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Results 401 - 450 of 1512
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Siegle Joshua H JH Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, - - 2009
In order to optimally characterize full-body self-motion perception during passive translations, changes in perceived location, velocity, and acceleration must be quantified in real time and with high spatial resolution. Past methods have failed to effectively measure these critical variables. Here, we introduce continuous pointing as a novel method with several ...
Maslovat Dana D School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. - - 2009
For synchronous bimanual movements, we have shown that a different amplitude can be prepared for each limb in advance and this preparation improves with practice (Maslovat et al. 2008). In the present study, we tested whether an asynchronous bimanual movement can also be prepared in advance and be improved with ...
Archambault Philippe S - - 2009
The parietal mechanisms for the control of hand movement trajectory were studied by recording cell activity in area 5 of monkeys making direct reaches to visual targets and online corrections of movement trajectory, after change of target location in space. The activity of hand-related cells was fitted with a linear ...
Seizova-Cajic Tatjana T Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Australia. - - 2009
We report an aftereffect in perception of the extent (or degree or range) of joint movement, showing for the first time that a prolonged exposure to a passive back-and-forth movement of a certain extent results in a change in judgment of the extent of a subsequently presented movement. The adapting ...
Khezri Mahdi - - 2009
Electromyogram signal (EMG) is an electrical manifestation of contractions of muscles. Surface EMG (sEMG) signal collected from the surface of skin has been used in diverse applications. One of its usages is in pattern recognition of hand prosthesis movements. The ability of current prosthesis devices has been generally limited to ...
Heuer Herbert - - 2009
The authors studied the trajectories of the hand and of the tip of a handheld sliding first-order lever in aiming movements. With this kind of tool, straight trajectories of the hand are generally associated with curved trajectories of the tip of the lever and vice versa. Trajectories of the tip ...
Papastamatiou Yannis P - - 2009
The effects of habitat on the ecology, movements, and foraging strategies of marine apex predators are largely unknown. We used acoustic telemetry to quantify the movement patterns of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) at Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, in the Pacific Ocean. Sharks had relatively small home ranges over ...
Frasier Kaitlin E - - 2009
Dolphin whistles were recorded near San Clemente Island, offshore of Southern California, by four autonomous high-frequency acoustic recording packages (HARPs) deployed in a sea-floor array (dimensions: 2 km x 2 km) centered around the RP FLIP. This array layout allowed localization of the calling animals using time difference of arrivals ...
Kulísková P - - 2009
Seventeen individuals of ide Leuciscus idus were radio-tracked weekly from September 2003 to September 2004 in the River Elbe, Czech Republic, to examine migration patterns and the influence of environmental factors on their diurnal behaviour. Of the 10 environmental factors measured, L. idus were significantly influenced by turbidity, which increased ...
Page Keri L - - 2009
To demonstrate the role of proprioceptive feedback in aimed limb movements, we induced graded changes in the signals provided by the principal receptor in a leg of a locust. The femoro-tibial chordotonal organ (FCO) of the hindleg monitors extension and flexion movements of the tibia and provides the main source ...
Morrison S - - 2009
This study examined what changes occur in upper-limb bilateral coordination during clapping as the movement frequency requirements were increased to the maximum. Subjects were required to begin the clapping action at approximately 1Hz and gradually increase the movement speed until their maximal frequency was achieved. Hand and finger displacement and ...
Heidinger Ina Monika Margret - - 2009
Animal movement behaviour is intensively investigated with capture-mark-recapture studies. For the analysis of such experiments, the influence of marking technique, handling and translocation of marked animals on movement pattern is of crucial importance since it may mask or overrule the effects of the main research question. Here we present a ...
Dürig Federico - - 2009
Rats sweep their vibrissae in a rhythmic and coordinated fashion in order to acquire tactile information from their environment. Measuring vibrissae movement has become a matter of increased attention, from several labs, over the last few years. We describe the design and construction of an inexpensive photoresistive sensor that registers ...
Shabbott Britne A BA The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, University Park, PA 16802, USA. - - 2009
This study was designed to determine how visual feedback mediates error corrections during reaching. We used visuomotor rotations to dissociate a cursor, representing finger position, from the actual finger location. We then extinguished cursor feedback at different distances from the start location to determine whether corrections were based on error ...
Sanders Abram F J - - 2009
This study quantitatively investigates the actual movements that observers make when exploring a shape. It addresses the question of how the kinematics of these movements relate to and may affect perceived shape. It is one of the first studies to do so for real stimuli and for relatively unconstrained exploration. ...
Saunter Christopher D - - 2009
The apparently stationary phase of mitochondrial motion was investigated in epithelial cells by spinning disk confocal light microscopy combined with image correlation based single particle tracking using custom software producing sub-pixel accuracy measurements (approximately 5 nm) at 10-12 Hz frame-rates. The analysis of these data suggests that the previously described ...
Conradt L - - 2009
Self-organizing-system approaches have shed significant light on the mechanisms underlying synchronized movements by large groups of animals, such as shoals of fish, flocks of birds, or herds of ungulates. However, these approaches rarely consider conflicts of interest between group members, although there is reason to suppose that such conflicts are ...
Byström A - - 2009
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: A comprehensive kinematic description of rider and saddle movements is not yet present in the scientific literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe saddle and rider movements in a group of high-level dressage horses and riders. METHOD: Seven high-level dressage horses and riders were subjected to kinematic measurements while ...
Fink Philip W PW Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA. - - 2009
One difference between the excitator model and other theoretical models of coordination is the mechanism of discrete movement initiation. In addition to an imperative signal common to all discrete movement initiation, the excitator model proposes that movements are initiated when a threshold element in state space, the so-called separatrix, is ...
Bradi Ana C AC Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S3G3, - - 2009
A modulation of Fitts's Law occurs when rapid pointing movements are made to targets within a placeholder array. Although Fitts's Law predicts increasing movement times with larger movement amplitudes, with the placeholder array the furthest target is reached faster than the second furthest. This study analyzed the timing of this ...
Cui Rongqing R Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1100, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2009
Both self-paced movements (internally generated) and movements paced by a fixed interval cue (externally cued) are preceded by a slow-rising movement-related potential (MRP) of similar timing, magnitude and topography. When the timing of the external cue is variable (temporally unpredictable), this MRP is absent. These findings have been interpreted to ...
Kehoe E James - - 2009
The present experiment was aimed at characterizing the timing of conditioned nictitating membrane (NM) movements as function of the interstimulus interval (ISI) in delay conditioning for rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Onset latency and peak latency were approximately, but not strictly, scalar for all but the smallest movements (<.10 mm). That is, ...
Hammer Georg Philipp - - 2010
The cricothyroid joint (CTJ) plays a key role in pitch adjustment of the human voice. It allows an external elongation of the vocal fold performed by the cricothyroid muscle with a consecutive stretching and increasing of tension. Phonosurgical methods such as cricothyroid approximation need sophisticated investigations on anatomical and functional ...
Li Yong - - 2009
The present study examined the principles underlying inter and intralimb coordination constraints during performance of bimanual elbow-wrist movements at different cycling frequencies (from 0.75 Hz to 2.50 Hz). Participants performed eight coordination tasks that consisted of a combination of in-phase (IN) and/or anti-phase (AN) coordination modes between both elbows and ...
Wolffsohn James S - - 2009
PURPOSE: To determine the critical fitting characteristics of modern soft contact lens fits and from this to devise a simplified recording scheme. METHODS: Ten subjects (aged 28.1+/-7.4 years) wore eight different modern soft contact lenses. Video was captured and analysed of blink (central and up-gaze), excursion lag (up, down, right ...
Hadley Adam S - - 2009
Reduced pollination success, as a function of habitat loss and fragmentation, appears to be a global phenomenon. Disruption of pollinator movement is one hypothesis put forward to explain this pattern in pollen limitation. However, the small size of pollinators makes them very difficult to track; thus, knowledge of their movements ...
Viviani Paolo P Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, 40, Boulevard du Pont d'Arve 1205, Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2009
An experiment was conducted to contrast the motor performance of three groups (N = 20) of participants: (1) patients with confirmed Parkinson Disease (PD) diagnose; (2) age-matched controls; (3) young adults. The task consisted of scribbling freely for 10 s within circular frames of different sizes. Comparison among groups focused ...
Tinjust David - - 2009
It has been suggested that temporally-constrained goal directed movements are based on a single submovement control strategy that could be modulated online. On the contrary, spatially-constrained movements might encourage participants to produce very fast, open-loop, but somewhat inaccurate/variable primary movement impulses and, if necessary, to perform a discrete correction. We ...
Gua?tella Isabelle - - 2009
Following our work on the relationship between eyebrow movements and the fundamental frequency of the voice, this article presents the results of a study on this phenomenon, and also on the temporal location of rapid eyebrow movements with respect to speaking turns during dialogue. We used an automatic movement-acquisition system ...
Reed-Jones Rebecca J - - 2009
Virtual-reality technology is being increasingly used to understand how humans perceive and act in the moving world around them. What is currently not clear is how virtual reality technology is perceived by human participants and what virtual scenes are effective in evoking movement responses to visual stimuli. We investigated the ...
Heuer Herbert - - 2009
Movements in virtual stereoscopic space tend to be difficult and slow. To shed some light on the origins of these difficulties, we studied open-loop pointing with targets presented in a mirror stereoscope. Whilst targets were placed in a virtual horizontal plane, movement end-points were located in an inclined plane. The ...
Lommertzen Janneke - - 2009
We investigated here how partly occluded stimuli affect early and late prehension kinematics. Stimuli were pictures of partly occluded cylindrical objects with indentations or protrusions at regular intervals along the contour. They diverged into two plausible completions: a local completion, comprising a linear continuation of the contour, and a global ...
Malcolm Matthew P - - 2009
PURPOSE: Recovery of skilled upper limb movement remains a critical focus of rehabilitation in individuals post stroke. Conventional treatments, however, have demonstrated limited capability to produce substantial improvements in poststroke quality of movement. Recently, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has emerged as efficacious in improving and normalizing limb movements in neurologically ...
Grierson Lawrence E M - - 2009
Kinematic investigations of rapid goal-directed aiming suggest that the online control of movement occurs via 2 processes. One process involves a comparison of visual information about the relative locations of the hand and target late in the trajectory. A second process has been proposed in which a movement's initial impulse ...
David Nicole - - 2009
In a recent experiment with functional magnetic-resonance imaging, we found that brain activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) distinguished between observed self- and other-generated movements, being significantly higher during observation of someone else's movement. Here, we investigated further the role of EBA in self-other distinctions using low-frequency repetitive transcranial ...
Ashida I - - 2009
The movement of the larynx in five young men during the swallowing of a liquid was examined by simultaneously recording a video-movie, the trajectory of a piezoelectric sensor, and the surface electromyogram of the suprahyoid muscles (SH). The movies revealed swallowing was associated with four characteristic spatial points of laryngeal ...
Tainmont J - - 2009
"Who are you, Nystagmus?" A semantic and historical approach. Initially, the need to name nystagmus was logically satisfied by the use of the metaphor of a galloping horse, "hippus". Later, nictatio, oeil d'hypocrite and souris embodied the presumed connection between blinking and the rhythmic involuntary movements of the eyeball. Blinking ...
Emmorey Karen - - 2009
Speakers monitor their speech output by listening to their own voice. However, signers do not look directly at their hands and cannot see their own face. We investigated the importance of a visual perceptual loop for sign language monitoring by examining whether changes in visual input alter sign production. Deaf ...
Dummer Timothy - - 2009
When a participant views a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while his/her real hand is unseen and similarly stroked by another paintbrush, a misperception known as the rubber hand illusion occurs whereby tactile sensations are falsely referred to the non-body part. The purpose of the current study was ...
Shapiro Adam R - - 2009
William Paley's Natural Theology has experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent decades with the continuing controversies over the teaching of evolution and the emergence of a new "intelligent design" movement. But while both the movement's supporters and detractors agree that Paley is an intellectual forefather of the present-day movement, ...
Go Tohshin - - 2009
Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. When music with a ...
Masia Lorenzo - - 2009
In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities ...
Carson Richard G - - 2009
When we move along in time with a piece of music, we synchronise the downward phase of our gesture with the beat. While it is easy to demonstrate this tendency, there is considerable debate as to its neural origins. It may have a structural basis, whereby the gravitational field acts ...
Obayashi Chihiro C Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara, Japan. - - 2009
Acquiring skillful movements of experts is a difficult task in many fields. Since non-experts often fail to find out how to improve their skill, it is desirable to find quantitative indices of skillful movements that clarify the difference between experts and non-experts. If we find quantitative indices, we can develop ...
Battapady Harsha H Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, - - 2009
The objective of this research is to explore whether a two-dimensional BCI can be achieved by reliably decoding single-trial magneto-encephalography (MEG) signal associated with sustaining or ceasing right and left hand movements. Seven naïve subjects participated in the study. Signals were recorded from 275-channel MEG and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) ...
Simon Ann M AM Neural Engineering Center for Artificial Limbs, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2009
Pattern recognition myoelectric control in combination with targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) may provide better real-time control of upper limb prostheses. Current pattern recognition algorithms can classify movements with an off-line accuracy of approximately 95%. When amputees use these systems to control prostheses, motion misclassifications may hinder their performance. This study ...
Shi Ying Y Harrington Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, - - 2009
Numerical simulations were used to explore the consequences of a spatially non-uniform sense of hand position on arm movements in the horizontal plane. Isotropic or anisotropic position errors were introduced into several starting hand positions and the resulting errors in movement direction were quantified. Two separate simulations were performed. In ...
Bradberry Trent J TJ Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. - - 2009
The capacity to decode kinematics of intended movement from neural activity is necessary for the development of neuromotor prostheses such as smart artificial arms. Thus far, most of the progress in the development of neuromotor prostheses has been achieved by decoding kinematics of the hand from intracranial neural activity. The ...
Yano Ken'ichi K Dept. of Human and Information Systems, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan. - - 2009
People of all ages have suffered impairment in traffic accidents or sport accidents, and these individuals worry about dysfunction of their upper limbs, but they can recover from dysfunction by rehabilitation. In this study, we developed an assistive robot for upper limb movement that has high rehabilitation effectiveness. To achieve ...
Ravichandran Vengateswaran J VJ Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2009
Stretch reflexes have been considered one of the simplest circuits in the human nervous system. Yet, their role is controversial given that they assist or resist an imposed perturbation depending on the task instruction. Evidence shows that a loud acoustic stimulus applied prior to an impending movement elicits a movement-direction ...
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