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Eggermont Jos J JJ Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Human temporal processing relies on bottom-up as well as top-down mechanisms. Animal models thereof, in the vast majority, are only probing the bottom-up mechanisms. I will review the vast literature underlying auditory temporal processing to elucidate some basic mechanisms that underlie the majority of temporal processing findings. Some basic findings ...
Wasfy Meagan M MM Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, USA - - 2014
Mutations in myosin VIIa (MYO7A) cause Usher syndrome 1B (USH1B), a disease characterized by the combination of sensorineural hearing loss and visual impairment termed retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although the shaker-1 mouse model of USH1B exists, only minor defects in the retina have been observed during its lifespan. Previous studies of ...
Shultz Sarah S Department of Psychology, Yale University, PO Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520-8205, USA. - - 2014
Decades of research have demonstrated that a region of the right fusiform gyrus (FG) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responds preferentially to static faces and biological motion, respectively. Despite this view, both regions activate in response to both stimulus categories and to a range of other stimuli, such ...
Ollerenshaw Douglas R DR Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, - - 2014
It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. ...
Klorig David C DC Neuroscience Program, Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-salem, NC. Electronic address: - - 2014
Performing optogenetic experiments in a behaving animal presents a unique technical challenge. In order to provide an optical path between a fixed light source and a chronically implanted fiber in a freely moving animal, a typical experimental set-up includes a detachable connection between the light source and the head of ...
Shujaat S S Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, MVLS College, Glasgow University Dental Hospital and School, Glasgow, - - 2014
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the change in magnitude, speed, and motion similarity of facial animations in head and neck oncology patients, before and after lip split mandibulotomy. Seven subjects (four males, three females) aged 42-80 years were recruited. The subjects were ...
Lucas Kelsey N KN 1] Biology and Environmental Sciences, Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island 02809, USA - - 2014
Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding ...
Buran Bradley N BN Center for Neural Science and Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York - - 2014
Manipulations of the sensory environment typically induce greater changes to the developing nervous system than they do in adulthood. The relevance of these neural changes can be evaluated by examining the age-dependent effects of sensory experience on quantitative measures of perception. Here, we measured frequency modulation (FM) detection thresholds in ...
Moore Richard J D RJ Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, - - 2014
Studying how animals interface with a virtual reality can further our understanding of how attention, learning and memory, sensory processing, and navigation are handled by the brain, at both the neurophysiological and behavioural levels. To this end, we have developed a novel vision-based tracking system, FicTrac (Fictive path Tracking software), ...
Baar Yuval Y Department of Life Sciences, Eilat Campus, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, - - 2014
Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP) analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, ...
Layher Georg G Institute of Neural Information Processing, Ulm - - 2014
The detection and categorization of animate motions is a crucial task underlying social interaction and perceptual decision making. Neural representations of perceived animate objects are partially located in the primate cortical region STS, which is a region that receives convergent input from intermediate-level form and motion representations. Populations of STS ...
Ball David D School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, - - 2014
This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. ...
Jun James J JJ Department of Physics, University of Ottawa; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa; Centre for Neural Dynamics, University of Ottawa; - - 2014
Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we ...
Land Benjamin B BB Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Optogenetics is an extremely powerful tool for selective neuronal activation/inhibition and dissection of neural circuits. However, a limitation of in vivo optogenetics is that an animal must be tethered to an optical fiber for delivery of light. Here, we describe a new method for in vivo, optogenetic inhibition of neural ...
Schaette Roland R UCL Ear Institute, 332 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8EE. Electronic address: - - 2013
The phantom auditory sensation of tinnitus is now studied in humans, animals, and computer models, and our understanding of how tinnitus is triggered and which neural mechanisms give rise to the phantom sensation in the brain has increased considerably. In most cases, tinnitus is associated with hearing loss, and even ...
Sagliano Laura L Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, - - 2013
Freezing is one of the most widely recognized defensive reactions to approaching threats in animals. Here we tested whether the same stimuli can elicit freeze-like responses in healthy humans as well. We used a modified version of the two-frame apparent motion paradigm, in which both size and location of a ...
Piwek Lukasz L University of Glasgow, School of Psychology, Glasgow, - - 2013
The uncanny valley hypothesis states that the acceptability of an artificial character will not increase linearly in relation to its likeness to human form. Instead, after an initial rise in acceptability there will be a pronounced decrease when the character is similar, but not identical to human form (Mori, 1970/2012). ...
Ikeno Tomoko T Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Photoperiodic regulation of physiology, morphology, and behavior is crucial for many animals to survive seasonally variable conditions unfavorable for reproduction and survival. The photoperiodic response in mammals is mediated by nocturnal secretion of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. However, artificial light at night caused by recent urbanization ...
Koehler Seth D SD Kresge Hearing Research Institute, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan - - 2013
Tinnitus and cochlear damage have been associated with changes in somatosensory-auditory integration and plasticity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Recently, we demonstrated in vivo that DCN bimodal plasticity is stimulus timing-dependent, with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian timing rules that reflect in vitro spike timing-dependent plasticity. In this in vivo study, ...
Akinpelu Olubunmi V - - 2013
To determine the safety of Earigate™ as an ear wax softening product. Prospective, controlled animal study. Bilateral wide myringotomies were performed in eleven chinchillas. In each animal, Earigate™ was delivered to a randomly selected experimental ear canal as 2 puffs twice a day. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to ...
Horn Charles C - - 2013
Susceptibility to motion sickness is a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and studies in humans suggest that genetic factors determine sensitivity to motion sickness. The aim of the current study was to determine if a preclinical model could be selectively bred for motion-induced emesis and to assess a potential ...
Sefati Shahin - - 2013
A surprising feature of animal locomotion is that organisms typically produce substantial forces in directions other than what is necessary to move the animal through its environment, such as perpendicular to, or counter to, the direction of travel. The effect of these forces has been difficult to observe because they ...
Shinozaki Aya - - 2013
The tapetum lucidum is a light-reflective tissue in the eyes of many animals. Many ungulates have a fibrous tapetum. The horse has one of the largest eyes of any living animal and also has excellent vision in low-light environments. This study aimed to clarify the macroscopic tapetal shape, relationship between ...
Mooney T Aran - - 2013
How an animal receives sound may influence its use of sound. While "jaw hearing" is well supported for odontocetes, examining how sound is received across the head work has been limited to a few representative species. The substantial variation in jaw and head morphology among odontocetes suggests variation in sound ...
Weir Peter T - - 2013
Sensory systems provide abundant information about the environment surrounding an animal, but only a small fraction of that information is relevant for any given task. One example of this requirement for context-dependent filtering of a sensory stream is the role that optic flow plays in guiding locomotion. Flying animals, which ...
Fleury V - - 2013
Recent technical advances including digital imaging and particle image velocimetry can be used to extract the full range of embryonic movements that constitute the instantaneous 'morphogenetic fields' of a developing animal. The final shape of the animal results from the sum over time (integral) of the movements that make up ...
Parsons Miles J G - - 2013
Dugongs (Dugong dugon) spend significant time in shallow, turbid waters and are often active at night, conditions which are not conducive to visual cues. In part, as a result, dugongs vocalize to gain or pass information. Passive acoustic recording is a useful tool for remote detection of vocal marine animals, ...
Oren Dan A - - 2013
Research in the last century has demonstrated that light is a critical regulator of physiology in animals. More recent research has exposed the influence of light on human behavior, including the phenomenon of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Repeated studies have shown that light treatment is effective in this disorder. The ...
Sutton Gregory P - - 2013
A new kind of passive force has been discovered in the joints of insects, one that is a large contributor to almost every leg motion, from posture to scratching to locomotion.
Marken Richard S RS Department of Psychology, Antioch University, Los Angeles, 400 Corporate Pointe, Culver City, CA 90023, USA. - - 2013
This paper describes a test of Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), which views motor control as part of a process of controlling perceptual inputs rather than motor outputs. Sixteen undergraduate students (M age = 19.9 yr.) were asked to control one of three different perceptual aspects of an animated display--a shape, ...
Di Yue - - 2013
The aim was to investigate various levels of stroboscopic illumination effect on the growth of guinea pig eyes. Thirty-six two-week-old guinea pigs were randomised to one of three treatment groups (n = 12 for each). Two stroboscopic-reared groups were raised with a duty diurnal cycle of 50 per cent at ...
Napolitano F - - 2013
This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ...
Kaduk Katharina - - 2013
Simple geometric shapes moving in a self-propelled manner, and violating Newtonian laws of motion by acting against gravitational forces tend to induce a judgement that an object is animate. Objects that change their motion only due to external causes are more likely judged as inanimate. How the developing brain is ...
Killen Shaun S - - 2013
Although correlations have frequently been observed between specific physiological and behavioural traits across a range of animal taxa, the nature of these associations has been shown to vary. Here we argue that a major source of this inconsistency is the influence of environmental stressors, which seem capable of revealing, masking, ...
Kazmi Imran - - 2013
To investigate the anxiolytic activity of newly isolated compound by our lab called ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) from the leaves ofLantana camara (L. camara). Column chromatography was used to isolate UASG. Anxiolytic potential was experimentally proved and demonstrated through Elevated plus-maze, Open field and light and dark test. The ...
Kim Taegyo - - 2013
Objective. To test a novel braided multi-electrode probe design with compliance exceeding that of a 50 µm microwire, thus reducing micromotion- and macromotion-induced tissue stress. Approach. We use up to 24 ultra-fine wires interwoven into a tubular braid to obtain a highly flexible multi-electrode probe. The tether-portion wires are simply non-braided ...
Tarrant Ann M - - 2013
Diurnal and seasonal cues play critical and conserved roles in behavior, physiology, and reproduction in diverse animals. The circadian clock is a transcription-translation feedback loop that represents the molecular mechanism underlying many of these periodic processes, frequently through responses to light. Although much of the core regulatory machinery is deeply ...
Lassance Jean-Marc - - 2013
When others show sexy tails or sing elaborate songs, many animals use the language of chemistry to attract potential mates. A study provides insights into the evolutionary conundrum of how new chemical signals can evolve in an established communication system.
Casas Dan - - 2013
A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending ...
Dyhr Jonathan P - - 2013
Moving animals orchestrate myriad motor systems in response to multimodal sensory inputs. Coordinating movement is particularly challenging in flight control, where animals deal with potential instability and multiple degrees of freedom of movement. Prior studies have focused on wings as the primary flight control structures, for which changes in angle ...
Pierce Stephanie E - - 2013
Over the past century, various modern analogs have been used to infer the evolution of locomotor performance in stem tetrapods and their fish ancestors, with varying success. Here, we conduct a phylogenetic review of these modern analogs, from chondrichthyans to mammals, highlighting the broad spectrum of vertebrate clades and locomotor ...
Thornton Jennifer L - - 2013
Otitis media with effusion (OME) occurs when fluid collects in the middle-ear space behind the tympanic membrane (TM). As a result of this effusion, sounds can become attenuated by as much as 30-40 dB, causing a conductive hearing loss (CHL). However, the exact mechanical cause of the hearing loss remains unclear. ...
Luo Shuwei - - 2013
This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage ...
Schmäl F - - 2013
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological basis, clinical picture and treatment options for motion sickness. Motion sickness is a well-known nausea and vomiting syndrome in otherwise healthy people. The physical signs of motion sickness occur in both humans and animals during travel by ...
Finger Stanley - - 2013
During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, ...
Fox Jessica L - - 2013
A new study has resolved the paradox of how flies maintain reflexive aversion to your approaching swatter, whilst tolerating similar visual signals during normal forward flight.
Pereira A L - - 2013
We compared two electroretinography (ERG) electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ...
Kokel David D Cardiovascular Research Center and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. - - 2013
Nonvisual photosensation enables animals to sense light without sight. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of nonvisual photobehaviors are poorly understood, especially in vertebrate animals. Here, we describe the photomotor response (PMR), a robust and reproducible series of motor behaviors in zebrafish that is elicited by visual wavelengths of light ...
McLaughlin Kirsty Elizabeth KE School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, - - 2013
The reasons why animal populations decline in response to anthropogenic noise are still poorly understood. To understand how populations are affected by noise, we must understand how individuals are affected by noise. By modifying the acoustic environment experimentally, we studied the potential relationship between noise levels and both spatial and ...
Chan R W M RW Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, - - 2013
Visually guided collision avoidance is of paramount importance in flight, for instance to allow escape from potential predators. Yet, little is known about the types of collision-avoidance behaviors that may be generated by flying animals in response to an impending visual threat. We studied the behavior of minimally restrained locusts ...
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