Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 971
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Lee J H - - 1997
N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was determined in the pineal gland of frogs (Rana tigrina) of different ages using 2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid as substrates, and assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Frogs of different ages were either killed during the light phase or exposed to darkness or light for 1 min during ...
Partonen T - - 1997
Eleven patients with winter seasonal affective disorder and 10 healthy controls were exposed to light of 3300 lux for 5 min and for 1 hour respectively on consecutive evenings at 22:00 hours during winter and summer. In the winter, the measurements were undertaken both before and after the treatment with ...
Drijfhout W J - - 1997
This study describes the use of the microdialysis technique to elucidate specific properties of the circadian pacemaking system in the hypothalamus, by measurement of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Melatonin has appeared to be a reliable marker of the pacemaker activity, which is influenced by the light/dark cycle. A ...
Kräuchi K - - 1997
This constant routine study (n = 9 men) compared the phase delay of the circadian system induced by a single pulse of evening light (5000 lx at 2100-2400 h) in the presence or absence of exogenous melatonin (5 mg p.o. at 2040 h). On the treatment day, light and melatonin ...
Itoh M T - - 1997
Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; EC 2.1.1.4) catalyzes the final step in the melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) biosynthetic pathway. HIOMT-like activity was detected in the head of fifth last-instar larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mori), and the optimum pH for this activity was 7.9. The apparent Michaelis constants (K(m)) for S-adenosyl-L-methionine and N-acetylserotonin were 87.6 ...
Calvo J L - - 1997
The cellular proliferative activity in the adult rat pineal gland was studied using bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry during the light and dark phases of an artificial 12L:12D photoperiod. The results showed statistically significant differences in the number of labeled cells between the light and dark phases, with the labeled cells being almost ...
Arumi P - - 1997
Laboratory experiments are described in which the monocular changes in the refractive error and acuity of six young, normal, adult subjects were measured as the field luminance was reduced from approximately 100 to 10(-3) cd/m2. It was found that, at luminance levels equal to those recommended for road lighting (about ...
Sinhasane S - - 1997
Exposure to continuous darkness and chronic treatment with melatonin, for six weeks, stimulated reproduction in the male Indian desert gerbil as evidenced by morphometric data. Exposure to continuous light, for same duration, on the other hand inhibited reproduction. The results are opposite to those reported from similar studies on temperate ...
Hardie J - - 1997
Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, were fed on artificial diet containing various concentrations of melatonin. Under long-day conditions (16h light:8h dark) their progeny included males and virginoparous/oviparous (asexual/sexual) intermediate females, which normally occur only in short days or around critical night-length. Endogenous melatonin in pea aphids was measured by radioimmunoassay and ...
Samejima M - - 1997
Pineal organ of the lamprey, Lampetra japonica, is essential to keep the circadian locomotor activity rhythm as previously reported. In this paper, we tried to show that an endogenous oscillator is located and is working in the pineal organ. When the pineal organs were excised and cultured in a plastic ...
Iigo M - - 1997
Photic and circadian regulations of melatonin rhythms in the pineal organ and the retina of several teleosts were studied to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of melatonin rhythms in fishes. In the eyecup preparations of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, both time of day and lighting conditions affected melatonin production, with high ...
Sutherland M L - - 1997
ABSTRACT The amount of defoliation of elm (Ulmus procera) caused by three Ophiostoma novoulmi Eurasian race isolates over 14 seasons of field trials was found to be strongly correlated with mean air temperature and mean number of sunshine hours over the 12-week period from inoculation to assessment, and with tree ...
Iigo M - - 1997
Regulation by light and darkness of melatonin rhythms in the plasma and eye of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was studied. During light-dark cycles, plasma and ocular melatonin exhibited day-night changes with higher levels at mid-dark and at mid-light, respectively. Circulating melatonin levels were low in constant light but ...
Morita T - - 1997
Following the previous studies on the influence of light with different wavelengths on human biological rhythms during nighttime, present experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of morning light on the behavior of the core temperature and melatonin in humans. The experiments were carried out in four subjects with normal ...
Truong H - - 1997
Acute exposure to a 1 Gauss 60 Hz magnetic field for 15 min beginning 2 hr before darkness delays and blunts the nighttime melatonin rhythm in some but not all studies. To determine whether other exposure parameters (dose, mode, or time) influence the nocturnal melatonin rise, adult Djungarian hamsters reared ...
Thompson C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The suppression of melatonin by light at 00.30 hours has been shown to be greater in winter than in summer on patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) but not in matched normal controls. METHOD: In this study 12 patients with SAD and 12 matched normal controls were exposed to ...
Devadas M - - 1997
There is a light-dependent diurnal rhythm in scleral precursor synthesis (SPS). In form-deprivation myopia (FDM) there is an increase in SPS. Daily periods of normal vision prevent FDM, but light intensities that maintain the retinal dark-light switch in its dark state do not, implicating melatonin, dopamine, enkephalin, neurotensin and somatostatin ...
Beckerman S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The AcuVision 1000 Trainer is an instrument designed to assess and train eye-hand coordination in athletes. Variable environmental conditions are encountered when sports-vision screenings are performed. The effect of these factors on scores attained on sports-vision testing equipment is an important consideration when results for different populations are compared. ...
Iigo M - - 1997
Ocular melatonin rhythms in the goldfish were studied and compared to those in the pineal organ and plasma. Under light:dark (LD) of 12 h light:12 h dark, melatonin contents in the eye as well as the pineal organ and plasma exhibited clear day-night changes with higher levels at mid-dark than ...
Vivien-Roels B - - 1997
Nocturnal patterns of pineal melatonin concentrations were measured at hourly intervals in the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus, maintained under different natural or experimental environmental conditions. There were pronounced variations in the night peak of pineal melatonin both in the duration and the amplitude of the melatonin peak and in the ...
Samková L - - 1997
The next day after an early morning awakening of human subjects coupled with a single exposure to bright light from 0600 to 0900 h, the salivary melatonin rhythm was phase advanced by about 1 h as compared with the pre-treatment profile. The phase advance was maintained for 4 days when ...
Zawilska J B - - 1997
Dopamine plays an important role in regulation of melatonin biosynthesis in retinas of several vertebrate species. In the avian retina, the dopamine receptor that controls melatonin production represents a D4-like subtype. Stimulation of this receptor by quinpirole (QNP) results in a dose-dependent decline of the nighttime activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase ...
Tilden A R - - 1997
Melatonin was measured in a species of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria, Erythrobacter longus, grown in either constant light or constant dark. A radioimmunoassay was used to quantify melatonin levels and thin-layer chromatography to confirm the identity of melatonin immunoactivity. Melatonin levels were significantly higher (nearly 2.3-fold) in the dark-grown than in ...
Wagner H J - - 1997
The morphological diversity and dynamic aspects of presynaptic bodies are summarised. Molecular characteristics of the presynaptic machinery are discussed and the signals that control the plasticity of the presynaptic bodies are examined. A review is presented of recent findings regarding the physiology of tonically active synapses. The significance of the ...
Cagnacci A - - 1997
Administration of melatonin is useful in the treatment of desynchronized conditions. The mechanisms through which melatonin exerts its effect are not completely clear. Melatonin exerts direct effects on several biological functions, such as the regulation of body temperature, but there is no proof that these actions are important in the ...
Udaykumar K - - 1997
Ovarian follicular kinetics and gravimetric changes in the ovary and oviducts were studied in the skipper frog, Rana cyanophlyctis, following exposure to continuous light and melatonin treatment during the breeding season. Daily late-afternoon injections of melatonin (15 micrograms subcutaneous) for 30 days decreased the gonadosomatic index (GSI), whereas continuously available ...
Moyer R W - - 1997
This study examined the combined effect of thermocycles with either variable or constant photic conditions on melatonin production by pineal organs in vitro in the gecko, Christinus marmoratus. A 30 degrees C:15 degrees C thermocycle elicited a rhythm of melatonin production under conditions of 12L:12D, constant light or constant darkness ...
Cagnacci A - - 1997
We investigated whether the contemporaneous administration of melatonin can modify circadian phase shifts induced by bright light stimuli. After a baseline evaluation, 10 women were exposed for three consecutive nights to a 4-h bright light stimulus (>3,000 lx) initiated at the time of the estimated core body temperature (BT(c)) nadir. ...
Parry B L - - 1997
The aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous work in which the authors observed lower, shorter, and advanced nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns in premenstrually depressed patients compared to those in healthy control women. The authors also sought to test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of bright ...
Wright K P KP - - 1997
The effects of caffeine ingestion and exposure to bright light, both separately and in combination, on salivary melatonin and tympanic temperature were assessed in humans. Four treatments during a 45.5 h sleep deprivation period were compared: Dim Light-Placebo, Dim Light-Caffeine, Bright Light-Placebo and Bright-Light Caffeine. The Dim Light-Caffeine condition (200 ...
Hashimoto S - - 1997
Effects of bright light exposure at midday were examined on plasma melatonin rhythm in humans under controlled living conditions. Bright light of 5000 1x was provided from the ceiling at midday (1100-1700 h) for 3 consecutive days and the circadian rhythm in plasma melatonin was determined from the fourth to ...
Gwinner E - - 1997
The pineal organ and its hormone melatonin are significant components of avian circadian pacemaking systems. In songbirds, pinealectomy results in the abolition or destabilization of overt circadian rhythms such as the rhythm of locomotor activity, feeding, or body temperature. A stable rhythmicity can be restored either by reimplanting a pineal ...
Malpaux B - - 1997
Annual variations in day length are responsible for seasonal changes in reproductive activity in sheep. However, in constant photoperiodic conditions, ewes express an endogenous rhythm characterized by alternations of reproductive activity and quiescence that are not synchronized among animals. Thus, the main role of photoperiod in the natural environment appears ...
Nathan P J - - 1997
The present study investigated the effect of dim white light on nocturnal plasma melatonin in males and females. Subjects were exposed to light between 2400 hr and 0100 hr. No significant gender differences were found with both 200 lux (p > 0.1) and 500 lux (p > 0.1) of light. ...
Iwata N - - 1997
The effects of bright artificial light on the subjective mental state of 10 female nurses working shifts at a university hospital were assessed. We investigated two series of five consecutive workshifts rotations comprising one normal, two night and two evening shifts, using two self-administered rating scales. The subjects were exposed ...
Nowak J Z - - 1997
The chick pineal gland contains histamine and tele-methylhistamine. The levels of both substances are elevated after treatment of chicks with the amino acid precursor of histamine, L-histidine (1 g/kg, ip). In control and L-histidine-loaded animals the pineal levels of histamine and tele-methylhistamine are higher in light-exposed than in dark-adapted animals ...
Płytycz B - - 1997
Rhythms of daily activity are found in all vertebrate species, some of them being diurnal (like humans, dogs, pigeons), others--nocturnal (like mice, rats and bats). Some species undergo very pronounced seasonal changes, as they hibernate in the winter or mate only at the specific seasons. The main regulator (a clock ...
Hashimoto S - - 1996
Eight young males were subjected to a single blind cross-over test to see the effects of vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin; VB12) on the phase-response of the circadian melatonin rhythm to a single bright light exposure. VB12 (0.5 mg/day) or vehicle was injected intravenously at 1230 h for 11 days, which was ...
Grosse J - - 1996
Seasonal rhythms of reproduction in the Syrian hamster are triggered by the pineal hormone melatonin. By varying the parameters of systemic infusions of exogenous melatonin delivered to pinealectomized hamsters, it has been shown that the hypothalamus is sensitive to the duration of individual signals, which serve as an inverse coding ...
Cagnacci A - - 1996
The role exerted by melatonin in human physiology has not been completely ascertained. Melatonin levels have been measured in different physiopathological conditions, but the effects induced by melatonin administration or withdrawal have been tested only recently. Some effects have been clearly documented. Melatonin has hypothermic properties, and its nocturnal secretion ...
Ravault J P - - 1996
Previous data have demonstrated that a single 1-hr light pulse at night affects the secretion of melatonin in the ram if it was given at the appropriate time. This paper reports the effect on melatonin secretion of a 1-hr light pulse given at two different times at night to two ...
Ben-Shlomo R - - 1996
6-Sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) excretion was examined in the urine of rhythmic and arrhythmic blind subterranean mole rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) to test the correlation between melatonin secretion (as represented by aMT6S) and variability in circadian locomotor activity. Activity pattern was tested in four males, first for a week under short photoperiod [light:dark ...
Laakso M L - - 1996
The aim of the study was to determine whether a discrepancy between the genetically determined endogenous circadian period and an abnormally long Zeitgeber period disturbs the development of melatonin synthesis. Breeding pairs of rats were kept under 12:12- or 14:14-hr light:dark (LD) conditions. Pineal melatonin contents in the offspring were ...
Ruberg F L - - 1996
Light can induce an acute suppression and/or circadian phase shift of plasma melatonin levels in subjects with normal color vision. It is not known whether this photic suppression requires an integrated response from all photoreceptors or from a specialized subset of photoreceptors. To determine whether normal cone photoreceptor systems are ...
Marumoto N - - 1996
We examined whether continuous melatonin administration through subcutaneously implanted silastic tubing accelerates reentrainment of circadian rhythms of locomotor activity to shifted illumination cycles. We found that rats required less time to reentrain to an advanced or delayed phase shift of a light-dark cycle while carrying a silastic implant filled with ...
Schmitz M M - - 1996
1. The synthesis of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is under adrenergic control. The brain's rhythm generating system (suprachiasmatic nucleus and associated systems) which is synchronised by the light-dark cycle controls norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve terminal resulting in cAMP accumulation. Increased cAMP leads to induction of the rate-limiting enzyme, ...
Trinder J - - 1996
Melatonin is a hormone released during darkness under the control of the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker. It has been shown that melatonin is suppressed by light as a function of intensity, with low levels of illumination producing small effects and more intense light greater, but not complete inhibition. The studies which ...
Foret J - - 1996
Eight healthy subjects were studied during 39-h spans (from 07:00 on one day until 22:00 the second) in which they remained awake. During one experiment, subjects were exposed to 100 lux of light between 18:00 and 8:00, and during a second experiment, they were exposed to 1000 lux during the ...
Yellon S M - - 1996
Adult Djungarian hamsters in long (16 h of light) or short (10 h of light) days for 6 wk were acutely exposed to a 1-G 60-Hz magnetic field (MF) for 15 min 2 h before dark. The nighttime rise in melatonin was delayed and duration reduced in MF-exposed hamsters in ...
Stirland J A - - 1996
This study investigated the role of the circadian timing system (CTS) in photoperiodic time measurement by examining the response of the tau mutant hamster to programmed infusions of melatonin. The mutation is a single Mendelian gene defect which accelerates circadian period from 24 h in the wild-type (WT) to 20 ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >