers and found a similar optimal carrier relationship for ...
Kimura Eiji E Department of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Chiba University Chiba-shi, Chiba, - - 2014
A colored line flanking a darker contour will appear to spread its color onto an area enclosed by the line (watercolor effect). The watercolor effect has been characterized as an assimilative effect, but non-assimilative color spreading has also been demonstrated in the same spatial configuration; e.g., when a black inner ...
Mehić Edin E Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
Transcranial ultrasound can alter brain function transiently and nondestructively, offering a new tool to study brain function now and inform future therapies. Previous research on neuromodulation implemented pulsed low-frequency (250-700 kHz) ultrasound with spatial peak temporal average intensities (ISPTA) of 0.1-10 W/cm(2). That work used transducers that either insonified relatively ...
Thoni R J RJ Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63103 USA; Email: - - 2014
Parachiloglanis bhutanensis is a newly discovered species of torrent catfish from eastern Bhutan. With its discovery, the genus Parachiloglanis is no longer monotypic. The species differs from Parachiloglanis hodgarti in meristic, mensural, and coloration characters. Parachiloglanis bhutanensis is confirmed as a member of the genus by the absence of a ...
Levichkina Ekaterina - - 2014
A rotating disk composed of alternating light and dark segments may give rise to the wagon wheel illusion: a perceptual reversal in rotation direction. Continuously illuminated (eg in daylight) as well as discretely presented (eg stroboscopic or computer-animated) versions of the illusion exist; here, we investigated the discrete version. Prominence ...
Skiba Rafal M RM Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV 89557, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Though useful from a clinical and practical standpoint uniform, large-field chromatic stimuli are likely to contain luminance contributions from retinal inhomogeneities. Such contribution can significantly influence psychophysical thresholds. However, the degree to which small luminance artifacts influence the chromatic VEP has been debated. In particular, claims have been made that ...
Fixen Kathryn R KR Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA - - 2014
Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are light-sensing regulatory proteins encoded by photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic bacteria. This protein class has been characterized structurally, but its biological activities remain relatively unexplored. Two BphPs in the anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, designated regulatory proteins RpBphP2 and RpBphP3, are configured as light-regulated histidine kinases, which initiate a ...
Stockman Andrew A Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, 11-43 Bath Street, London, EC1V 9EL, United - - 2013
Purpose: We report a psychophysical investigation of five observers with the retinal disorder "cone dystrophy with supernormal rod ERG", caused by mutations in the gene KCNV2 that encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel found in rod and cone photoreceptors. We compare losses for rod- and for cone-mediated vision to further investigate ...
Saija Jefta D - - 2013
Temporal integration is the perceptual process combining sensory stimulation over time into longer percepts that can span over 10 times the duration of a minimally detectable stimulus. Particularly in the auditory domain, such "long-term" temporal integration has been characterized as a relatively simple function that acts chiefly to bridge brief ...
Patel M M Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, - - 2013
Background: The present study investigated whether prochlorperazine affects vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and vestibulo-perceptual function. Methods: We studied 12 healthy naïve subjects 3 h after a single dose of oral prochlorperazine 5 mg in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study in healthy young subjects. Two rotational tests in yaw were used: ...
Aicher Wilhelm K WK KFO273, Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen, - - 2013
Chondrocytes display within the articular cartilage depth-dependent variations of their many properties that are comparable to the depth-dependent changes of the properties of the surrounding extracellular matrix. However, not much is known about the spatial organisation of the chondrocytes throughout the tissue. Recent studies revealed that human chondrocytes display distinct ...
Fisher Patrick M PM Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (PMF, MKM, BM, KKH, SBA, HRL, HRS, GMK); Neurobiology Research Unit (PMF, MKM, BM, KKH, SBA, GMK), Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen - - 2013
Bright-light intervention is reported to successfully treat depression, in particular seasonal affective disorder, but the neural pathways and molecular mechanisms mediating its effects are unclear. An amygdala-prefrontal cortex corticolimbic circuit regulates responses to salient environmental stimuli (e.g., threat) and may underlie these effects. Serotonin signaling modulates this circuit and is ...
Petrongolo Michelle M May Institute , Randolph, MA , - - 2013
Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an idiosyncratic stimulus (Legos® plastic blocks) on vocal stereotypy by a child with pervasive developmental disorder during functional analysis sessions conducted in analogue and natural settings. Methods: The presence and absence of the idiosyncratic stimulus was controlled in a multielement experimental design ...
Merlini Giampaolo G Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Foundation Scientific Institute San Matteo, Amyloidosis Research and Treatment Center, V.le Golgi 19 27100, Pavia, - - 2013
Primary light chain amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis and is caused by misfolded light chains that cause proteotoxicity and rapid decline of vital organ function. Early diagnosis is essential in order to deliver effective therapy and prevent irreversible organ damage. Accurate diagnosis requires clinical skills and ...
Cordes Dietmar D Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B2K3, Canada; Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado-Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
It has recently been shown that both high-frequency and low-frequency cardiac and respiratory noise sources exist throughout the entire brain and can cause significant signal changes in fMRI data. It is also known that the brainstem, basal forebrain and spinal cord areas are problematic for fMRI because of the magnitude ...
Aron M M Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, - - 2013
The antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of manuka honey (MH) are currently being explored in the treatment of chronic recalcitrant rhinosinusitis. Due to similarities between chronic rhinosinusitis and chronic otitis, manuka honey may find applications in the management of challenging cases of chronic otitis media implicating biofilms. The goal of this ...
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