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Stocker Michael P - - 2011
Recent advances in materials science have made it possible to perform photolithography at the nanoscale using visible light. One approach to visible-light nanolithography (resolution augmentation through photo-induced deactivation) uses a negative-tone photoresist incorporating a radical photoinitiator that can be excited by two-photon absorption. With subsequent absorption of light, the photoinitiator ...
Spence Charles - - 2011
In many everyday situations, our senses are bombarded by many different unisensory signals at any given time. To gain the most veridical, and least variable, estimate of environmental stimuli/properties, we need to combine the individual noisy unisensory perceptual estimates that refer to the same object, while keeping those estimates belonging ...
Goto Kazuhiro - - 2011
The effects of picture manipulations on humans' and pigeons' performance were examined in a go/no-go discrimination of two perceptually similar categories, cat and dog faces. Four types of manipulation were used to modify the images. Mosaicization and scrambling were used to produce degraded versions of the training stimuli, while morphing ...
Spanoudaki V Ch - - 2011
This study investigates the physical limitations involved in the extraction of accurate timing information from pixellated scintillation detectors for positron emission tomography (PET). Accurate physical modeling of the scintillation detection process, from scintillation light generation through detection, is devised and performed for varying detector attributes, such as the crystal element ...
Ziegler Dominik - - 2011
We demonstrate frequency modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy operated in lift-mode under ambient conditions. Frequency modulation detection is sensitive to force gradients rather than forces as in the commonly used amplitude modulation technique. As a result there is less influence from electric fields originating from the tip's cone and cantilever, ...
Funamizu Akihiro - - 2011
Although the place code of tone frequency, or tonotopic map, has been widely accepted in the auditory cortex, tone-evoked activation becomes less frequency-specific at moderate or high sound pressure levels. This implies that sound frequency is not represented by a simple place code but that the information is distributed spatio-temporally ...
Moore Brian C J - - 2011
This paper reviews methods that have been used to estimate the resolvability of individual partials in harmonic and inharmonic complex tones and considers the implications of the results for theories of pitch perception. The methods include: requiring comparisons of the pitch of an isolated pure tone and a partial within ...
Henry Kenneth S - - 2011
Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeoff between frequency resolution and temporal resolution. We assessed temporal resolution in three songbird species using auditory brainstem responses to paired ...
Onat Selim - - 2011
In early visual cortex different stimulus parameters are represented in overlaid feature maps. Such functioning was extensively explored by the use of drifting gratings characterized by orientation, spatial-temporal frequency, and direction of motion. However surprisingly, the direct cortical visuotopic drift of the gratings' stripy pattern has never been detected simultaneously ...
Sweeny Timothy D TD Vision Science Group, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. - - 2011
How does internal processing contribute to visual pattern perception? By modeling visual search performance, we estimated internal signal and noise relevant to perception of curvature, a basic feature important for encoding of three-dimensional surfaces and objects. We used isolated, sparse, crowded, and face contexts to determine how internal curvature signal ...
Leensen M C J - - 2011
Noise exposure is an important and highly prevalent occupational hazard in the construction industry. This study examines hearing threshold levels of a large population of Dutch construction workers and compares their hearing thresholds to those predicted by ISO-1999. In this retrospective study, medical records of periodic occupational health examinations of ...
Streeter Robert W - - 2011
The Musca domestica (common housefly) sensor project is an ongoing endeavor at the University of Wyoming. The project seeks to develop a sensor based on the rudimentary function of a fly’s eye, including the inherent hyperacuity (high sensitivity to motion) present in the insect’s vision. During the summer of 2010, ...
Constantinou Christos E - - 2011
Visualization of the geometric deformation and associated displacement patterns of tubular abdominal organs to mechanical stimuli provides a quantitative measure that is useful in modeling their elastic properties. The origin of the stimulus may be the result of direct and voluntary muscle contraction or in response to a triggered reflex ...
Vinnik Ekaterina - - 2011
Important sounds can be easily missed or misidentified in the presence of extraneous noise. We describe an auditory illusion in which a continuous ongoing tone becomes inaudible during a brief, non-masking noise burst more than one octave away, which is unexpected given the frequency resolution of human hearing. Participants strongly ...
Lutz Anja - - 2011
The assessment of myocardial motion with tissue phase mapping (TPM) provides high spatiotemporal resolution and quantitative motion information in three directions. Today, whole volume coverage of the heart by TPM encoding at high spatial and temporal resolution is limited by long data acquisition times. Therefore, a significant increase in imaging ...
Toppila Esko - - 2011
This study intended to evaluate classical musicians' risk of hearing loss. We studied 63 musicians from four Helsinki classical orchestras. We measured their hearing loss with an audiometer, found their prior amount of exposure to sound and some individual susceptibility factors with a questionnaire, measured their present sound exposure with ...
Klee Sascha - - 2011
We design, characterize, and apply a novel optoelectrophysiological setup for a fundus-controlled silent substitution technique that accounts for interindividual variability in retina morphology and simultaneously monitors the stimulation site under investigation. We connect a digital color liquid crystal on silicon projector, an electron-multiplying imager, and a light-emitting diode to a ...
Cressman Erin K - - 2011
Goal-directed reaches are rapidly adapted after reaching with misaligned visual feedback of the hand. It has been suggested that reaching with misaligned visual feedback of the hand also results in proprioceptive recalibration (i.e., realigning proprioceptive estimates of hand position to match visual estimates). In this chapter, we review a series ...
Chen Xianzhong - - 2011
Invisibility cloaks, which used to be confined to the realm of fiction, have now been turned into a scientific reality thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realization of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic ...
Livitz Gennady - - 2011
According to Hering's color theory, certain hues (red vs green and blue vs yellow) are mutually exclusive as components of a single color; consequently a color cannot be perceived as reddish-green or bluish-yellow. The goal of our study is to test this key postulate of the opponent color theory. Using ...
James Adrian L - - 2011
Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) can be suppressed with activation of the medial olivocochlear neural pathway by stimulation of the contralateral ear. The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using olivocochlear mediated OAE suppression to test neonatal hearing with a novel device that detects changes in distortion ...
Serrano-Pedraza Ignacio I Faculty of Psychology, Departmernt of Basic Psychology I, Complutense University of Madrid, Campusde Somosaguas, Madrid, Spain. - - 2011
At high contrast, duration thresholds for motion direction discrimination deteriorate with increasing stimulus size. This counterintuitive result has been explained by the center-surround antagonism present in the neurons of visual area MT. Conversely, at very low contrast, direction discrimination improves with increasing size, a result that has been explained by ...
Caarls W - - 2011
The exposure of fluorophores to intense illumination in a microscope often results in photobleaching and phototoxicity, thus constituting a major limiting factor in time lapse live cell or single molecule imaging. Laser scanning confocal microscopes are particularly prone to this problem, inasmuch as they require high irradiances to compensate for ...
Frey Hans-Peter - - 2011
Recent research indicates a direct relationship between low-level color features and visual attention under natural conditions. However, the design of these studies allows only correlational observations and no inference about mechanisms. Here we go a step further to examine the nature of the influence of color features on overt attention ...
Monnier Patrick - - 2011
Visual search performance was investigated for variegated elements that differed from each other either in space-average chromaticity (identical chromatic contrast; Experiment 1) or in the chromatic contrast of the variegation (identical space-average chromaticity; Experiment 2). Specifically, search performance was measured as a function of noise contrast articulated either along the ...
Pfiffner Flurin - - 2011
The level of improvement in the audiological results of Baha(®) users mainly depends on the patient's preoperative hearing thresholds and the type of Baha sound processor used. This investigation shows correlations between the preoperative hearing threshold and postoperative aided thresholds and audiological results in speech understanding in quiet of 84 ...
Motoyoshi Isamu - - 2011
Recent psychophysical studies have shown that attention can alter contrast sensitivities for temporally broadband stimuli such as flashed gratings. The present study examined the effect of attention on the contrast sensitivity for temporally narrowband stimuli with various temporal frequencies. Observers were asked to detect a drifting grating of 0-40 Hz ...
Richa Rogério - - 2010
In the context of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, active vision-based motion compensation schemes have been proposed for mitigating problems related to physiological motion. However, robust and accurate visual tracking remains a difficult task. The purpose of this paper is to present a robust visual tracking method that estimates the 3D ...
Heath Matthew - - 2010
An exemplar metric of goal-directed grasping (i.e., peak grip aperture) has been shown to be refractory to a psychophysical principle governing visuoperceptual estimations of object size (i.e., Weber's law). This dissociation suggests that vision for action and vision for perception are mediated by absolute and relative visual information, respectively. The ...
Allard Rémy - - 2010
External noise paradigms have been widely used to probe different levels of visual processing (Pelli & Farell, 1999). A basic assumption of this paradigm is that the processing strategy is noise-invariant, remaining the same in low and high external noise. We tested this assumption by examining crowding in a detection ...
Schausberger Stefan E - - 2010
We propose a full-field low-coherence interference (LCI) microscope that can provide different contrast modes using Fourier-plane filtering by means of a spatial light modulator. By altering the phase and spatial frequencies of the backreflected wavefront from the sample arm of the interferometer, we are able to change the contrast in ...
de Graaf Tom A TA Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2011
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used ...
Tai Yu-Wing - - 2010
This paper addresses the problem of modeling and correcting image blur caused by camera motion that follows a projective motion path. We introduce a new Projective Motion Blur Model that treats the blurred image as an integration of a clear scene under a sequence of projective transformations (i.e. homographies) that ...
Vullings R - - 2010
The ongoing trend of ECG monitoring techniques to become more ambulatory and less obtrusive generally comes at the expense of decreased signal quality. To enhance this quality, consecutive ECG complexes can be averaged triggered on the heartbeat, exploiting the quasi-periodicity of the ECG. However, this averaging constitutes a trade-off between ...
Pellegrino Mario - - 2010
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is currently used for high resolution topographic imaging of living cells. Recently, it has been also employed as a tool to deliver stimuli to the cells. In this work we have investigated the mechanical interaction occurring between the pipette tip and the sample during SICM ...
Kim Kyoo Sang - - 2010
In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational ...
Dey Joyoni J Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA. - - 2010
One issue with amplitude binning list-mode studies in SPECT for respiratory motion correction is that variation in the patient's respiratory pattern will result in binned motion states with little or no counts at various projection angles. The reduced counts result in limited-angle reconstruction artifacts which can impact the accuracy of ...
Ganapathy Sriram - - 2010
A robust feature extraction technique for phoneme recognition is proposed which is based on deriving modulation frequency components from the speech signal. The modulation frequency components are computed from syllable-length segments of sub-band temporal envelopes estimated using frequency domain linear prediction. Although the baseline features provide good performance in clean ...
Huebschman Benjamin D - - 2010
Bats use echolocation to navigate three dimensional obstacles while locating, identifying, and engaging targets. A theory is offered of image processing during the search and navigation phase of echolocation that uses Doppler frequency shifts. The information in frequency changes across the angle of elevation can be used to generate a ...
Kim Sun-Hee - - 2010
To understand the function of edges in perception of moving objects, we defined four questions to answer. Is the focus point in visual motion detection of a moving object: (1) the body or the edge of the object, (2) the leading edge or trailing edge of the object, (3) different ...
Dyhr Jonathan P - - 2010
Insect navigational behaviors including obstacle avoidance, grazing landings, and visual odometry are dependent on the ability to estimate flight speed based only on visual cues. In honeybees, this visual estimate of speed is largely independent of both the direction of motion and the spatial frequency content of the image. Electrophysiological ...
Aytekin Murat - - 2010
Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on ...
Frei Franziska - - 2010
We investigate the influence of the finite spatial resolution of a typical 4f pulse-shaping setup in a single- and double-pass configuration on the shaped waveforms. Specifically, we calculate and measure the space-frequency distribution at the focal plane of a lens following the shaping setup and show that steep amplitude or ...
Kida Tetsuo - - 2010
Interactive non-linear cooperation of different feature dimensions, feature synergy, has been studied in psychophysics, but the neural mechanism is unknown. The present study investigated the neural representation of feature synergy of two second-order visual features by combining electroencephalography (EEG) with the signal detection theory (SDT). Two kinds of a 27-by-27 ...
Yang Zhi - - 2011
This article describes a study on neural noise and neural signal feature extraction, targeting real-time spike sorting with miniaturized microchip implementation. Neuronal signature, noise shaping, and adaptive bandpass filtering are reported as the techniques to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A subset of informative samples of the waveforms is extracted ...
Naman Aous Thabit - - 2011
We propose a novel paradigm for interactive video streaming and we coin the term JPEG2000-based scalable interactive video (JSIV) for it. JSIV utilizes JPEG2000 to independently compress the original video sequence frames and provide for quality and spatial resolution scalability. To exploit interframe redundancy, JSIV utilizes prediction and conditional replenishment ...
Samiappan Manickasundaram - - 2011
Logic operations can highlight information transfer within complex molecular networks. We describe here the design of a peptide-based replication system that can be detected by following its fluorescence quenching. This process is used to negate the signal of light-activated replication, and thus to prepare the first replication NAND gate.
Wickersham Charles E - - 2010
An optical encoder is a device that uses an interrupted light source-sensor pair to map linear or rotational motion onto a periodic signal. Simple, inexpensive optical encoders are used for precise positioning in machines such as desktop printers, disk drives, and astronomical telescopes. A strand of DNA labeled with a ...
Schmidt Debra A - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to quantify the ultraviolet B (UVB) output and in vitro previtamin D(3) synthesis over time from various artificial light sources. Three incandescent lamps, T-Rex Active UVHeat 160 watt spot, T-Rex Active UVHeat 160 watt flood, and ZooMed PowerSun 160 watt flood, and two 1.2 m ...
Roth Melissa S - - 2010
Reef-building corals inhabit high light environments and are dependent on photosynthetic endosymbiotic dinoflagellates for nutrition. While photoacclimation responses of the dinoflagellates to changes in illumination are well understood, host photoacclimation strategies are poorly known. This study investigated fluorescent protein expression in the shallow-water coral Acropora yongei during a 30 day ...
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