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Dunsmoor Joseph E - - 2009
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups ...
Knippenberg Jeroen M J JM Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Donders Centre for Cognition, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The - - 2009
A large, negative wave which reaches its peak amplitude around 150 ms after stimulus onset, can be found in the Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP) recorded from the lateral amygdala in the rat. Previous studies in our laboratory have repeatedly shown that this N150 component increases during various aversive conditioning protocols ...
Witnauer James E - - 2009
After many target stimulus (X)-unconditioned stimulus (US) pairings, further conditioning of X in the presence of another well-established signal for the US (A) disrupts X's behavioral control. Some researchers have argued that the mechanism underlying this so-called overexpectation effect is similar to that underlying extinction (a reduction in X's behavioral ...
Ward Ryan D RD Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, United States. - - 2009
The present experiment examined the effects of several test manipulations on discrimination, accuracy and sensitivity to reinforcer frequency in a conditional discrimination. Four pigeons responded on a multiple schedule of matching to sample procedures in which the reinforcer-frequency ratio for correct comparison choice responding was varied across components within session ...
Blough Donald S - - 2009
Six pigeons discriminated on discrete trials between two colors. In Experiment 1, two luminous spots were both either blue or green and the reinforced responses were "peck left" for blue and "peck right" for green. In Experiment 2, the hue of a center spot controlled subsequent choice pecks to left ...
Carlos Luís D - - 2009
Interest in lanthanide-containing organic-inorganic hybrids has grown considerably during the last decade, with the concomitant fabrication of materials with tunable attributes offering modulated properties. The potential of these materials relies on exploiting the synergy between the intrinsic characteristics of sol-gel derived hosts (highly controlled purity, versatile shaping and patterning, excellent ...
Thomas Lee D - - 2009
Four pigeons responded under a progressive-delay procedure. In a signaled-delay condition, a chained variable interval (VI) 30-s progressive time (PT) 4-s schedule was arranged; in an unsignaled-delay condition, a tandem VI 30-s PT 4-s schedule was arranged. Two pigeons experienced a signaled-unsignaled-signaled sequence; whereas, two pigeons experienced an unsignaled-signaled-unsignaled sequence. ...
Dirikx Trinette - - 2009
The present experiment investigated reinstatement of fear in humans using a differential fear conditioning preparation. In this experiment, one neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was paired with an aversive stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US) during the acquisition phase, while another neutral stimulus was not (CS-). This procedure led to a difference ...
Locey Matthew L - - 2009
The present study was designed to help bridge the methodological gap between human and nonhuman animal research in delay-based risky choice. In Part 1, 4 adult human subjects made repeated choices between variable-time and fixed-time schedules of 30-s video clips. Both alternatives had equal mean delays of 15 s, 30 ...
DeLeon Iser G - - 2009
The current study examined whether stimuli of different preference levels would be associated with different amounts of work maintained by the stimuli, as determined through progressive-ratio schedule break points. Using a paired-choice preference assessment, stimuli were classified as high, moderate, or low preference for 4 individuals with developmental disabilities. The ...
Esch Barbara E - - 2009
Evidence to support stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) in speech acquisition is less than robust, calling into question the ability of SSP to reliably establish automatically reinforcing properties of speech and limiting the procedure's clinical utility for increasing vocalizations. We evaluated the effects of a modified SSP procedure on low-frequency within-session vocalizations ...
Sy Jolene R - - 2009
We assessed the effects of individually defined small, medium, and large periods of presession access to edible and nonedible reinforcers on response rates during sessions in which responding produced access to identical reinforcers. Any presession access to an edible reinforcer decreased response rates for 1 participant, and small and medium ...
Samaha Andrew L - - 2009
Descriptive observations were conducted to record problem behavior displayed by participants and to record antecedents and consequences delivered by caregivers. Next, functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for problem behavior. Then, using data from the descriptive observations, lag-sequential analyses were conducted to examine changes in the probability of environmental ...
Killeen Peter R - - 2009
Pigeons' pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in ...
Madroñal Noelia - - 2009
The hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse is an excellent experimental model for studying the interactions between short- and long-term plastic changes taking place following high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of Schaffer collaterals and during the acquisition and extinction of a classical eyeblink conditioning in behaving mice. Input/output curves and a full-range paired-pulse study enabled ...
Walker David - - 2009
The amplitude of the acoustic startle response is increased when elicited in the presence of brief cues that predict shock (fear-potentiated startle) and also when elicited during sustained exposure to bright light (light-enhanced startle). Although both effects are thought to reflect fear or anxiety, their neuroanatomical substrates differ. Although fear-potentiated ...
Ward Ryan D - - 2008
The present experiment developed a methodology for assessing sensitivity of conditional-discrimination performance to within-session variation of reinforcer frequency. Four pigeons responded under a multiple schedule of matching-to-sample components in which the ratio of reinforcers for correct S1 and S2 responses was varied across components within session. Initially, five components, each ...
Yankelevitz Rachelle L - - 2008
Four pigeons were exposed to a token-reinforcement procedure with stimulus lights serving as tokens. Responses on one key (the token-production key) produced tokens that could be exchanged for food during an exchange period. Exchange periods could be produced by satisfying a ratio requirement on a second key (the exchange-production key). ...
Alessandri Jérôme J University of Lille III, - - 2008
Humans prefer (conditioned) rewards that follow greater effort (Aronson & Mills, 1959). This phenomenon can be interpreted as evidence for cognitive dissonance (or as justification of effort) but may also result from (1) the contrast between the relatively greater effort and the signal for reinforcement or (2) the delay reduction ...
Woods Douglas W - - 2009
Research has demonstrated that providing reinforcement for tic-free intervals can decrease tic frequency in controlled analogue settings. The aim of the current study was to determine whether reinforcement could be used to create stimulus control over tic expression. Ten children with chronic tic disorders (including Tourette syndrome) completed four discrimination ...
Monteiro Tiago - - 2009
Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement ...
Palmatier M I - - 2008
Stimuli associated with nicotine (NIC) can acquire new meaning via Pavlovian conditioning. If a stimulus is associated with the primary reinforcing effects of NIC, the new conditional properties of the stimulus should make it a more valuable reinforcer (i.e., increase the motivation to obtain the stimulus), and this value should ...
Nevin John A - - 2008
Behavioural contrast is an inverse relation between the response rate in one component of a multiple schedule and the reinforcer rate in an alternated component. To explore possible contrast effects in accuracy as well as response rate, four pigeons were trained in multiple schedules where key pecking produced delayed matching-to-sample ...
McSweeney Frances K - - 2009
We argue that sensitization and habituation occur to the sensory properties of reinforcers when those reinforcers are presented repeatedly or for a prolonged time. Sensitization increases, and habituation decreases, the ability of a reinforcer to control behavior. Supporting this argument, the rate of operant responding changes systematically within experimental sessions ...
Rugani Rosa - - 2008
Chicks were trained to discriminate small sets of identical elements. They were then tested for choices (unrewarded) between sets of similar numerosities, when continuous physical variables such as spatial distribution, contour length, and overall surface were equalized. In all conditions chicks discriminated one versus two and two versus three stimulus ...
Rescorla Robert A - - 2008
In five experiments, rats received conditioning of either moderately attractive or moderately aversive flavors using either a strongly negative lithium chloride (LiCl) or a strongly positive Polycose as the reinforcer. In each case, testing was done with a compound of the two moderately valued stimuli to determine the amount of ...
Pinkston Jonathan W - - 2008
This experiment was concerned with the role of the environment in the production and form of apomorphine-induced pecking of pigeons. Earlier literature has suggested that the pecking occurs even when pigeons are placed in complete darkness, but there are no systematic or quantitative reports of such pecking. Six pigeons were ...
Itskov Vladimir - - 2008
We evaluate the capacity and performance of a perceptron discriminator operating in a highly sparse regime where classic perceptron results do not apply. The perceptron is constructed to respond to a specified set of q stimuli, with only statistical information provided about other stimuli to which it is not supposed ...
Ponomarenko Alexey A AA Institute of Neurophysiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf, Germany. - - 2008
The synchronization of neuronal networks may be instrumental in plasticity and learning. Hippocampal high-frequency oscillations (140-200 Hz, 'ripples') characteristic of consummatory behaviours are thought to promote memory formation. We recorded ripple oscillations from the CA1 area in temporal learning tasks. Rats learned to adjust their operant response to the timing ...
DeFulio Anthony - - 2008
Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes) correlated ...
Amundson Jeffrey C JC University of Kansas, Lawrence, - - 2008
In four trace-conditioning experiments with rats, the influence on the blocking of differences between the blocking cue-unconditioned stimulus (US) and the blocked cue-US trace intervals was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated blocking despite the blocked cue's having a shorter trace interval than the blocking cue in both elemental (Phase 1) and ...
Bang Sun Jung - - 2008
Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22kHz USVs and 50kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response ...
Epstein Russell A - - 2008
Repetition suppression (RS) is a reduction of neural response that is often observed when stimuli are presented more than once. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have exploited RS to probe the sensitivity of cortical regions to variations in different stimulus dimensions; however, the neural mechanisms underlying fMRI-RS are ...
Kehoe E James - - 2008
A trial-by-trial, subject-by-subject analysis was conducted to determine whether generation of the conditioned response (CR) occurs on a continuous or all-or-none basis. Three groups of rabbits were trained on different partial reinforcement schedules with the conditioned stimulus presented alone on 10%, 30%, or 50%, respectively, of all trials. Plots of ...
Bueno J L O - - 2008
In a serial feature-positive conditional discrimination procedure the properties of a target stimulus A are defined by the presence or not of a feature stimulus X preceding it. In the present experiment, composite features preceded targets associated with two different topography operant responses (right and left bar pressing); matching and ...
Yue Stephanie - - 2008
Trout learned the operant task of pendulum-pressing for a food-reward in a mean of 4.3 sessions lasting 1 hr. In a separate phase, fish also learned--through classical conditioning--to associate a neutral light cue with an aversive stimulus. When again allowed to pendulum-press for food, after aversive classical conditioning, there was ...
Williams Douglas A - - 2008
Rats (rattus norvegicus) anticipated the arrival of a food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) even when the conditioned stimulus (CS) signaled no overall change or a substantial decrease in the overall rate of US occurrence. Pellet USs were scheduled probabilistically in the intertrial interval at either an equivalent rate (Experiment 1) ...
Suzuki H - - 2008
Lymnaea are capable of learning an association between light and rotation. The conditioning paradigm to produce this association and the unconditioned escape response are the same for both Lymnaea and Hermissenda, but the underlying neural mechanisms appear to differ between the two species due to differences in the organization and ...
Thein Thida - - 2008
When two conditioned stimuli (CSs) are presented in compound, the response is typically stronger than to the individual CSs, implying that their associative strengths combine. However, to identify exactly how associative strengths combine requires an accurate description of the relationship between associative strength and responding. The authors have used the ...
Penrod Becky - - 2008
Previous research has suggested that the availability of high-preference stimuli may override the reinforcing efficacy of concurrently available low-preference stimuli under relatively low schedule requirements (e.g., fixed-ratio 1 schedule). It is unknown if similar effects would be obtained under higher schedule requirements. Thus, the current study compared high-preference and low-preference ...
Francisco Monica T - - 2008
We evaluated behavior exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities using progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. High- and low-preference stimuli were determined based on the results of a paired-stimulus preference assessment and were evaluated in subsequent reinforcer and PR assessments using concurrent and single schedules of presentation. In Experiment 1, results showed that ...
Ward Ryan D - - 2008
A growing body of evidence suggests that behavioral variability can come under control of discriminative stimuli. The present experiment further examined discriminative control of variability in a novel way by using the discrimination-reversal paradigm. Eight pigeons responded under a multiple schedule of Vary and Yoke components signaled by different-colored keylights. ...
Dent Micheal L - - 2007
The properties of the Franssen effect (FE) were measured in budgerigars and zebra finches. To elicit the FE, listeners are presented with a signal which has been split into a transient component, carrying an abrupt onset and ramped offset and separated in space from the sustained component which has a ...
Geiger Sonja M - - 2007
A series of experiments investigated what determines people's degree of belief in conditionals and their readiness to draw inferences from them. Information on the frequency of exceptions to conditional rules was contrasted with information about the number of different disabling conditions causing these exceptions. Experiments 1 and 2, using conditionals ...
De Houwer Jan - - 2007
Evaluative conditioning is best defined as an effect, that is, as a change in the valence of a stimulus that results from pairing the stimulus with another stimulus. This definition has several advantages that are made explicit in this paper. One of the advantages is that it clarifies that evaluative ...
Molet Mikaël - - 2007
Four experiments explored signal timing in human conditioned avoidance. Participants received discrimination training with different duration signals that announced the outcome (S+) or not (S-). Temporal discrimination and superposition of performance to S+ signals of different length (3, 6, or 9 s) was found both in within-subjects (Experiment 1a) and ...
Bejarano Rafael - - 2007
Two experiments with pigeons investigated the effects of contingencies between interresponse times (IRTs) and the transitions between the components of 2- and 4-component chained schedules (Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). The probability of component transitions varied directly with the most recent (Lag 0) IRT in some experimental conditions and with ...
Reed Phil - - 2007
Two experiments investigated human sensitivity to the temporally extended aspects of reinforcement schedules. Experiment 1 investigated human sensitivity to the extended and local aspects of three reinforcement schedules: variable ratio (VR), variable interval (VI), and variable-interval-plus-linear-feedback (VI+) schedules. Experiment 2 investigated this sensitivity on two reinforcement schedules: VI and VI+ ...
Barnes, DL; ;
Summarizes the results of a number of trials conducted in the south-eastern Transvaal to assess the feasibility and potential of reinforcing veld with legumes. Reports on experience gained with respect to methods of establishment, the adaptation of a range of legumes to the local environment, responses to fertilization and the ...
Mol Nisan - - 2007
Effects of predictability of threat on potentiation of the startle reflex were investigated by presenting participants with predictable and unpredictable electric shocks. Shocks were presented either paired with a visual cue (paired condition) or unrelated to the presentation of the visual cues (unpaired condition). In contrast to previous slower-paced studies, ...
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