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Méhes Előd E Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary. - - 2014
Swarming or collective motion of living entities is one of the most common and spectacular manifestations of living systems that have been extensively studied in recent years. A number of general principles have been established. The interactions at the level of cells are quite different from those among individual animals, ...
Feuda Roberto R Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA davide.pisani@bristol.ac.uk - - 2014
Opsins mediate light detection in most animals, and understanding their evolution is key to clarify the origin of vision. Despite the public availability of a substantial collection of well-characterized opsins, early opsin evolution has yet to be fully understood, in large part because of the high level of divergence observed ...
Theunissen Leslie M LM Bielefeld University, - - 2014
Animals that live in a spatially complex environment such as the canopy of a tree, constantly need to find reliable foothold in three-dimensional (3D) space. In multi-legged animals, spatial coordination among legs is thought to improve efficiency of finding foothold by avoiding searching-movements in trailing legs. In stick insects, a ...
Silies Marion M Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email: msilies@stanford.edu , daryl.gohl@gmail.com , - - 2014
Visual motion cues provide animals with critical information about their environment and guide a diverse array of behaviors. The neural circuits that carry out motion estimation provide a well-constrained model system for studying the logic of neural computation. Through a confluence of behavioral, physiological, and anatomical experiments, taking advantage of ...
Josef Noam N Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Life Sciences, Eilat Campus, 84105, Beer Sheva, Israel, - - 2014
Studies concerning the perceptual processes of animals are not only interesting, but are fundamental to the understanding of other developments in information processing among non-humans. Carefully used visual illusions have been proven to be an informative tool for understanding visual perception. In this behavioral study, we demonstrate that cuttlefish are ...
Seo Yoonjeong Y Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea College of Korean Medicine, Semyung University, Jecheon, - - 2014
In clinical practice, acupuncture manipulation is highly individualised for each practitioner. Before we establish a standard for acupuncture manipulation, it is important to understand completely the manifestations of acupuncture manipulation in the actual clinic. To examine motion patterns during acupuncture manipulation, we generated a fitted model of practitioners' motion patterns ...
Muijres Florian T FT Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund University, Sweden. Department of Biology, Box 351800, 24 Kincaid Hall, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1800, - - 2014
Slow and hovering animal flight creates high demands on the lift production of animal wings. Steady state aerodynamics is unable to explain the forces required and the most commonly used mechanism to enhance the lift production is a leading edge vortex (LEV). Although LEVs increase the lift, they come at ...
Teng Jiamin J Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health, Shreveport, Louisiana, - - 2014
In vitro and ex vivo studies have elucidated the step-by-step process whereby some physicochemically abnormal light chains are processed by mesangial cells to form amyloid fibrils. Although crucial steps in the cascade of events have been determined, these findings have not been reproduced in vivo. This has led to some ...
Yuan Jinzhou J Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, and Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - - 2014
Collective motion is observed in swarms of swimmers of various sizes, ranging from self-propelled nanoparticles to fish. The mechanisms that govern interactions among individuals are debated, and vary from one species to another. Although the interactions among relatively large animals, such as fish, are controlled by their nervous systems, the ...
Dobs Katharina K Department Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstr. 38, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
A great deal of perceptual and social information is conveyed by facial motion. Here, we investigated observers' sensitivity to the complex spatio-temporal information in facial expressions and what cues they use to judge the similarity of these movements. We motion-captured four facial expressions and decomposed them into time courses of ...
Tian He - - 2014
The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. ...
Eggermont Jos J JJ Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Human temporal processing relies on bottom-up as well as top-down mechanisms. Animal models thereof, in the vast majority, are only probing the bottom-up mechanisms. I will review the vast literature underlying auditory temporal processing to elucidate some basic mechanisms that underlie the majority of temporal processing findings. Some basic findings ...
Wasfy Meagan M MM Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, USA - - 2014
Mutations in myosin VIIa (MYO7A) cause Usher syndrome 1B (USH1B), a disease characterized by the combination of sensorineural hearing loss and visual impairment termed retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although the shaker-1 mouse model of USH1B exists, only minor defects in the retina have been observed during its lifespan. Previous studies of ...
Shultz Sarah S Department of Psychology, Yale University, PO Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520-8205, USA. - - 2014
Decades of research have demonstrated that a region of the right fusiform gyrus (FG) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responds preferentially to static faces and biological motion, respectively. Despite this view, both regions activate in response to both stimulus categories and to a range of other stimuli, such ...
Klorig David C DC Neuroscience Program, Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-salem, NC. Electronic address: - - 2014
Performing optogenetic experiments in a behaving animal presents a unique technical challenge. In order to provide an optical path between a fixed light source and a chronically implanted fiber in a freely moving animal, a typical experimental set-up includes a detachable connection between the light source and the head of ...
Ollerenshaw Douglas R DR Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, - - 2014
It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. ...
Shujaat S S Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, MVLS College, Glasgow University Dental Hospital and School, Glasgow, - - 2014
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the change in magnitude, speed, and motion similarity of facial animations in head and neck oncology patients, before and after lip split mandibulotomy. Seven subjects (four males, three females) aged 42-80 years were recruited. The subjects were ...
Lucas Kelsey N KN 1] Biology and Environmental Sciences, Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island 02809, USA - - 2014
Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding ...
Buran Bradley N BN Center for Neural Science and Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York - - 2014
Manipulations of the sensory environment typically induce greater changes to the developing nervous system than they do in adulthood. The relevance of these neural changes can be evaluated by examining the age-dependent effects of sensory experience on quantitative measures of perception. Here, we measured frequency modulation (FM) detection thresholds in ...
Moore Richard J D RJ Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, - - 2014
Studying how animals interface with a virtual reality can further our understanding of how attention, learning and memory, sensory processing, and navigation are handled by the brain, at both the neurophysiological and behavioural levels. To this end, we have developed a novel vision-based tracking system, FicTrac (Fictive path Tracking software), ...
Baar Yuval Y Department of Life Sciences, Eilat Campus, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, - - 2014
Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP) analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, ...
Layher Georg G Institute of Neural Information Processing, Ulm - - 2014
The detection and categorization of animate motions is a crucial task underlying social interaction and perceptual decision making. Neural representations of perceived animate objects are partially located in the primate cortical region STS, which is a region that receives convergent input from intermediate-level form and motion representations. Populations of STS ...
Ball David D School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, - - 2014
This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. ...
Jun James J JJ Department of Physics, University of Ottawa; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa; Centre for Neural Dynamics, University of Ottawa; - - 2014
Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we ...
Land Benjamin B BB Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Optogenetics is an extremely powerful tool for selective neuronal activation/inhibition and dissection of neural circuits. However, a limitation of in vivo optogenetics is that an animal must be tethered to an optical fiber for delivery of light. Here, we describe a new method for in vivo, optogenetic inhibition of neural ...
Ariel Gil G Department of Mathematics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, - - 2014
The principal interactions leading to the emergence of order in swarms of marching locust nymphs was studied both experimentally, using small groups of marching locusts in the lab, and using computer simulations. We utilized a custom tracking algorithm to reveal fundamental animal-animal interactions leading to collective motion. Uncovering this behavior ...
Marley Richard R 1] Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK - - 2014
The mechanisms that facilitate animal magnetoreception have both fascinated and confounded scientists for decades, and its precise biophysical origin remains unclear. Among the proposed primary magnetic sensors is the flavoprotein, cryptochrome, which is thought to provide geomagnetic information via a quantum effect in a light-initiated radical pair reaction. Despite recent ...
Schaette Roland R UCL Ear Institute, 332 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8EE. Electronic address: - - 2013
The phantom auditory sensation of tinnitus is now studied in humans, animals, and computer models, and our understanding of how tinnitus is triggered and which neural mechanisms give rise to the phantom sensation in the brain has increased considerably. In most cases, tinnitus is associated with hearing loss, and even ...
Sagliano Laura L Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, - - 2013
Freezing is one of the most widely recognized defensive reactions to approaching threats in animals. Here we tested whether the same stimuli can elicit freeze-like responses in healthy humans as well. We used a modified version of the two-frame apparent motion paradigm, in which both size and location of a ...
Piwek Lukasz L University of Glasgow, School of Psychology, Glasgow, - - 2013
The uncanny valley hypothesis states that the acceptability of an artificial character will not increase linearly in relation to its likeness to human form. Instead, after an initial rise in acceptability there will be a pronounced decrease when the character is similar, but not identical to human form (Mori, 1970/2012). ...
Ikeno Tomoko T Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Photoperiodic regulation of physiology, morphology, and behavior is crucial for many animals to survive seasonally variable conditions unfavorable for reproduction and survival. The photoperiodic response in mammals is mediated by nocturnal secretion of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. However, artificial light at night caused by recent urbanization ...
Koehler Seth D SD Kresge Hearing Research Institute, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan - - 2013
Tinnitus and cochlear damage have been associated with changes in somatosensory-auditory integration and plasticity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Recently, we demonstrated in vivo that DCN bimodal plasticity is stimulus timing-dependent, with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian timing rules that reflect in vitro spike timing-dependent plasticity. In this in vivo study, ...
Akinpelu Olubunmi V - - 2013
To determine the safety of Earigate™ as an ear wax softening product. Prospective, controlled animal study. Bilateral wide myringotomies were performed in eleven chinchillas. In each animal, Earigate™ was delivered to a randomly selected experimental ear canal as 2 puffs twice a day. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to ...
Horn Charles C - - 2013
Susceptibility to motion sickness is a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and studies in humans suggest that genetic factors determine sensitivity to motion sickness. The aim of the current study was to determine if a preclinical model could be selectively bred for motion-induced emesis and to assess a potential ...
Sefati Shahin S Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD - - 2013
A surprising feature of animal locomotion is that organisms typically produce substantial forces in directions other than what is necessary to move the animal through its environment, such as perpendicular to, or counter to, the direction of travel. The effect of these forces has been difficult to observe because they ...
Shinozaki Aya - - 2013
The tapetum lucidum is a light-reflective tissue in the eyes of many animals. Many ungulates have a fibrous tapetum. The horse has one of the largest eyes of any living animal and also has excellent vision in low-light environments. This study aimed to clarify the macroscopic tapetal shape, relationship between ...
Xiaoguang Han - - 2013
Stop-motion is a well-established animation technique but is often laborious and requires craft skills. A new video-based system can animate the vast majority of everyday objects in stop-motion style, more flexibly and intuitively. Animators can perform and capture motions continuously instead of breaking them into increments and shooting one still ...
Mooney T Aran - - 2013
How an animal receives sound may influence its use of sound. While "jaw hearing" is well supported for odontocetes, examining how sound is received across the head work has been limited to a few representative species. The substantial variation in jaw and head morphology among odontocetes suggests variation in sound ...
Weir Peter T - - 2013
Sensory systems provide abundant information about the environment surrounding an animal, but only a small fraction of that information is relevant for any given task. One example of this requirement for context-dependent filtering of a sensory stream is the role that optic flow plays in guiding locomotion. Flying animals, which ...
Fleury V - - 2013
Recent technical advances including digital imaging and particle image velocimetry can be used to extract the full range of embryonic movements that constitute the instantaneous 'morphogenetic fields' of a developing animal. The final shape of the animal results from the sum over time (integral) of the movements that make up ...
Parsons Miles J G - - 2013
Dugongs (Dugong dugon) spend significant time in shallow, turbid waters and are often active at night, conditions which are not conducive to visual cues. In part, as a result, dugongs vocalize to gain or pass information. Passive acoustic recording is a useful tool for remote detection of vocal marine animals, ...
Oren Dan A - - 2013
Research in the last century has demonstrated that light is a critical regulator of physiology in animals. More recent research has exposed the influence of light on human behavior, including the phenomenon of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Repeated studies have shown that light treatment is effective in this disorder. The ...
Sutton Gregory P - - 2013
A new kind of passive force has been discovered in the joints of insects, one that is a large contributor to almost every leg motion, from posture to scratching to locomotion.
Marken Richard S RS Department of Psychology, Antioch University, Los Angeles, 400 Corporate Pointe, Culver City, CA 90023, USA. - - 2013
This paper describes a test of Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), which views motor control as part of a process of controlling perceptual inputs rather than motor outputs. Sixteen undergraduate students (M age = 19.9 yr.) were asked to control one of three different perceptual aspects of an animated display--a shape, ...
Di Yue - - 2013
The aim was to investigate various levels of stroboscopic illumination effect on the growth of guinea pig eyes. Thirty-six two-week-old guinea pigs were randomised to one of three treatment groups (n = 12 for each). Two stroboscopic-reared groups were raised with a duty diurnal cycle of 50 per cent at ...
Napolitano F - - 2013
This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ...
Kaduk Katharina - - 2013
Simple geometric shapes moving in a self-propelled manner, and violating Newtonian laws of motion by acting against gravitational forces tend to induce a judgement that an object is animate. Objects that change their motion only due to external causes are more likely judged as inanimate. How the developing brain is ...
Killen Shaun S SS Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: - - 2013
Although correlations have frequently been observed between specific physiological and behavioural traits across a range of animal taxa, the nature of these associations has been shown to vary. Here we argue that a major source of this inconsistency is the influence of environmental stressors, which seem capable of revealing, masking, ...
Kazmi Imran - - 2013
To investigate the anxiolytic activity of newly isolated compound by our lab called ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) from the leaves ofLantana camara (L. camara). Column chromatography was used to isolate UASG. Anxiolytic potential was experimentally proved and demonstrated through Elevated plus-maze, Open field and light and dark test. The ...
Kim Taegyo - - 2013
Objective. To test a novel braided multi-electrode probe design with compliance exceeding that of a 50 µm microwire, thus reducing micromotion- and macromotion-induced tissue stress. Approach. We use up to 24 ultra-fine wires interwoven into a tubular braid to obtain a highly flexible multi-electrode probe. The tether-portion wires are simply non-braided ...
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