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Results 301 - 350 of 969
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Tast A - - 2001
The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of pigs to respond to abrupt changes in lighting conditions by means of alterations in circadian melatonin profiles. Sixteen pre-pubertal crossbred male pigs weighing 40-45 kg were housed in individual pens in four temperature- and lighting-controlled climate rooms (four pigs ...
Dumont M - - 2001
Light exposure was measured in 30 permanent night nurses to determine if specific light/dark profiles could be associated with a better circadian adaptation. Circadian adaptation was defined as a significant shift in the timing of the episode of melatonin secretion into the daytime. Light exposure was continuously recorded with ambulatory ...
Tuma J - - 2001
Mammalian endogenous circadian rhythms are entrained to the environmental day-night cycle by light exposure. Melatonin is involved in this entrainment by signaling the day-night information to the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, melatonin is known to affect the circadian rhythm of body temperature directly. A striking property of the endogenous melatonin ...
Wright H R - - 2001
Different wavelengths of light were compared for melatonin suppression and phase shifting of the salivary melatonin rhythm. The wavelengths compared were 660 nm (red), 595 nm (amber), 525 nm (green), 497 nm (blue/green), and 470 nm (blue). They were administered with light-emitting diodes equated for irradiance of 130 muW/cm2. Fifteen ...
Redlin U - - 2001
Light influences mammalian circadian rhythms in two different ways: (1) It entrains endogenous oscillators (clocks), which regulate physiology and behavior; and (2) it affects directly and often immediately physiology and behavior (these effects are also referred to as masking). Masking effects of light on pineal melatonin, locomotor activity, and the ...
Józsa R - - 2001
Levels of PACAP38 were measured in different areas of the chicken brain under various lighting conditions by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Selected groups of animals were maintained under light for 14 h alternating with 10 h of darkness (LD), reversed lighting conditions (DL) and constant light (LL) or constant dark (DD). Daily ...
Brainard G C - - 2001
The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, ...
Thapan K - - 2001
1. Non-image forming, irradiance-dependent responses mediated by the human eye include synchronisation of the circadian axis and suppression of pineal melatonin production. The retinal photopigment(s) transducing these light responses in humans have not been characterised. 2. Using the ability of light to suppress nocturnal melatonin production, we aimed to investigate ...
Goldman B D - - 2001
Photoperiodism is a process whereby organisms are able to use both absolute measures of day length and the direction of day length change as a basis for regulating seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. The use of day length cues allows organisms to essentially track time-of-year and to "anticipate" relatively ...
Graham C - - 2001
We determined if all-night exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields at an intensity well within the upper range of occupational exposures (resultant intensity = 127.3 microTesla [muT]) resulted in suppression of melatonin or its major metabolite 6-hydroxymelatonin-sulfate (6-OHMS) in the first-void morning urine of 24 healthy male volunteers. Measures collected ...
Klerman E B EB Circadian, Neuroendocrine, and Sleep Disorders Section, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2001
The daily rhythm of melatonin influences multiple physiological measures, including sleep tendency, circadian rhythms, and reproductive function in seasonally breeding mammals. The biological signal for photoperiodic changes in seasonally breeding mammals is a change in the duration of melatonin secretion, which in a natural environment reflects the different durations of ...
Alila-Johansson A - - 2001
The pineal hormone melatonin serves as a signal of day length in the regulation of annual rhythms of physiological functions and behavior. The duration of high melatonin levels in body fluids is proportional to the duration of the dark period of the day. Due to the direct suppression of melatonin ...
Tilden A R - - 2001
Melatonin and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were measured in the eyestalks of fiddler crabs acclimated to various photoperiods: constant light, a L:D 12:12 h photoperiod, or constant dark. Following acclimation, eyestalks were collected every 3 h over a 24-h period; they were assayed for melatonin with a radioimmunoassay and for NAT ...
Richter K - - 2001
Time of day related changes in ecdysteroid secretion by the prothoracic gland of last instar nymphs were studied using in vitro coincubations of prothoracic glands and brains under a 12-h light:12-h dark cycle. The experiments reveal that the cells of the prothoracic gland of the cockroach nymphs do not have ...
Tast A - - 2001
This study investigated the effects of the photophase light intensity on the scotophase melatonin response. Twelve, 8-month-old crossbred gilts were allocated to three groups of four and housed in temperature- and lighting-controlled climate rooms. The rooms had a light intensity of 40, 200 or 10,000 lx and a light-dark cycle ...
Aoki H - - 2001
Patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) experience a chronic mismatch between the usual daily schedule required by the individual's environment and their circadian sleep-wake pattern, resulting in major academic, work, and social problems. Although functional abnormalities of the circadian pacemaker system have been reported in patients with DSPS, the ...
Rea M S - - 2001
Human adult males were exposed to combinations of two illuminances and two spectral power distributions over the course of four nighttime sessions. A dose-dependent response of acute melatonin suppression to light was found, but photopic (cone-based) illuminance did not adequately predict suppression. When melatonin suppression was plotted against scotopic (rod-based) ...
Ho S - - 2001
This study aims to determine the effects of light on the levels of 5-MIAA to provide further information on this indoleamine, using a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for immunoreactive 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-MIAA) developed in our laboratories using a specific antibody and tritiated label. Significant differences were found in the ...
Leproult R - - 2001
The only well documented effect of light exposure on endocrine function is the suppression of nocturnal melatonin. Bright light exposure has behavioral effects, including the alleviation of sleepiness during nocturnal sleep deprivation. The present study examines the effects of bright light on the profiles of hormones known to be affected ...
Weydahl A - - 2001
Factors other than light may affect variations in melatonin, including disturbances in the geomagnetic field. Such a possibility was tested in Alta, Norway, located at latitude 70 degrees N, where the aurora borealis is a result of large changes in the horizontal component (H) of the geomagnetic field. Geomagnetic disturbances ...
Terman J S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We investigated a possible mechanism of action for the antidepressant response to light-phase advances of the circadian clock-by measuring the onset of melatonin secretion before and after light treatment in the morning or evening. METHODS: Plasma melatonin was sampled in 42 patients with seasonal affective disorder, in the evening ...
Guerin M V - - 2000
The timing of reproductive activity in seasonal breeding sheep relies on daily photoperiodic signals being relayed to provide information on the time of year. Although light and melatonin are involved, the exact mechanism is not understood. In this experiment, three groups of 6 Romney Marsh ewes, a highly seasonal breed, ...
Lindblom N - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Light treatment through the eyes is effective in alleviating the symptoms of some psychiatric disorders. A recent report suggested that skin light exposure can affect human circadian rhythms. Bilirubin can serve as a hypothetical blood-borne mediator of skin illumination into the brain. We studied whether bright light directed to ...
Chadee D D - - 2000
The diel landing/biting periodicity of the Trinidad strain of Aedes aegypti (L.) was monitored using human-bait during January-August 1999. Hourly light intensities were measured both indoors and outdoors at both urban and rural sites. The periodicity of females was diurnal and nocturnal, with 90% arriving during daylight and twilight and ...
Andersson H - - 2000
Eighteen crossbred boars, three siblings from each of six litters, were distributed randomly among three groups after weaning. The 'Natural long-day' group was housed in a standard room with windows, whereas the 'Artificial long-day' and 'Artificial short-day' groups were housed in light-sealed rooms and under an artificial light regimen (1400 ...
Brandstätter R - - 2000
Endogenous circadian rhythms have been described in a wide range of organisms from prokaryotes to man. Although basic circadian mechanisms at the molecular level are genetically fixed, certain properties of circadian rhythms at the organismic level can be modified by environmental conditions and subsequently retained for some time, even in ...
Weibel L - - 2000
Age-related changes in the mammalian circadian system may be associated with a decline in circulating melatonin levels. Using 'jet lag' paradigms involving abrupt shifts in the light-dark cycle, we showed that a melatonin agonist, S-20098, accelerated by approximately 25% resynchronization of the circadian activity rhythm in old hamsters to the ...
Cajochen C - - 2000
Light can elicit both circadian and acute physiological responses in humans. In a dose response protocol men and women were exposed to illuminances ranging from 3 to 9100 lux for 6.5 h during the early biological night after they had been exposed to <3 lux for several hours. Light exerted ...
Flynn A K - - 2000
We investigated the impact of frequency and pattern of melatonin signals on reproductive development in Siberian hamsters. Juvenile males gestated in short day lengths and housed in constant illumination to suppress melatonin secretion were infused with melatonin for 5 h either once or twice per day for 20 days. Melatonin ...
Tosini G - - 2000
Melatonin has been traditionally considered to be derived principally from the pineal gland. However, several investigations have now demonstrated that melatonin synthesis occurs also in the retina (and in other organs as well) of several vertebrate classes, including mammals. As in the pineal, melatonin synthesis in the retina is elevated ...
Kalsbeek A - - 2000
Despite a pronounced inhibitory effect of light on pineal melatonin synthesis, usually the daily melatonin rhythm is not a passive response to the surrounding world. In mammals, and almost every other vertebrate species studied so far, the melatonin rhythm is coupled to an endogenous pacemaker, i.e. a circadian clock. In ...
Wright K P KP - - 2000
Caffeine and bright light effects on nighttime melatonin and temperature levels in women were tested during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (n=30) or the pseudo luteal phase for oral contraceptive users (n=32). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either bright (5000 lux) or dim room light (<88 lux) ...
Samejima M - - 2000
To identify the characteristics of the oscillator located in the pineal organ, we examined the effects of temperature and light on melatonin secretion rhythm using pineal organs in cultures. At 20 degrees C, the melatonin rhythm was obvious: low secretion during the daytime and high during the nighttime. When the ...
Zawilska J B - - 2000
In the chick pineal gland, 5-methoxytryptophol and melatonin concentrations fluctuate in a rhythmic manner. These rhythms are circadian in nature persisting in constant darkness and have opposite phases. Acute exposure of chicks to white light (30 lux for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min) at night increased the amount of ...
Arden G B - - 2000
PURPOSE: To investigate the production of the voltage changes evoked in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by light and alcohol and the interaction of these agents. METHODS: The eye movement potential in humans was intermittently recorded to standard horizontal excursions for long periods during which either retinal illumination was altered ...
Zeitzer J M - - 2000
Ocular exposure to early morning room light can significantly advance the timing of the human circadian pacemaker. The resetting response to such light has a non-linear relationship to illuminance. The dose-response relationship of the human circadian pacemaker to late evening light of dim to moderate intensity has not been well ...
Brainard G C - - 2000
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of polarized light versus nonpolarized light on melatonin secretion in healthy, humans (mean age, 25 years; N = 6). On separate evenings, each subject was exposed to four different light intensities (20, 40, 80 and 3200 lx) of both polarized ...
Kroeber S - - 2000
Signal transduction processes regulating melatonin production in the light-sensitive trout pineal organ were investigated by immunocytochemical and immunochemical demonstration of phosphorylated cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (pCREB) and measurements of cyclic AMP, melatonin, and calcium levels. Melatonin levels were tightly controlled by light and darkness. Elevation of cyclic AMP levels by ...
Jean-Louis G - - 2000
A recent report that popliteal illumination shifted the circadian rhythms of body temperature and melatonin challenged the longstanding belief that light phase-shifting the circadian system in mammals is mediated only through the retina. The authors tested effects of popliteal illumination and illumination provided through the eyelids on melatonin suppression. In ...
Nurnberger J I JI - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that bipolar patients are supersensitive to light suppression of melatonin and that this may be a trait marker for genetic vulnerability. The present study was an attempt to replicate and extend this observation. Propranolol hydrochloride effects were compared with light effects because of the documented ...
Macedo C F - - 2000
This investigation is focused on the experimental determination of diel cycles of metabolic activity of zooplankton in a tropical reservoir. Water and zooplankton used in laboratory experiments were collected from the Pampulha reservoir. The experimental units were incubated in the light (1500 Lux) and in the dark at 25.0 +/- ...
Kikuchi M - - 2000
The effect of melatonin on the number of synaptic ribbons (SR) in the pineal photoreceptor cells was examined in the Japanese newt using electron microscopy. Under a light-dark cycle of LD 12:12 (lights on at 07:00), a subcutaneous injection of 10 microg of melatonin at two times during the day ...
Matzel L D - - 2000
The hypothesis that an individual's capacity for learning might be predicted or influenced by basal levels of synaptic efficacy has eluded empirical tests, owing in part to the inability to compare between animals single identified synaptic responses in the mammalian brain. To overcome this limitation, we have focused our analysis ...
Joshi B N - - 2000
An earlier study reported that blinding or exposure to red light stimulates reproduction in R. cyanophlyctis. The present study investigates whether melatonin counteracted blinding- or red-light-induced ovarian stimulation. The study consisted of two experiments carried out during the prebreeding (March/April) and breeding phase (August/September) of the reproductive cycle of this ...
Ruby N F NF Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. - - 2000
Siberian hamsters readily reentrain to a 3-h phase delay of the photocycle (16 h light/day) but fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase delay. This study tested whether melatonin production was suppressed in animals that failed to reentrain. Melatonin was measured on the day before, day of, or several days ...
Poulos S G - - 2000
Entrained circadian rhythms may modulate many behavioral activities of animals and humans. In the present study, we examined whether lighting conditions and melatonin treatment participate behaviorally in the entrainment of circadian rhythms in the rodent. In experiment one, Sprague-Dawley rats were introduced to the Rotorod test apparatus at nighttime or ...
Abraham U - - 2000
Continuous melatonin administration via silastic implants accelerates the resynchronization of the circadian locomotor activity rhythm in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) after exposure to phase shifts of a weak light-dark cycle. Constant melatonin might induce this effect either by increasing the sensitivity of the visual system to a light zeitgeber or ...
Kumar V V Research Center for Ornithology of the Max-Planck-Society, Andechs, - - 2000
In passerine birds, the periodic secretion of melatonin by the pineal organ represents an important component of the pacemaker that controls overt circadian functions. The daily phase of low melatonin secretion generally coincides with the phase of intense activity, but the precise relationship between the melatonin and the behavioral rhythms ...
Kliger C A - - 2000
Understanding the role of the pineal gland in regulating the immune response and the role of photoperiod in influencing pineal gland secretions are becoming increasingly important. The purposes of the present experiments were to investigate the effects of different photoperiod regimens on T- and B-lymphocyte activities in broiler chickens. Next, ...
Su H - - 2000
ABSTRACT A suction-impaction mini-spore trap was developed to study the effect of light initiation and decreasing relative humidity (RH) on spore release of Bremia lactucae in a controlled environment. Three light periods (from 0400 to 1600, 0600 to 1800, and 0800 to 2000 h, circadian time) at a constant RH ...
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