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Results 401 - 450 of 1470
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Lommertzen Janneke - - 2009
We investigated here how partly occluded stimuli affect early and late prehension kinematics. Stimuli were pictures of partly occluded cylindrical objects with indentations or protrusions at regular intervals along the contour. They diverged into two plausible completions: a local completion, comprising a linear continuation of the contour, and a global ...
Malcolm Matthew P - - 2009
PURPOSE: Recovery of skilled upper limb movement remains a critical focus of rehabilitation in individuals post stroke. Conventional treatments, however, have demonstrated limited capability to produce substantial improvements in poststroke quality of movement. Recently, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has emerged as efficacious in improving and normalizing limb movements in neurologically ...
Grierson Lawrence E M - - 2009
Kinematic investigations of rapid goal-directed aiming suggest that the online control of movement occurs via 2 processes. One process involves a comparison of visual information about the relative locations of the hand and target late in the trajectory. A second process has been proposed in which a movement's initial impulse ...
David Nicole - - 2009
In a recent experiment with functional magnetic-resonance imaging, we found that brain activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) distinguished between observed self- and other-generated movements, being significantly higher during observation of someone else's movement. Here, we investigated further the role of EBA in self-other distinctions using low-frequency repetitive transcranial ...
Ashida I - - 2009
The movement of the larynx in five young men during the swallowing of a liquid was examined by simultaneously recording a video-movie, the trajectory of a piezoelectric sensor, and the surface electromyogram of the suprahyoid muscles (SH). The movies revealed swallowing was associated with four characteristic spatial points of laryngeal ...
Tainmont J - - 2009
"Who are you, Nystagmus?" A semantic and historical approach. Initially, the need to name nystagmus was logically satisfied by the use of the metaphor of a galloping horse, "hippus". Later, nictatio, oeil d'hypocrite and souris embodied the presumed connection between blinking and the rhythmic involuntary movements of the eyeball. Blinking ...
Emmorey Karen - - 2009
Speakers monitor their speech output by listening to their own voice. However, signers do not look directly at their hands and cannot see their own face. We investigated the importance of a visual perceptual loop for sign language monitoring by examining whether changes in visual input alter sign production. Deaf ...
Dummer Timothy - - 2009
When a participant views a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while his/her real hand is unseen and similarly stroked by another paintbrush, a misperception known as the rubber hand illusion occurs whereby tactile sensations are falsely referred to the non-body part. The purpose of the current study was ...
Bradberry Trent J - - 2009
The capacity to decode kinematics of intended movement from neural activity is necessary for the development of neuromotor prostheses such as smart artificial arms. Thus far, most of the progress in the development of neuromotor prostheses has been achieved by decoding kinematics of the hand from intracranial neural activity. The ...
Obayashi Chihiro - - 2009
Acquiring skillful movements of experts is a difficult task in many fields. Since non-experts often fail to find out how to improve their skill, it is desirable to find quantitative indices of skillful movements that clarify the difference between experts and non-experts. If we find quantitative indices, we can develop ...
Battapady Harsha - - 2009
The objective of this research is to explore whether a two-dimensional BCI can be achieved by reliably decoding single-trial magneto-encephalography (MEG) signal associated with sustaining or ceasing right and left hand movements. Seven naïve subjects participated in the study. Signals were recorded from 275-channel MEG and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) ...
Shapiro Adam R - - 2009
William Paley's Natural Theology has experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent decades with the continuing controversies over the teaching of evolution and the emergence of a new "intelligent design" movement. But while both the movement's supporters and detractors agree that Paley is an intellectual forefather of the present-day movement, ...
Shi Ying - - 2009
Numerical simulations were used to explore the consequences of a spatially non-uniform sense of hand position on arm movements in the horizontal plane. Isotropic or anisotropic position errors were introduced into several starting hand positions and the resulting errors in movement direction were quantified. Two separate simulations were performed. In ...
Go Tohshin - - 2009
Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. When music with a ...
Wang W - - 2009
In this study human motor cortical activity was recorded with a customized micro-ECoG grid during individual finger movements. The quality of the recorded neural signals was characterized in the frequency domain from three different perspectives: (1) coherence between neural signals recorded from different electrodes, (2) modulation of neural signals by ...
Masia Lorenzo - - 2009
In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities ...
Carson Richard G - - 2009
When we move along in time with a piece of music, we synchronise the downward phase of our gesture with the beat. While it is easy to demonstrate this tendency, there is considerable debate as to its neural origins. It may have a structural basis, whereby the gravitational field acts ...
Martin V - - 2008
Outside the laboratory, human movement typically involves redundant effector systems. How the nervous system selects among the task-equivalent solutions may provide insights into how movement is controlled. We propose a process model of movement generation that accounts for the kinematics of goal-directed pointing movements performed with a redundant arm. The ...
Fishbach Alon - - 2008
Reaching hand movements tend to follow straight paths. Previous work has suggested that when visual feedback is perturbed such that straight hand motions are seen as curved motions, the motor system adapts to restore straight visual motion. We show that under a nonlinear visuomotor transformation, one that maps straight hand ...
Kovacs Attila J AJ Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, - - 2009
The purpose of the present experiment was to observe the performance of participants attempting to produce a 1:1 bimanual coordination pattern with 90 degrees relative phase between the arms when feedback concerning the movement of the two limbs was integrated within a Lissajous plot and when this information was withdrawn. ...
Maoz Uri - - 2009
One long-established simplifying principle behind the large repertoire and high versatility of human hand movements is the two-thirds power law-an empirical law stating a relationship between local geometry and kinematics of human hand trajectories during planar curved movements. It was further generalized not only to various types of human movements, ...
Getz Wayne M - - 2008
The movement paths of individuals over landscapes are basically represented by sequences of points (x(i), y(i)) occurring at times t(i). Theoretically, these points can be viewed as being generated by stochastic processes that in the simplest cases are Gaussian random walks on featureless landscapes. Generalizations have been made of walks ...
Fryxell John M - - 2008
Recent theory suggests that animals should switch facultatively among canonical movement modes as a complex function of internal state, landscape characteristics, motion capacity, and navigational capacity. We tested the generality of this paradigm for free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) over 5 orders of magnitude in time (minutes to years) and space ...
Bartumeus Frederic - - 2008
The movement ecology framework depicts animal movement as the result of the combined effects of internal and external constraints on animal navigation and motion capacities. Nevertheless, there are still fundamental problems to understand how these modulations take place and how they might be translated into observed statistical properties of animal ...
Wittemyer George - - 2008
The internal state of an individual-as it relates to thirst, hunger, fear, or reproductive drive-can be inferred by referencing points on its movement path to external environmental and sociological variables. Using time-series approaches to characterize autocorrelative properties of step-length movements collated every 3 h for seven free-ranging African elephants, we ...
Kagerer Florian A FA Cognitive Motor Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Graduate Program in Neuroscience and Cognitive Science, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD 20742, USA. - - 2009
A visuo-motor adaptation task was used to investigate the effects of this adaptation on the auditory-motor representation during reaching movements. We show that, following exposure to a rotated screen cursor-hand relationship, the movement paths during auditory conditions exhibited a similar pattern of aftereffects as those observed during movements to visual ...
Gomi Hiroaki - - 2008
Many neuroscience studies of arm control have attempted to explain how aimed movements are planned, generated, and corrected. The mechanisms of subconscious online reaching correction to a target shift are now being widely examined from computational, physiological, and pathological viewpoints. Recent evidence of a quick manual response to surrounding visual ...
Rutkowski Adam J - - 2009
We studied the relationship between vertical and lateral movements during free flight odor plume tracking by male moths, Manduca sexta, in a wind tunnel with the "horizon" set at different altitudes. Three-dimensional recordings revealed that the plume tracking males generated roughly equivalent movements vertically and laterally regardless of horizon height. ...
Wong Teser - - 2009
Motor control relies on multiple sources of information. To estimate the position and motion of the hand, the brain uses both vision and body-position (proprioception and kinesthesia) senses from sensors in the muscles, tendons, joints, and skin. Although performance is better when more than one sensory modality is present, visuomotor ...
McLean David L - - 2008
The classic 'size principle' of motor control describes how increasingly forceful movements arise by the recruitment of motoneurons of progressively larger size and force output into the active pool. We explored the activity of pools of spinal interneurons in larval zebrafish and found that increases in swimming speed were not ...
Herwig Arvid - - 2009
In tool use, the intended external goals have to be transformed into bodily movements by taking into account the target-to-movement mapping implemented by the tool. In bimanual tool use, this mapping may depend on the part of the tool that is operated and the effector used (e.g. the left and ...
Wilmut Kate - - 2008
The accuracy of reaching movements improves when active gaze can be used to fixate on targets. The advantage of free gaze has been attributed to the use of ocular proprioception or efference signals for online control. The time course of this process, however, is not established, and it is unclear ...
Wainwright Peter C - - 2008
Animal movement and its muscular control are central topics in functional morphology. As experimentalists we often manipulate stimuli in a controlled setting or compare species to observe the degree of variation in movement and motor control of particular behaviors. Understanding and communicating the biological significance of these sources of variability ...
Dvorkin Assaf Y AY Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2009
Reaching toward a visual target involves the transformation of visual information into appropriate motor commands. Complex movements often occur either while we are moving or when objects in the world move around us, thus changing the spatial relationship between our hand and the space in which we plan to reach. ...
Dessing Joost C JC Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Recent studies suggested that the control of hand movements in catching involves continuous vision-based adjustments. More insight into these adjustments may be gained by examining the effects of occluding different parts of the ball trajectory. Here, we examined the effects of such occlusion on lateral hand movements when catching balls ...
Gao Bo - - 2008
Skin marker-based stereophotogrammetry is the most widely used technique for human motion analysis but its accuracy is mainly limited by soft tissue artifact (STA) which reflects the non-rigidity of human body segments during activities. To compensate for the effects of STA and improve the accuracy of motion analysis, it is ...
Maslovat Dana - - 2009
Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in ...
Shiga Hiroshi - - 2009
To clarify the usefulness of the standard deviation (SD) and SD divided by the opening distance (SD/OD) of the opening lateral, closing lateral, and vertical components of the masticatory path as indicators of the stability of masticatory movement path. Fifty subjects masticated softened chewing gum on the unilateral side for ...
Luck Geoff - - 2008
A growing body of research utilizies computational feature-extraction methods to quantify both music and music-related movement. The use of signal processing and visualization techniques, for example, is widespread in the music information retrieval community. At the same time, similar techniques are being applied to the analysis of movement data acquired ...
Kwon Junghyun - - 2008
Recent studies have shown that the perception of natural movements-in the sense of being "humanlike"-depends on both joint and task space characteristics of the movement. This paper proposes a movement generation framework that merges two established techniques from gesture recognition and motion generation-hidden Markov models (HMMs) and principal components-into an ...
del Mar Delgado María - - 2008
Within the field of spatial ecology, it is important to study animal movements in order to better understand population dynamics. Dispersal is a nonlinear process through which different behavioral mechanisms could affect movement patterns. One of the most common approaches to analyzing the trajectories of organisms within patches is to ...
Toiviainen Petri - - 2008
Music listening is often associated with spontaneous body movements, frequently synchronized with the musical beat. While there exists an extensive body of work on synchronization of tapping, spontaneous movements to music have been investigated to a much lesser extent. The present study investigated the kinematic and kinetic aspects of spontaneous ...
Mirabella Giovanni G Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, - - 2009
A milestone on which relies the voluntary control of behavior is the ability to shape our motor output to meet the needs of the context which we are continuously facing. Even though it is solidly established that contextual information influence movement generation few studies have so far explored their effects ...
Dirnberger Georg - - 2008
The readiness potential (RP), a slow electroencephalographic (EEG) pre-movement potential, was used in earlier studies to determine the onset and order of neural processes preceding voluntary movement. Latencies in these studies were always calculated from the averaged RP, whereas onset times of individual trials remained inaccessible. The aim of this ...
Grierson Lawrence E M - - 2008
Examination of goal-directed movements has evidenced two processes of visually regulated online control: early trajectory control that operates to make movement adjustments on the basis of limb velocity comparisons to internally generated models of the expected limb velocity, and late trajectory control that uses allocentric information about the limb and ...
Repp Bruno H - - 2008
Phase correction during synchronization (finger tapping) with an isochronous auditory sequence is typically imperfect, requiring several taps to complete. However, two independent hypotheses predict that phase correction should approach perfection when the sequence tempo is slow. The present results confirm this prediction. The experiment used a phase perturbation method and ...
Balogh I - - 2009
Goniometry of the wrist is a feasible method for studying wrist movements in most hand-intensive work. The precision and accuracy of the method per se is good. For the knowledge on validity of field measurements, the size of imprecision is of importance. This study evaluated this condition during standardized circumstances. ...
Crapse Trinity B - - 2008
Our movements can hinder our ability to sense the world. Movements can induce sensory input (for example, when you hit something) that is indistinguishable from the input that is caused by external agents (for example, when something hits you). It is critical for nervous systems to be able to differentiate ...
Rodriguez Manuel - - 2008
It has been suggested that motor imagery (MI) has the basic components of real motion. This possibility was tested here in 17 healthy volunteers studied while performing or imaging a fast sequence of finger movements of progressive complexity, a fast and precise extension of the arm to touch a small ...
Ringenbach Shannon D - - 2008
This study investigated the relation between postural movement and upper-limb coordination stability. Adults produced bimanual circles using in-phase and anti-phase coordination patterns in time to an increasing rate metronome (i.e., movement-time instruction) in the horizontal (e.g., tabletop) and vertical (e.g., "wall" perpendicular to body) planes. All participants produced the instructed ...
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