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Results 301 - 350 of 1381
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Palya William L - - 2003
Previous work on the matching law has predominantly focused on the molar effects of the contingency by examining only one reinforcer ratio for extended periods. Responses are distributed as a function of reinforcer ratios under these static conditions. But the outcome under a dynamic condition in which reinforcer ratios change ...
Le Bourg Eric - - 2002
A task was designed to teach individual flies to avoid a lighted area after they had displayed an initial preference for it. The flies walked in a T-maze and chose between a lighted and a darkened alley leading, respectively, to a lighted and a darkened vial. Flies that were photopositive ...
Kim Sanghyeon - - 2002
An anxiety-related behavior is an emotional response of an organism, which is quantitatively measured by several behavioral paradigms. We employed two most frequently used behavioral tests, the open field and light-dark exploration, to comparatively analyze the anxiety-like behaviors in four inbred mice. For an accurate recording of movement, motion analysis ...
Bardo Michael T - - 2002
F. Leri and J. Stewart (2002) present convincing evidence that a relapse to heroin-seeking behavior is established when rats are given a momentary lapse in which they are allowed to respond while under the influence of heroin. Although exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with heroin self-infusion did not ...
Datla K P KP Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF, UK. - - 2002
This study used in vivo microdialysis to examine the release of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) during the performance of a previously learned, signalled sucrose reward task, and during conditioning of a neutral tone stimulus to this reward. Behavioural measures (magazine entries) confirmed that stimuli associated with sucrose ...
Rodríguez Gabriel - - 2002
An experiment is reported in which the relationship between the intensity of a preexposed stimulus and latent inhibition was investigated, using the taste aversion learning paradigm in rats. Two concentrations of a saline solution (high, 1%; and low, 0.25%) were used during preexposure and conditioning phases in a factorial design. ...
Koekkoek S K E - - 2002
Classical eye-blink conditioning in mutant mice can be used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning. To measure the kinetic and frequency domain properties of conditioned (tone - periorbital shock procedure) and unconditioned eyelid responses in freely moving mice, we developed a method that allows adequate, absolute, and continuous ...
Ribes E - - 2002
Four rats were exposed to two different stimuli (either lights or tones), each stimulus being correlated with independent probabilities of water delivery in a temporally defined schedule. The schedule consisted of a 60 s T cycle with 30 s t(D) and t(-) successive subcycles; t(D) was correlated with a probability ...
Kehoe E J - - 2002
In a typical conditional discrimination, a target stimulus (X) is reinforced during one feature cue (A-->X+), but not during another feature cue (B-->X-). The present experiments used only a single "feature" cue (a 66-sec tone). On half of the trials, the target stimulus (a 400-msec light) was paired with the ...
Ishii Taku - - 2002
IN DISCRETE TRIALS, PIGEONS WERE PRESENTED WITH TWO ALTERNATIVES: to wait for a larger reinforcer, or to respond and obtain a smaller reinforcer immediately. The choice of the former was defined as self-control, and the choice of the latter as impulsiveness. The stimulus that set the opportunity for an impulsive ...
Frings Markus - - 2002
Fear-conditioned potentiation of the startle response was used to study the role of the cerebellum in associative learning of non-specific aversive reactions in healthy human subjects using PET. Prior PET scanning initially neutral light stimuli were paired with painful electric shocks (fear-conditioning phase). Four PET-scans each were performed with presentation ...
Caggiula Anthony R - - 2002
RATIONALE: Environmental stimuli associated with drugs of abuse are believed to play a major role in the motivation to take drugs, drug dependence, and relapse. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that the response-contingent presentation of drug-related, visual cues was at least as important as nicotine in the maintenance, extinction ...
Baum William M - - 2002
A paradigm clash is occurring within behavior analysis. In the older paradigm, the molecular view, behavior consists of momentary or discrete responses that constitute instances of classes. Variation in response rate reflects variation in the strength or probability of the response class. The newer paradigm, the molar view, sees behavior ...
King Donald L - - 2002
A long retention interval tends to result in the poor retention known as forgetting. A high subjective similarity between stimuli frequently produces their poor retention. Thus, a long retention interval may increase the subjective similarity between stimuli (the RIISS hypothesis), and this increase may produce forgetting. To examine this hypothesis, ...
Williams Douglas A - - 2002
Six appetitive conditioning experiments with rats demonstrated that an irrelevant X accompanying a negative patterning discrimination (XA+, XB+, XAB-) acquires extraordinarily high levels of conditioned excitation. Responding to X was similar to that evoked by 2 excitors in combination (Experiment 1) and was greater than responding to a separately reinforced ...
Daw Nathaniel D ND Computer Science Department and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA 15213-3891, USA. - - 2002
Anatomical and pharmacological evidence suggests that the dorsal raphe serotonin system and the ventral tegmental and substantia nigra dopamine system may act as mutual opponents. In the light of the temporal difference model of the involvement of the dopamine system in reward learning, we consider three aspects of motivational opponency ...
Hörster Wolfgang - - 2002
The spatio-temporal courses of head and neck motions of pigeons while pecking at small grains are described. Single and serial pecks are distinguished but the inter- and intraindividual variability of the peck kinetics is stressed. Pigeons were then trained with instrumental conditioning procedures to speed-up their pecking. A partial reinforcement ...
Shull Richard L - - 2002
Rats obtained food pellets by nose poking a lighted key, the illumination of which alternated every 50 s during a session between blinking and steady, signaling either a relatively rich (60 per hour) or relatively lean (15 per hour) rate of reinforcement. During one training condition, all the reinforcers in ...
Harper M J - - 2002
This paper concentrates upon mesoscale variations observed in the time-of-flight (TOF) area scans of shear wave propagation through 'identically processed', injection moulded, glass fibre reinforced, polypropylene plaques. The effect of these structural variations on the derived 3D stiffness constants is discussed. Hence the random measurement errors associated with the stiffness ...
Medina Javier F - - 2002
A fundamental tenet of cerebellar learning theories asserts that climbing fibre afferents from the inferior olive provide a teaching signal that promotes the gradual adaptation of movements. Data from several forms of motor learning provide support for this tenet. In pavlovian eyelid conditioning, for example, where a tone is repeatedly ...
Gaynor Scott T - - 2002
Four rats obtained food pellets by poking a key and 5-s presentations of the discriminative stimuli by pressing a lever. Every 1 or 2 min, the prevailing schedule of reinforcement for key poking alternated between rich (either variable-interval [VI] 30 s or VI 60 s) and lean (either VI 240 ...
Williams Ben A - - 2002
Behavioral contrast is defined as a change in response rate during a stimulus associated with a constant reinforcement schedule, in inverse relation to the rates of reinforcement in the surrounding stimulus conditions. Contrast has at least two functionally separable components: local contrast, which occurs after component transition, and molar contrast. ...
Galván Veronica V - - 2002
The major goal of this study was to determine whether classical conditioning produces long-term neural consolidation of frequency tuning plasticity in the auditory cortex. Local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained from chronically implanted adult male Hartley guinea pigs that were divided into conditioning (n = 4) and sensitization control (n ...
Heldt Scott A - - 2002
Previous studies have suggested that the hippocampus may play an important role in some forms of inhibitory learning. The goal of the present study was to assess whether the hippocampus is also important for inhibition of fear acquired after serial feature-negative discrimination training. Rats were given aspiration lesions of the ...
Silva R C B - - 2002
Ascending 5-HT projections from the median raphe nucleus (MRN), probably to the hippocampus, are implicated in the acquisition of contextual fear (background stimuli), as assessed by freezing behavior. Foreground cues like light, used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical fear conditioning, also cause freezing through thalamic transmission to the ...
Bueno J L - - 2001
The present study compares behavioral changes between two distinct rodent groups, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Wistar rats, when submitted in the same homogeneous experimental situations to a serial conditional discrimination procedure which involves water deprivation and the processing of temporal variables. Both hamsters and rats acquired serial positive conditional discrimination ...
Tracy J A - - 2001
Unit recordings and lesion studies have implicated the cerebellum as an essential site for the acquisition and maintenance of the conditioned eyeblink response. The current study looked at the neural characteristics of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in the interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum after training New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus ...
McFarland J M - - 2001
Responses by rats on an earn lever made available food pellets that were delivered to a food cup by responses on a second, collect, lever. The rats could either collect and immediately consume or accumulate (defined as the percentage of multiple earn responses and as the number of pellets earned ...
Walker David L - - 2002
RATIONALE: Previous findings indicate that the acoustic startle response is elevated when rats are tested in bright light. The phenomenon is disrupted by the 5HT1A partial agonist and the D2 receptor antagonist buspirone, a compound that also blocks the effect on startle of conditioned fear, and it was suggested that ...
Holland P C - - 2001
Normal rats showed faster inhibitory learning about a light conditioned stimulus (CS) if it had previously been an inconsistent predictor of a tone CS than if it had been a consistent predictor of the tone. In contrast, the inhibitory learning of rats with ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala central ...
Grondin S - - 2001
This article presents the results of three experiments on the discrimination of time intervals presented in sequences marked by brief visual signals. In Experiment 1A (continuous condition), the participants had to indicate whether, in a series of 2-4 intervals marked by 3-5 visual signals, the last interval was shorter or ...
Keller S - - 2001
RATIONALE: The repeated administration of psychostimulants usually brings about a progressive increment of the behavioral responses that they induce. We examined to what extent this sensitization is due to an associative learning process. OBJECTIVES: The dopamine agonist apomorphine elicits stereotyped pecking in pigeons, a response that increases with successive intramuscular ...
Choi J S - - 2001
A tone conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with a grid shock unconditioned stimulus (US) can greatly enhance the early electromyographic (EMG) component (R1) of the rat eyeblink reflex. The hypothesis that the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) is an essential part of the circuitry mediating conditioned R1 enhancement was ...
Zarcone T J - - 2001
Force of disk press responses by inbred (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) and outbred (CD-1) mice were measured with a PC/DOS-based system, which allowed for continuous measurement of pressing, as well as for control of reinforcer presentation on the basis of response-force dimensions. Photobeam-based measurement of mouse entry into a hopper where ...
Manns J R - - 2001
We examined the importance of awareness for eyeblink conditioning by directly comparing single-cue delay eyeblink conditioning and single-cue trace eyeblink conditioning. During single-cue delay conditioning, participants who became aware of the stimulus contingencies early in the conditioning session conditioned no better than those who became aware later in the session ...
Williams B A. - - 2001
Two major dimensions of any contingency of reinforcement are the temporal relation between a response and its reinforcer, and the relative frequency of the reinforcer given the response versus when the response has not occurred. Previous data demonstrate that time, per se, is not sufficient to explain the effects of ...
Winston C R - - 2001
In the Fear-Potentiated Startle (FPS) paradigm, the reflexive response to a noise burst is enhanced when it is presented with a stimulus (typically a light) that previously had been paired with the presentation of an aversive stimulus, usually an electric shock. In the FPS paradigm, the conditioned effect is demonstrated ...
Mazur J E. - - 2001
The choice responses of four pigeons were examined in 20 periods of transition in a concurrent-chain procedure with variable-interval schedules as initial links and fixed delays to reinforcement as terminal links. In some conditions, the delays to reinforcement were different for the two terminal links, and changes in preference were ...
Finn P R - - 2001
This study investigated whether low levels of the personality trait of constraint and early-onset alcoholism would be associated with deficits in aversive conditioning and smaller responses to novelty in a stimulus mismatch protocol. Personality traits (constraint and socialization) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) during conditioning and novelty paradigms were assessed ...
McDevitt M A - - 2001
Pigeons chose between 5-s and 15-s delay-of-reinforcement alternatives. The first key peck to satisfy the choice schedule began a delay timer, and food was delivered at the end of the interval. Key pecks during the delay interval were measured, but had no scheduled effect. In Experiment 1, signal conditions and ...
Jones R B - - 2001
1. Previous studies have shown that a bunch of string is a particularly attractive pecking stimulus for chicks and adult laying hens. Because movement is thought to be an important attribute of enrichment objects, this study determined whether occasional movement would affect the attractiveness of this device. 2. In experiment ...
Kelly R - - 2001
The differential outcomes effect (DOE) pertains to enhanced conditional discrimination performance if each correct stimulus-choice sequence is always followed by a different outcome (e.g., food vs. water) compared to when each correct sequence is followed equally often by either outcome. The present experiments sought evidence of a DOE in pigeons, ...
Lattal K A - - 2001
Correspondence between saying and doing, typically studied in young children and individuals with developmental disabilities, was examined as an instance of conditional stimulus control. In Experiment 1, 3 pigeons were exposed to a two-component repeated-trials procedure. In the first-sample or say-component, two response keys transilluminated by different colored lights were ...
Hagopian L P - - 2001
Most preference assessments require individuals to choose among two or more stimuli. More recently, the duration of engagement with items has been used as an index of preference. In the current study, the predictive validity of a single stimulus engagement (SSE) preference assessment was evaluated with 4 individuals. Stimuli were ...
Carr J E - - 2001
The effects of fixed-time (FT) and variable-time (VT) schedules on responding were evaluated with 2 adults with mental retardation. Multielement and reversal designs were used to compare the effects of FT and VT schedules in reducing responses previously maintained on variable-ratio reinforcement schedules. The schedules were equally effective in reducing ...
Bickel W K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Relative reinforcing efficacy has been assumed to be a homogeneous phenomenon referring to the behavior-strengthening or behavior-maintaining effects of a drug reinforcer. However, a variety of studies suggest that relative reinforcing efficacy may be heterogeneous. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this theoretical proposal is to examine the difficulties associated with ...
Cardinal R N RN Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, - - 2000
Inability to tolerate delays to reward is an important component of impulsive behaviour, and has been suggested to reflect dysfunction of dopamine systems. The present experiments examined the effects of signalling a delayed, large reward on rats' ability to choose it over a small, immediate reward, and on the response ...
Jones RB - - 2000
Environmental enrichment is thought likely to benefit chickens and farmers in many ways; these include reduced fearfulness and feather pecking and improved productivity. Enrichment devices would intuitively be more effective if they reliably attracted and sustained appreciable interest but many fail to do so. This may reflect the fact that ...
Romaniuk C B - - 2000
Five conditioned suppression experiments examined the extent to which an appetitively motivated lever-press response can be punished by different components of a backward conditioned stimulus (CS). Using a 0-s unconditioned stimulus (US)-CS interval, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the initial 3 s of a normally 30-s backward CS served ...
Lovibond P F - - 2000
Two experiments examined the ability of an added stimulus to interfere with extinction of a target excitatory fear stimulus (a predictor of shock) in human autonomic conditioning. Both experiments demonstrated disruption of extinction when the added stimulus was inhibitory (a predictor of no shock, or safety signal). Subjects showed a ...
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